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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 August 2019, Volume 62 Issue 8
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Cellular location of snoRNA Bm-15 and its interaction with Notch-like receptor gene in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    SHEN Ya-Wen, MA Tian-Tian, HUO Chun-Yue, YANG Zong-Lin, LU Yi-Ping, KAN Yun-Chao, LI Dan-Dan
    2019, 62(8):  895-900.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.001
    Abstract ( 551 )   PDF (3458KB) ( 135 )     
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    【Aim】 In a previous study, we found that a C/D box snoRNA Bm-15 of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, could interact with the Notch-like receptor gene NLR in vitro. This study aims to further investigate the mechanisms of interaction between snoRNA Bm-15 and NLR in B. mori. 【Methods】 The expression profiles of snoRNA Bm-15 and NLR in B. mori at different developmental stages of larva, pupa and adult were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Meanwhile, the cellular location of snoRNA Bm-15 and NLR was detected by in situ hybridization in BmN4 cells to explore the interaction between them. 【Results】 Expression profiles showed that the expression trends of snoRNA Bm-15 and NLR were consistent during larval development of the silkworm, decreasing first and then increasing, with the lowest expression level in the 2nd instar larvae. During pupation and eclosion, the expression level of snoRNA Bm-15 gradually declined, with the lowest expression level in virgin moths. But NLR showed the lowest expression level in the 1 day-old female pupae and the highest expression level in virgin moths. Cellular localization revealed that snoRNA Bm-15 was not only located in the nucleus of BmN4 cells but also in the cytoplasm, while NLR was distributed mainly in the nucleus with overlap with snoRNA Bm-15. 【Conclusion】 This is the first report that a snoRNA Bm-15 exists in both nucleus and cytoplasm in lepidopteran insects, and its interacting gene NLR is mainly in the nucleus and overlapped with snoRNA Bm-15. snoRNA Bm-15 and NLR have consistent expression patterns in the larval stage of the silkworm, but show opposite expression patterns during pupation and eclosion, suggesting that snoRNA Bm-15 and NLR might have different interaction modes in different developmental stages of the silkworm.
    Expression profiling and RNAi-based function analysis of arginine kinase gene in four lepidopteran pests
    LU Yan-Hui, BAI Qi, ZHENG Xu-Song, TIAN Jun-Ce, LÜ-Zhong-Xian
    2019, 62(8):  901-911.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.002
    Abstract ( 584 )   PDF (3274KB) ( 164 )     
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    【Aim】 Arginine kinase (AK) is an important phosphogen kinase (regulation factor of energy metabolism) in insects and the only phosphoryl donor that can form effective ATP. It plays the same role as creatine kinase in vertebrates. This study aims to clarify the expression and function of AK gene in lepidopteran pests. 【Methods】 We determined the expression profiles of AK gene in different developmental stages and tissues of the 3rd instar larvae by qRT-PCR, and assayed the AK activity in four lepidopteran pests, Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera litura by endpoint method. Furthermore, we analyzed the biological functions of AK genes in these four species by RNAi. 【Results】 qRT-PCR assay revealed that AK gene was expressed at all the developmental stages and in various tissues of the 3rd instar larvae of these four species, indicating that the expression of AK gene has no developmental stage and tissue specificity. The change trend of AK activities in different developmental stages and tissues of the 3rd instar larvae were similar with that of the expression levels of AK gene. At 6 d post injection of dsRNA targeting AK gene, the expression level of AK gene decreased by 30%-50% and the AK activity decreased by about 30% in these four species. At 14 d post injection of dsRNA targeting AK gene, the larval mortality rates of the four species were around 50%, which was significantly higher than those of the control groups. 【Conclusion】 AK gene is constitutively expressed in the four lepidopteran pests. Inhibition of AK gene expression by RNAi can lead to the larval death of these four species. Our results provide a theoretical basis for developing new lepidopteran pest control technologies targeting AK gene.
