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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 September 2019, Volume 62 Issue 9
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    Comparison of the supercooling capacity and contents of main biochemical substances between the diapausing and non-diapausing larvae of Leguminivora glycinivorella (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae)
    LI Xin-Chang, CUI Juan, TANG Jia-Wei, XIA Ting-Ting, XU Wei, SHI Shu-Sen
    2019, 62(9):  1009-1016.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.001
    Abstract ( 640 )   PDF (1628KB) ( 247 )   PDF(mobile) (1628KB) ( 91 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to ascertain the difference in the contents of biochemical substances and protective enzyme activities between the diapausing and non-diapausing larvae of Leguminivora glycinivorella so as to provide a basis for further exploring the molecular mechanism of diapause regulation. 【Methods】 The diapausing and non-diapausing larvae of L. glycinivorella were obtained by controlling the photoperiod conditions at a suitable temperature (25℃). The supercooling point, the freezing point, the contents of main biochemical substances including carbohydrate, lipid substance and soluble protein, and the activities of protective enzymes including peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) beween the diapausing and non-diapausing larvae were assayed and compared. 【Results】 At 25℃, the supercooling point (-19.20℃) and the freezing point (-13.49℃) of the diapausing larvae of L. glycinivorella were lower than those of the non-diapausing larvae (-16.42℃ and -11.22℃, respectively), suggesting significant difference in the supercooling capacity between both. The contents of total sugar, glycerin, glycogen and other energy substances in the diapausing larvae were significantly higher than those in the non-diapausing larvae. The total sugar content and the glycerol content in the diapausing larvae were 2.17 and 1.76 times as high as those in the non-diapausing larvae, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in free water and soluble protein contents between the diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. At the same time, the POD and CAT activities in the diapausing larvae were significantly higher than those in the non-diapausing larvae, while the SOD activity in the diapausing larvae was slightly lower than that in the non-diapausing larvae, but there was no significant difference between both. 【Conclusion】 During the process of L. glycinivorella larvae entering diapause state from non-diapause, the contents of biochemical substances like carbohydrates are significantly increased, and the activities of some protective enzymes are significantly enhanced by the regulation of physiological metabolism, which in turn significantly improves their supercooling capacity to effectively cope with adverse environmental conditions like low temperature.
    Isolation and identification of the aggregation pheromone in Megalurothrips usitatus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
    LI Xiao-Wei, LUO Xue-Jun, WANG Li-Kun, ZHANG Jin-Ming, ZHANG Zhi-Jun, HUANG Jun, WU Jian-Hui, LU Yao-Bin
    2019, 62(9):  1017-1027.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.002
    Abstract ( 954 )   PDF (2123KB) ( 340 )   PDF(mobile) (2123KB) ( 144 )     
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    【Aim】 Megalurothrips usitatus is an important leguminous pest in South China and has caused enormous losses to cowpea planting industry. Development and application of lures based on aggregation pheromone is one of the environmentally friendly control methods for M. usitatus, which would play a key role in bio-control of this pest. 【Methods】 Behavioral responses of female and male adults of M. usitatus to headspace volatiles collected from female and male conspecifics were tested in a Y-tube olfactometer. Headspace volatiles released by female and male adults were collected using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and hexane extraction. The active compound in the volatiles and hexane extracts was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The behavioral responses of female and male adults to the synthetic aggregation pheromone component were tested in a Y-tube olfactometer. 【Results】 Behavioral results showed that both male and female adults of M. usitatus were attracted to the odors released by conspecific males but not those released by females. The volatiles from female and male adults could be extracted by both SPME and hexane extraction, but the extraction with SPME was more effective and suitable. GC-MS analysis showed that there was one major compound [(E,E)-farnesyl acetate] in the headspace volatiles from male adults, and this compound was absent from the headspace volatiles from female adults. Olfactometer results showed that both male and female adults showed significant preference to synthetic (E,E)-farnesyl acetate at certain doses. 【Conclusion】 This study confirmed the presence of aggregation pheromone in M. usitatus male adults and identified its active compound as (E,E)-farnesyl acetate, providing a basis for population monitoring and control of M. usitatus using aggregation pheromone.
    Prokaryotic expression, polyclonal antibody preparation, expression profiling and functional characterization of the activating enhancer binding protein AP-4 gene from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    WANG Ting-Ting, SUO Qian, SUN Xiao-Yan, MA Yue-Min, LIU Kai-Yu, PENG Jian-Xin, PENG Rong
    2019, 62(9):  1028-1037.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.003
    Abstract ( 598 )   PDF (2654KB) ( 130 )   PDF(mobile) (2654KB) ( 21 )     
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    【Aim】 Activating enhancer binding protein 4 (AP-4), which is involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, is an important transcription factor that has attracted extensive attention in recent years. This study aims to express HaAP-4 gene of Helicoverpa armigera by using prokaryotic expression system, to prepare the polyclonal antibody, to determine the spatio-temporal expression profiles of HaAP-4 and to investigate the possible role of HaAP-4 in regulating the expression of sterol carrier protein-2 gene (HaSCP-2) of H. armigera. 【Methods】 The HaAP-4 gene of H. armigera was amplified by PCR and cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a. The recombinant vector was transformed into  Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The recombinant protein was expressed by IPTG induction and purified by Ni-NTA column. The polyclonal antibody was prepared by immunizing New Zealand rabbits with the purified recombinant protein. The expression levels of HaAP-4 in different developmental stages (egg, larva, prepupa, pupa and adult) and different tissues (midgut, fat body, head and epidermis) of the 5th instar larva and prepupa of H. armigera were determined by RT-qPCR. HaAP-4 siRNA was synthesized and transfected into Ha cells of H. armigera. The mRNA levels of HaAP-4 and HaSCP-2 in Ha cells after RNAi with HaAP-4 siRNA were detected by RT-qPCR. 【Results】 The recombinant expression vector pET-28a-HaAP-4 was successfully constructed. The soluble HaAP-4 protein of about 55 kD was effectively expressed in E. coli. The highly purified recombinant protein was obtained by purification, and the polyclonal antibody was successfully prepared using the purified recombinant protein. Western blotting results showed that the antibody had high specificity, and ELISA results revealed that the antibody had high titer. Developmental stage-specific expression profiles revealed that HaAP-4 was expressed in all developmental stages, with high expression levels in the egg, 5th larval and prepupal stages. Tissue expression profiles revealed that HaAP-4 was expressed in various tissues of the 5th instar larva and prepupa, showing high expression levels in the midgut and head, but low expression levels in the epidermis and fat body. The RNAi experiments revealed that the knockdown of HaAP-4 expression had a significant impact on the transcription of HaSCP-2, resulting in a decrease of the mRNA expression level of HaSCP-2 by about 55%. 【Conclusion】 The HaAP-4 can be effectively expressed in vitro by using prokaryotic pET-28a expression system, and the polyclonal antibody against HaAP-4 can be obtained. The results of RNAi experiments suggest that HaAP-4,which is highly expressed in the midgut, may up-regulate the expression of HaSCP-2 and play an important role in the lipid physiological metabolism of H. armigera. This study lays a foundation for further elucidating the potential function of HaAP-4 in H. armigera.