    Expression profiling of hemocyanin gene in the developmental process of eggs of Calliptamus italicus (Orthoptera: Catantopidae)
    WANG Xiang-Xiang, YAN Meng-Yun, ZHANG Min, YU Cheng-Min, YU Fei, WANG Han, HU Hong-Xia, YUAN Liang, HE Lan, WANG Wei-Liang, JI Rong, YE Xiao-Fang
    2019, 62(8):  912-920.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.003
    Abstract ( 448 )   PDF (3506KB) ( 96 )     
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    【Aim】 Calliptamus italicus is a major dominant pest in Xinjiang and overwinters in the soil with eggs. Respiratory metabolism can reflect the physiological state of locust eggs. Respiratory protein is especially important for C. italicus eggs, whose respiratory system is not well-developed. This study aims to clarify the expression profiles of hemocyanin gene in the developmental process of C. italicus eggs. 【Methods】 The expression levels of hemocyanin subunit genes Hc1 and Hc2 in different developmental stages of eggs and the 1st instar nymph of C. italicus were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. 【Results】 Based on anatomical observation, the developmental process of overwintering eggs of C. italicus is divided into ten stages, including nine egg stages (C-Ⅰ-C-Ⅸ) and the 1st instar nymph stage (C-Ⅹ). Hc1 and Hc2 were expressed in all the developmental stages of eggs and the 1st instar nymph of C. italicus. During the early stage of embryogenesis (C-Ⅰ, C-Ⅱ and C-Ⅲ), the expression level of Hc1 increased gradually, and was significantly higher at the stage C-Ⅲ than at the stages C-Ⅰ and C-Ⅱ. During the diapause stage (C-Ⅳ, C-Ⅴ and C-Ⅵ), the embryonic development was stagnant, and the expression level of Hc1 was lower than those at the stages C-Ⅲ, C-Ⅶ and C-Ⅷ. During the post-diapause developmental stage (C-Ⅶ and C-Ⅷ), the diapause of eggs were terminated and eggs developed rapidly, and the expression level of Hc1 was higher than those at the early developmental stage and diapause stage. Especially, the expression level of Hc1 in eggs at the stage C-Ⅷ was the highest (212.3156±10.5470), significantly higher than that in eggs at all of the other stages, and the expression level of Hc1 in the 1st instar nymph was the lowest (0.4017±0.1010). The expression level of Hc2 in eggs at the stage C-Ⅴ was the highest (679.7511±54.5719). The expression level of Hc2 was not significantly different at various developmental stages of eggs except stage C-Ⅴ. Hc1 was highly expressed during the post-diapause stage of eggs, while Hc2 was highly expressed during the diapause stage of eggs. 【Conclusion】 The hemocyanin subunit genes Hc1 and Hc2 are expressed throughout the developmental process of C. italicus eggs and show phase-specific expression. Hc1 and Hc2 synergistically provide oxygen for egg development. Hc1 is mainly responsible for oxygen transport during the post-diapause developmental stage of eggs, while Hc2 is mainly responsible for oxygen transport during the diapause stage of eggs with low oxygen carrying efficiency. The results can provide a scientific basis for further exploration of the stress resistance mechanism of C. italicus eggs.
    Effects of dietary protein level on the nutritional utilization and nitrogen metabolism of Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae)
    ZHANG Bi-Yao, WANG Ya-Ru, FAN Jing-Wen, DENG Hui, WANG Guo-Hong
    2019, 62(8):  921-929.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.004
    Abstract ( 571 )   PDF (2471KB) ( 72 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the effects of dietary protein level on the nutrient utilization and nitrogen metabolism in Blattella germanica, so as to provide new ideas for the development of cockroach bait. 【Methods】 The nutritional efficiency parameters and nitrogen utilization rate in male adults of B. germanica fed on four diets containing different protein levels (5%, 25%, 45% and 65%) were evaluated by using standard gravimetric procedure method. The activities of xanthine oxidase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and uric acid in male adults of B. germanica fed on the diets containing different protein levels were determined by using spectrophotometric method. 【Results】 The male adults of B. germanica fed on the diet containing 65% protein had the highest relative consumption rate. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food, efficiency of conversion of digested food and relative growth rate of male adults fed on the diet containing 45% protein were significantly higher than those fed on the diets containing 5% and 65% protein. The nitrogen content, fecel nitrogen content, nitrogen consumption rate, nitrogen excretion rate, nitrogen production rate, nitrogen assimilation efficiency, xanthine oxidase activity and uric acid content in male adults increased with the increase of protein content in diets. However, the male adults fed on the diet containing 65% protein had the lowest nitrogen utilization rate. Besides, the group fed on the diet containing 45% protein had the highest glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity. The glutamic pyruvic transaminase activities in male adults fed on the diets containing 25% and 45% protein were significantly higher than those in male adults fed on the diets containing 5% and 65% protein. 【Conclusion】 Diets containing moderate protein level are beneficial to the utilization of food and nitrogen in B. germanica adults, and under the condition of high protein content the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase decrease, suggesting that high protein level will increase the burden of metabolism of B. germanica and is unfavorable to its utilization of food.