    Analysis of the venom gland transcriptome of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae)
    GAO Cheng-Long, AO Te-Gen, REN Li-Li, WANG Li-Xiang, WANG Ming, SHI Juan
    2019, 62(9):  1038-1047.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.004
    Abstract ( 662 )   PDF (2086KB) ( 164 )   PDF(mobile) (2086KB) ( 32 )     
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    【Aim】 To establish the venom gland transcriptome database of the wood wasp, Sirex noctilio, and to screen and analyze the genetic data of its venom gland. 【Methods】 The venom gland transcriptome of S. noctilio female adults was sequenced using an Illumina HiSeqTM 4000 platform, assembled and subjected to bioinformatics analysis. 【Results】 A total of 12.7 Gb clean data of the venom gland transcriptome of S. noctilio female adults was obtained, and the clean reads were assembled into 37 098 unigenes with a mean length of 968 bp and an N50 length of 2 364 bp. A total of 13 515 unigenes were annotated using BlastX searches against the databases. Most unigenes (11 108 unigenes) were annotated to the NR database (accounting for 29.94% of the total), showing the highest homology with the unigenes of Nasonia vitripennis in the NR database by 815 similar unigenes (accounting for 7.29% of the total). A total of 5 726 unigenes were annotated in the GO database and divided into three categories (biological processes, cellular component and molecular function) and 63 subclasses based on their biological functions. In KEGG database, 7 602 unigenes were assigned to the 357 known metabolic pathways. By further screening and identification, 43 olfaction-related genes of S. noctilio including 25 odorant receptor (OR) genes, 10 chemosensory protein (CSP) genes, five ionotropic receptor (IR) genes, and three odorant binding protein (OBP) genes were obtained. In addition, 11 laccase genes including five laccase-1 genes, four laccase-2 genes, one laccase-4 gene and one laccase-9 gene were screened. Among the annotated genes, a LAC2 gene had the highest expression level, with the FPKM value of 21 126. 【Conclusion】 The venom gland transcriptome data of S. noctilio obtained in this study provide a theoretical foundation for the component identification and biological function study of S. noctilio venom.
    A strategy for flexibly modulating wingless expression levels in Drosophila wing disc
    ZHANG Xu-Bo, WU Wen-Jun, LI Kai-Xia, MA En-Bo, WU Hai-Hua, ZHANG Jian-Zhen, DONG Wei
    2019, 62(9):  1048-1053.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.005
    Abstract ( 624 )   PDF (18020KB) ( 103 )   PDF(mobile) (18020KB) ( 10 )     
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     【Aim】 Flexibly controlling the expression levels of target genes is critical for the study of gene function. Gal4/UAS system has been intensively used to manipulate gene expression and to study complex biological problems of model organisms such as Drosophila. Affected by the properties of transposon vector constructs and the insertion site in the transgenic stock, the ability of Gal4 or UAS transgenic lines to regulate target genes is roughly predefined after construction. This study aims to develop a new strategy based on the conventional GAL4/UAS system to flexibly modulate the expression level of wingless (wg) gene in Drosophila wing discs. 【Methods】 UAS-wg and UAS-wg-RNAi transgenes of Drosophila melanogaster were recombined into the same D. melanogaster line by genetic approach. And this line was crossed with dpp-Gal4 line to co-express UAS-wg and UAS-wg-RNAi in larval wing discs. The progeny larvae were cultured at different temperatures (18, 25 and 30℃). The larval wing discs were dissected and stained by immunohistochemistry. The fluorescence intensity was measured to analyze the expression level of wg in the wing discs. 【Results】 UAS-wg played a dominant role in the regulation of gene expression at low temperature (18℃). In this case, the efficiency of overexpression of wg was attenuated effectively by UAS-wg-RNAi. On the contrary, UAS-wg-RNAi predominated in the regulation of gene expression, and the expression of wg was inhibited at high temperature (30℃). Besides, by switching temperature, the wg expression could be transformed between overexpression and repression in wing disc at different developmental stages, and the expression of wg could be modulated flexibly in wing disc. 【Conclusion】 By this approach, we can flexibly modulate the expression of wg in wing disc of Drosophila. It has great significance in target gene regulation.
    Effect of Sacbrood virus infection on nutritional and immune responses of Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    ZHENG Bin-Yue, ZHAO Bi-An, JIN Xin, DUAN Xin-Le, HUANG Shao-Kang, LI Jiang-Hong
    2019, 62(9):  1054-1064.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.006
    Abstract ( 561 )   PDF (1800KB) ( 125 )   PDF(mobile) (1800KB) ( 26 )     
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    【Aim】 Sacbrood virus (SBV), is a pathogen seriously threatening the health and colony number of the Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana cerana. But its lethal mechanism is not clear so far. The aim of the study is to uncover the effect of SBV on nutrition and immunity in A. cerana cerana in different developmental stages. 【Methods】 The 2-day-old larvae and newly emerged adults of A. cerana cerana were fed with SBV, and the number of daily dead larvae or adults were recorded to determine the effect of SBV on the survival of larvae and adults, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of SBV RNA, nutrient metabolism-related genes including ilp1, ilp2, hex110, hex70b, hex70c and vg, innate virus immunity genes including rel, toll, apidaecin, abaecin, defensin, hymenoptaecin, jra, key and state92e, apoptosis genes including atg7 and LOC100577876, and anti-RNA virus genes including dis3 and dicer in 4-day-old larvae, prepupae, and 10- and 20-day-old adults of A. cerana cerana were determined by qPCR, respectively. 【Results】 SBV significantly decreased the survival rate of A. cerana cerana larvae, but had no effect on the survival of adults. The expression levels of SBV RNA in 4-day-old larvae and prepupae were significantly higher than those in 10- and 20-dayold adults of A. cerana cerana. SBV significantly decreased the expression levels of the nutrient metabolism-related genes ilp1, ilp2, hex110, hex70b and hex70c in larvae, and vg and hex110 in adults, but significantly increased the expression levels of the innate virus immunity genes rel, toll, apidaecin, abaecin, defensin, hymenoptaecin and jra in 4-day-old larvae, and key and state92e in adults, and also the expression levels of the apoptosis genes atg7 and LOC100577876 in prepupae of A. cerana cerana. 【Conclusion】 SBV has higher infection level in larvae and prepupae of A. cerana cerana than in adults, with higher virility to larvae than to adults. SBV decreases the nutrient metabolism of A. cerana cerana. Infected honeybees try to cope with the virus infection through increasing the immunity level. The increasing of apoptosis level in the prepupa might be related with the larval death and abnormal prepupal development.
    Effects of food, temperature and humidity on feeding of Athetis lepigone (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae and their injury to maize seedlings
    YANG Yun-He, ZHANG Hai-Jian, SHI Jie, LIU Shu-Sen, GUO Ning
    2019, 62(9):  1065-1071.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.007
    Abstract ( 585 )   PDF (1213KB) ( 121 )   PDF(mobile) (1213KB) ( 14 )     
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    【Aim】 Surveyes showed that there was no correlation between the population density of Athetis lepigone larvae and the damage rate of maize seedlings, and the damage rate of maize seedlings cannot be accurately predicted according to the number of larvae in the field. In this study, the effects of environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity on the feeding and damage of A. lepigone to corn and the feeding habits of this insect were investigated in the laboratory in order to explore the relationship between the number of A. lepigone larvae and their injury to maize seedlings and to explain the phenomena encountered in the field investigations that maize seedlings are slightly damaged even though its larvae occur in large numbers. 【Methods】 The damage degrees of the 3rd and 4th instar larvae of A. lepigone to maize seedlings were evaluated after the larvae were subjected to the following eight treatment combinations of temperature, humidity and food, respectively, for 4 h: 15℃, 30% RH and starvation (no food supplied); 15℃, 0% RH and starvation; 15℃, 30% RH and fed with artificial diet (AD); 15℃, 0% RH and AD; 36℃, 90% RH and AD; 36℃, 0%RH and AD; 36℃, 90%RH and starvation; and 36℃, 0% RH and starvation. The food consumption of larvae on maize leaves at four different temperatures (15℃, 24℃, 28℃ and 33℃) was measured. The newly hatched larvae were domesticated by feeding on eight kinds of food (leaves of purslane, purple perilla, sweet potato, Chinese cabbage, soybean, pumpkin and maize, and wheat straws), respectively, till the 3rd instar, then the feeding preference of the domesticated larvae to the initial food for domestication, wheat straw and maize leaves was assayed. 