    Effect of Nosema bombycis infection on the expression level of Bombyx Turtle (Bmtutl) gene in Bombyx mori
    ZHU Feng, GAO Jian-Hua, ZHANG Yong-Hong, XIAO Sheng-Yan, SHAO Yu-Lan, TANG Fen-Fen, BAI Xing-Rong
    2019, 62(8):  930-936.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.005
    Abstract ( 515 )   PDF (1544KB) ( 59 )     
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    【Aim】 The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of Nosema bombycis infection on the expression level of Bombyx Turtle (Bmtutl) gene in different tissues of larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) at different time post infection, so as to lay the foundation for revealing the infection mechanism of N. bombycis. 【Methods】 The sequence characteristics of three isoforms of Bmtutl (Bmtutl-464, Bmtutl-519 and Bmtutl-810) of B. mori were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The expression levels of Bmtutl-464, Bmtutl-519 and Bmtutl-810 in the midgut, hemolymph, and fat body of B.mori larvae infected by N. bombycis at 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post inoculation, respectively, were detected by qPCR. 【Results】 The secondary structures of the three Bmtutl isoforms are mainly composed of random coil, α-helix, β-turn and extended strand, and the proportion of random coil is the highest. However, PredictProtein analysis indicated that there was a large difference in protein/polynucleotide binding sites between Bmtutl-464, Bmtutl-519 and Bmtutl-810. qPCR analysis showed that the expression of Bmtutl-464, Bmtutl-519 and Bmtutl-810 in the midgut, hemolymph and fat body of B. mori larvae was inhibited after N. bombycis infection, and most significantly inhibited in the fat body. The expression of Bmtutl-519 and Bmtutl-810 in the fat body of B. mori larvae infected by N. bombycis was strongly inhibited since 72 h post inoculation, and especially the relative expression level of Bmtutl-519 in the fat body in the treatment group was less than 5.0% of that in the control. 【Conclusion】 The three isoforms of Bmtutl have different sequence characteristics. N. bombycis infection inhibits the expression of Bmtutl-464, Bmtutl-519 and Bmtutl-810 in the midgut, hemolymph and fat body of B. mori larvae, especially the expression of Bmtutl-519. These results suggest that Bmtutl-519 protein may play a major role in the process of N. bombycis infecting the silkworms as compared with the other two Bmtutl isoforms.