【Results】 The damage grades of A. lepigone larvae under drought conditions were higher whether they had experienced starvation or not; especially in the high temperature and desiccation treatment group, the average damage grade of larvae to maize seedlings reached 3.1. The percentages of injured seedlings with the damage grade above grade 4 (including grade 4) were 50% and 40%, respectively, when the larvae were subjected to the low temperature and desiccation treatment and the high temperature and desiccation treatment. The feeding amount of larvae to maize leaves increased gradually with the increase of temperature between 15-33℃, with the corrected feeding amount of 12.8, 31.8, 38.0 and 60.0 mg, respectively, at 48 h after treatment. Larvae domesticated with leaves of sweet potato, cabbage, soybean and pumpkin were more likely to choose the initial food for domestication. Larvae domesticated with perilla leaves preferred perilla and wheat straw to maize leaves. Similarly, larvae domesticated with maize leaves and wheat straw had greater preference to maize leaves and wheat straw, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The results show that desiccation is a major factor in increasing the intake of A. lepigone larvae to maize seedlings. A. lepigone larvae have a strong adaptability to short-term high and low temperature, and their feeding amount increases with the increase of temperature in a short time and a certain temperature range (15-33℃). Temperature as a supplementary of desiccation also affects the damage degree of the larvae to maize seedlings. In addition, A. lepigone larvae tend to choose the food they come into contact with immediately after hatching for feeding, and the occurrence and damage of this insect to maize seedlings also largely depend on its feeding habits.
    First record of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and a survey of its parasitoids in Tibet, China
    PAN Li-Ting, XU Yong-Qiang, DU Su-Jie, WANG Wei, Zoya YEFREMOVA, DAWA, LIU Wan-Xue
    2019, 62(9):  1072-1080.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.008
    Abstract ( 760 )   PDF (12411KB) ( 105 )   PDF(mobile) (12411KB) ( 21 )     
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    【Aim】 Liriomyza huidobrensis is an important invasive pest in China. It was firstly found in Tibet in July, 2017. This study aims to confirm the occurrence status of L. huidobrensis and its parasitoids in Tibet. 【Methods】 The occurrence and damage of L. huidobrensis and its parasitoids were investigated in four regions, Lhasa, Nyingchi, Lhoka and Shigatse, in Tibet from early June to mid-September in 2017 and 2018. 【Results】 The results revealed that L. huidobrensis has already colonized and caused damage in all the four regions surveyed in Tibet from early June to mid-September in 2017 and 2018. The population occurred from early June to mid-September in green house and the peak of occurrence in the field was from late July to early August. Twenty-one species of host plants were reported to be damaged by L. huidobrensis and they belong to nine families, mainly Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Umbelliferae. L. huidobrensis caused the most serious damage to such economic crops as Vigna unguiculata, Lablab purpureus, Lactuca sativa var. angustana and Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis. Sixteen species of parasitoids including Diglyphus bimaculatus, Diglyphus isaea, Diglyphus minoeus, Diglyphus wani, Diglyphus sp., Cirrospilus vittatus, Hemiptarsenus sp., Neochrysocharis formosa, Chrysocharis pentheus, Chrysocharis pubicornis, Chrysocharis sp., Pediobius metallicus, Pnigalio sp., Dacnusa sibirica, Dacnusa sp., and Gronotoma sp. were recorded, and they belong to nine genera of three families (Eulophidae, Braconidae and Cynipidae). Da. sibirica, Di. bimaculatus and Di. isaea were identified as the dominant species and their individuals accounted for 48.7%, 22.1% and 12.9% of the total individuals collected, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The parasitoid species of L. huidobrensis are quite rich in Tibet, and these parasitoid species show strong natural control effect. It is suggested that the study of biology, control potential and utilization of dominant parasitoids should be strengthened in the future for the prevention and control of the invasive L. huidobrensis.