    Toll receptors are involved in anti-microbial response and gut microbiota homeostasis in the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)
    SUN Pei-Lu, CUI Chun-Lai, SONG Hong-Sheng, WANG Si-Bao
    2019, 62(8):  937-947.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.006
    Abstract ( 517 )   PDF (2302KB) ( 89 )     
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    【Aim】 Toll signaling pathway is an important component of insect innate immunity. Toll receptors play a key role in activating the immune response to pathogen infection. This study aims to explore the function of Toll receptor genes in resistance to microbial infection and maintaining the homeostasis of gut microbiota in Anopheles stephensi. 【Methods】 The Toll receptor genes in An. stephensi were identified by BLAST search using the published Toll sequences in Anopheles gambiae. The relative expression levels of Toll receptor genes in the fat body of healthy adults of An. stephensi and the adults infected with Beauveria bassiana and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) for different time were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. After the double-stranded RNA of AsToll1A or AsToll5A was microinjected into the thorax of female adults of An. stephensi, the survival rates of the RNAi-treated mosquitoes after fungal infection and the total gut bacterial load and the expression levels of antimicrobial peptide genes in the RNAi-treated mosquitoes were detected. 【Results】 Eight Toll receptor genes, i.e., AsToll1A, AsToll5A, AsToll6, AsToll7, AsToll8, AsToll9, AsToll10 and AsToll11, were identified in An. stephensi. The real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that AsToll5A had the highest expression level in the fat body of healthy female adults of the mosquito, followed by AsToll1A, and the expression levels of other Toll receptor genes in the fat body were extremely low. Compared to the control (injecting PBS), B. bassiana or Ecc infection significantly induced the transcription of AsToll1A and AsToll5A, whereas the expression levels of other Toll receptor genes during pathogen infection showed no significant change. Silencing AsToll1A or AsToll5A significantly reduced the resistance of An. stephensi adults to B. bassiana infection, and extremely significantly increased the total gut bacterial load in the adult midgut as compared to the dsGFP-treated control. Moreover, silencing AsToll1A remarkably inhibited the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes DEF1 and GAM1, while only the expression of GAM1 was down-regulated in the dsAsToll5A-injected mosquitoes. 【Conclusion】 The Toll receptors in An. stephensi are conserved in structure and function. AsToll1A and AsToll5A are highly induced in response to both fungal and Gram-negative bacterial infections, and also regulate the homeostasis of gut microbiota in An. stephensi.
    Dose-response and time-effect relationships of low lethal doses of chlorantraniliprole on food utilization and related physiological and biochemical parameters in Pleonomus canaliculatus (Coleoptera: Elateridae)
    HE Fa-Lin, QIAO Zhi-Hua, YAO Xiang-Feng, YU Hao-Yong, SUN Shi-Ang, LI Xiang-Dong, ZHANG JI-Wang, JIANG Xing-Yin
    2019, 62(8):  948-959.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.007
    Abstract ( 743 )   PDF (12154KB) ( 503 )     
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    【Aim】 To explore the physiological and biochemical mechanism of the sublethal effect of chlorantraniliprole against Pleonomus canaliculatus, and to elucidate the effects of low lethal doses of chlorantraniliprole on food utilization, the contents of biochemical substances used as energy sources and the activities of digestive enzymes, protective enzymes and detoxification enzymes in P. canaliculatus larvae. 【Methods】 The toxicity of chlorantraniliprole against the 3rd instar larvae of P. canaliculatus was determined by soil mixed pesticide method in the laboratory. The effects of chlorantraniliprole at the LC10, LC25 and LC40 doses on the nutritional indices and contents of biochemical substances used as energy sources in P. canaliculatus larvae were determined. The dynamic changes in the activities of digestive enzymes (protease, α-amylase, lipase and trehalase), protective enzymes (CAT, POD and SOD) and detoxifying enzymes (CarE, MFO and GST) in the 3rd instar larvae of P. canaliculatus at 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after exposure to chlorantraniliprole were detected by enzyme kinetic method. 【Results】 Chlorantraniliprole had higher toxicity to the 3rd instar larvae of P. canaliculatus, with the LC50 value of 1.2397 mg/kg. The mean relative growth rate (MRGR) and approximate digestibility (AD) were significantly decreased when the 3rd instar larvae of P. canaliculatus were exposed to LC25 and LC40 of chlorantraniliprole, leading to serious disturbance of their food utilization. Chlorantraniliprole at LC10, LC25 and LC40 doses significantly decreased the contents of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and trehalose, and the activities of protease, α-amylase, lipase and trehalose, significantly increased the activities of detoxifying enzymes (CarE, MFO and GST) and protective enzymes (CAT, POD and SOD) in the 3rd instar larvae of P. canaliculatus treated with these doses of chlorantraniliprole, and caused the delayed growth and development of the treated larvae. 【Conclusion】 Chlorantraniliprole has high insecticidal activity against P. canaliculatus larvae. In P. canaliculatus larvae exposed to low lethal doses of chlorantraniliprole, the activities of digestive enzymes are inhibited, resulting in the reduction of food utilization and delaying the growth and development of P. canaliculatus, and the activities of detoxifying and protective enzymes are induced, preventing the invasion of external toxicants. These results provide a theoretical basis for elucidating the mechanisms of sublethal effect and action of chlorantraniliprole against P. canaliculatus.
    Effects of sublethal concentration of indoxacarb on the biological parameters and detoxifying enzyme activities in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with reduced susceptibility to indoxacarb
    WANG Qin-Qin, CUI Li, WANG Qi-Yuan, WANG Li, XIE Na, YUAN Hui-Zhu, RUI Chang-Hui
    2019, 62(8):  960-969.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.008
    Abstract ( 565 )   PDF (1792KB) ( 154 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the effects of sublethal concentration of indoxacarb on the biological parameters and detoxifying enzyme activities in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera with reduced susceptibility to indoxacarb, so as to scientifically control this insect pest and to effectively avoid the rapid development of its resistance to indoxacarb. 【Methods】 The toxicities of indoxacarb to the 3rd instar larvae of the indoxacarb-selected population (TP) of H. armigera and its homologous control population (CP) were determined with leaf-dipping method. The effects of indoxacarb at the concentration of LC20on the biological parameters of the TP population of the age-stage (F0) were analyzed by two-sex life table method, and the activities of detoxification enzymes [mixed function oxidase (MFO), carboxylesterase (CarE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)] and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) in the CP and TP populations after exposure for 48 h were assayed. 【Results】 The LC20values of indoxacarb to the 3rd instar larvae of the CP and TP populations of H. armigera were 2.27 and 9.91 mg/L, respectively. After the 3rd instar larvae of the TP population were exposed to LC20 of indoxacarb for 48 h, their growth, pupation rate, emergence rate and adult malformation rate were significantly lower than those of the untreated control, while their age-stage-specific life expectancy (exj) was higher than that of the untreated control. Meanwhile the activities of GST and MFO in the 3rd instar larvae of the TP population were significantly increased while the CarE activity was obviously decreased compared with the CP population. 【Conclusion】 The results showed that TP population of H. armigera shows obvious disadvantages of growth and reproduction under the selection pressure of indoxacarb at the concentration of LC20, and has also developed the adaptability to this concentration of indoxacarb. The induced activities of GSTs and MFO in the TP population by LC20 of indoxacarb indicate that the two enzymes are closely related to the resistance to indoxacarb in H. armigera, while the inhibited CarE activity indicates that CarE may be involved in the activation of indoxacarb converting into N-decarbomethoxyllated indoxacarb (DCJW).
    Screening of chemical elicitors inducing the resistance of rice to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    ZHOU Peng-Yong, LI Cheng-Zhe, WANG Xin-Jue, FU Wen-Jie, WU Yu-Ting, LOU Yong-Gen
    2019, 62(8):  970-978.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.009
    Abstract ( 422 )   PDF (1966KB) ( 75 )     
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    【Aim】 Chemical elicitors have low toxicity to the environment and low frequency to induce pest resistance. Thus, exploiting strategies against pests based on chemical elicitors may largely decrease the application amount of pesticides, thereby promoting sustainable agriculture. This study aims to screen chemical elicitors that can induce the resistance of rice to the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. 【Methods】 Rice plants were grown in nutrient solutions containing one of 12 candidate compounds, including jasmonic acid (JA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA), methyl salicylate (MeSA), brassinolide (BR), benzyl benzoate (BB), strigolactones (SLs), 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA), 3-indolybutyric acid (IBA), sodium oxalate (SO), potassium silicate (PS), and bismerthiazol (Bis), or smeared with one of these compounds on rice leaf sheathes, and then the egg hatching rate and the number of eggs laid in 24 h by female adults of BPH treated with these compounds were assayed. 【Results】 Among the 12 candidate compounds, only MeJA, BR and BB had significant influence on the egg hatching rate of BPH and the number of eggs laid in 24 h. Rice plants grown in the nutrient solution containing 5 mg/L MeJA significantly reduced the egg hatching rate of BPH to 58.8% (decreased by 20.1%), whereas application of MeJA (0.5 mg per plant) on rice leaf sheathes significantly reduced both the egg hatching rate of BPH to 53.3% (decreased by 35.4%) and the number of eggs laid in 24 h to 203.5 per plant (decreased by 15.6%). Moreover, the higher the concentration of MeJA used, the lower the egg hatching rate of BPH and the number of eggs laid in 24 h. Rice plants grown in the nutrient solution containing 5 mg/L BR decreased the egg hatching rate of BPH to 59.5% (decreased by 22.1%), but had no effect on the number of eggs laid in 24 h. The egg hatching rate of BPH was negatively correlated with the concentration of BR, and the egg hatching rate of BPH on rice plants grown in the nutrient solution containing 20 mg/L BR was decreased by 41.8% as compared to that on the control plants. Besides, the number of eggs laid in 24 h on rice plants grown in the nutrient solution containing 5 mg/L BB significantly reduced to 100.3 per plant (decreased by 26.2%). In vitro bioassay showed that MeJA and BR had no significant influence on the hatching rate of BPH eggs, suggesting that both have no direct toxicity to BPH eggs. 【Conclusion】 These results demonstrate that MeJA, BR and BB can improve the resistance of rice to BPH, among which MeJA and BR function as chemical elicitors.
    Changes in the cold hardiness of overwintering larvae of Histia rhodope (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)
    YANG Hai-Bo, HU Zhen-Jie, DONG Jun-Feng, ZHU Pin-Hong, LI Ding-Xu
    2019, 62(8):  979-986.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.010
    Abstract ( 643 )   PDF (1441KB) ( 102 )     
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    【Aim】 Histia rhodope is one of the major pests of Bischofia polycarpa. This study aims to investigate the cold hardiness of H. rhodope larvae and to provide a theoretical basis for exploring its cold resistance mechanisms. 【Methods】 The body weight, supercooling point (SCP), freezing point (FP) and contents of water, fat, total sugar and total protein in overwintering larvae of H. rhodope were measured at different overwintering stages (November 7, 2017, December 7, 2017, January 5, 2018, February 4, 2018, and March 5, 2018). 【Results】 There were significant differences in the SCP of H. rhodope larvae among the different overwintering months, and SCP showed a significant positive correlation with the ambient temperature (P<0.05). The lowest mean SCP (-15.26℃) occurred in January, and the highest (-13.30℃) occurred in March. The variation tendency of FP was consistent with that of SCP. The fresh weight and fat content decreased gradually during the overwintering period, and there was no correlation between the SCP and the fresh weight and fat content (P>0.05). The supercooling capacity increased as the free water content decreased, while reduced as the free water content increased. However, the change trend of bound water content was opposite to that of the free water content. The total sugar content in November was the highest (14.95 μg/mg), which was significantly higher than that in March (5.07 μg/mg). The total protein content increased first and then decreased during overwintering, and reached the highest value in January (23.666 μg/mg), which was significantly higher than that in November (16.69 μg/mg). 【Conclusion】 The cold hardiness of overwintering larvae of H. rhodope increases gradually with the decrease of ambient temperature and then weakens with the increase of ambient temperature. Proteins may be the important cold-resistant substance in H. rhodope.
    Foraging population size is positively correlated with the body length of workers in the black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Termitidae)
    YU Wei, LIU Jin, ZHANG Mei, WANG En, ZHANG Da-Yu
    2019, 62(8):  987-992.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.011
    Abstract ( 508 )   PDF (1138KB) ( 71 )     
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     【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the relationship between the foraging population size and body length of workers of the black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus, so as to lay a foundation for ecological studies and area-wide termite management. 【Methods】 Five test sites abundant with O. formosanus termites in Hangzhou Botanical Garden were selected. Worker termites were captured and labeled with neutral red. The foraging population size of O. formosanus colony at each test site was determined by capture-mark-release-recapture experiments. 【Results】 The capture-mark-release-recapture experiments were successfully implemented at four of the five test sites. The foraging population sizes of O. formosanus colonies of the four test sites were 443 133±45 469, 495 360±67429, 674 345±101 703 and 1 224 462±93 112, respectively. A positive correlation was found between the foraging population size in O. formosanus colonies (Y) and the body length of workers (X), which fitted the exponential function, Y=1.8389e0.7185X (R2=0.7834). 【Conclusion】 This study clarified the functional relationship between the foraging population size and body length of workers of O. formosanus, providing basic data for areawide termite management strategy.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Progress in sex pheromone communication of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    JIANG Nan-Ji, WANG Chen-Zhu
    2019, 62(8):  993-1002.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.012
    Abstract ( 1424 )   PDF (1406KB) ( 463 )     
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     The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, was originally distributed in America and is able to migrate over a long distance. It spread to Europe in 1988 and Africa in 2016, and caused huge loss to grains. It first invaded Asia in 2018, and then invaded China from Myanmar in 2019 and has been rapidly distributed in a dozen provinces in China. According to its specific hosts and molecular markers, FAW can be classified into two host-specific strains, the corn strain and the rice strain. (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate was identified as a sex pheromone component of FAW in 1967 for the first time. Up to 1986, the blend of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate and (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol acetate at a ratio of 96.6∶3.4 showed the strongest attractiveness to FAW, and was used to monitor the population dynamics of FAW broadly. In addition, (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-9-dodecen-l-ol acetate and (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate in the pheromone gland extracts of female adults of FAW were reported to contribute to attracting males in different geographic regions. Both the strains are morphologically indistinguishable and share the same gland extract components, but have strain-specific ratios of pheromone components. The two strains can be hybridized in the laboratory, and the pheromone component ratio of F1 generation females is similar to that of the maternal parents. The periphery coding mechanisms to sex pheromone in FAW males are still unclear. In consideration of the occurrence of FAW in China and the progress in its sex pheromone communication, the following aspects of FAW are suggested to be investigated urgently: (1) identifying the sex pheromone of the invaded populations of FAW and using the sex pheromone for its population monitoring and control as soon as possible; (2) the olfactory coding mechanisms of males of FAW to pheromone blends; (3) the behavioral isolation between the two stains of FAW and outcomes of the hybrids.
    SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
    Expression difference of microRNAs ame-miR-31a and ame-miR-13b in brains of nurses and foragers of Apis mellifera ligustica (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    LIU Fang, SHI Teng-Fei
    2019, 62(8):  1003-1008.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.013
    Abstract ( 573 )   PDF (1245KB) ( 122 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to detect the expression differences of microRNAs ame-miR-31a and ame-miR-13b in brains of nurses and foragers of Apis mellifera ligustica and to explore their regulation function in the behavioral transition between nurses and foragers of honeybee. 【Methods】 The expression levels of ame-miR-31a and ame-miR-13b in brains of nurses and foragers from both typical colonies and single-cohort colonies of A. m. ligustica workers were detected by qPCR. 【Results】 ame-miR-31a showed significantly higher expression level in brains of nurses than in brains of foragers in both the typical colonies and single-cohort colonies of A. m. ligustica workers, while ame-miR-13b showed significantly higher expression level in brains of foragers than in brains of nurses in the typical colonies. In the single-cohort colonies, ame-miR-13b had extremely significantly higher expression level in brains of old nurses than in brains of foragers at the same age, but showed no significant difference in the expression level between young nurses and young foragers. 【Conclusion】 The expression of ame-miR-13b shows no distinct pattern in brains of nurses and foragers of A. m. ligustica, while ame-miR-31a shows significantly higher expression level in brains of nurses, suggesting that ame-miR-31a may play an important role in regulating the behavioral transition between nurses and foragers.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 62 Issue 8
    2019, 62(8):  1009-1009. 
    Abstract ( 211 )   PDF (493KB) ( 28 )     
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