    Intraspecific variation in Eysarcoris aeneus revealed by geometric morphometrics (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)(In English)
    LI Rong-Rong, LI Min, YAN Jiang, ZHANG Hu-Fang, BAI Ming
    2019, 62(9):  1081-1089.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.009
    Abstract ( 773 )   PDF (9066KB) ( 109 )   PDF(mobile) (9066KB) ( 27 )     
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    【Aim】 Eysarcoris aeneus, a main pest of many economic crops, is widely distributed in Palaearctic region with humeri variable. Difference in the humerus length of “rounded humerus form” and “needle-like humerus form” suggests that intraspecific variation may exist in E. aeneus. 【Methods】 In this study, 142 specimens (98 for E. aeneus and 44 for the outgroup E. ventralis ) from 19 regions of China were examined to ascertain the morphological variation of four characters (forewing, hindwing, head and scutellum) between the two forms, “rounded humerus form” and “needle-like humerus form”, respectively, of E. aeneus with the use of geometric morphometrics approaches, including multivariate regression, principal component analysis (PCA), canonical variate analysis (CVA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). 【Results】 Allometry was not found in all of the four characters (forewing, hindwing, head and scutellum) examined. For the four characters, though the principal component analysis showed overlap between the two forms of E. aeneus, the canonical variate analysis showed significant differences between them (P-values for Procrustes distance and Mahalanobis distance were all less than 0.01). The correctly assigned percentages of “rounded humerus form” and “needle-like humerus form” ranged from 67% to 89% specimens based on the four characters using the discriminant function analysis. 【Conclusion】 This study proved that forewing, hindwing, head and scutellum can serve efficient evaluation criteria in describing intraspecific morphological difference of E. aeneus, and scutellum is the most informative character. The geometric morphometric descriptors showed significant shape differences and overlapped centroid size between the two forms of E. aeneus, indicating that the analysis of shape is more sensitive for detecting differences among lineages than that of size. Our study shows that geometric morphometrics is efficient in describing intraspecific morphological difference of E. aeneus, and lays a foundation for intraspecific variation studies of stink bugs in future.

    A morphological investigation of adult Culicoides newsteadi Austen (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (In English)
    JIANG Xiao-Hong, CHANG Qiong-Qiong, DUAN Chen, HOU Xiao-Hui
    2019, 62(9):  1090-1101.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.010
    Abstract ( 647 )   PDF (129925KB) ( 163 )   PDF(mobile) (129925KB) ( 19 )     
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    【Aim】 The aim of this study is to discover the morphological details for accurate identification and differentiation of Culicoides species. 【Methods】 The morphological details of adult Culicoides newsteadi Austen were observed under light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Important diagnostic features of the compound eyes, antennae, maxillary palpus, mouthparts, mesonotum, scutellum, wing, hind tibia, claws and the genitalia of both females and males were described. 【Results】 Six types of antennal sensilla were found in adult females of C. newsteadi including sensilla coeloconica, short sensilla trichodea, long sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica, straight sensilla basiconica, and curved sensilla basiconica scattered on antennal surface. Scutal areolae in adult females and males are ovoid. The tips of the parameres in adult males have complicated branches. Compound eyes in adult females have a short distance about 1.3 facets at the joint. The mandible in adult females has 14-17 triangular teeth. The hind tibial comb in adult females has 16-19 combs. 【Conclusion】 The morphological features obtained by LM and SEM can provide information not only for taxonomy and phylogeny of Ceratopogonidae, but also aid in epidemiology studies and disease control, as well as in the digitization, three-dimensional analysis and networking of morphological information of Ceratopogonidae.

    Anatomical structure of the abdominal ganglion of Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae)
    XIE Gui-Ying, MA Bai-Wei, LIU Xiao-Lan, CHANG Ya-Jun, CHEN Wen-Bo, ZHANG Yong-Jun, ZHAO Xin-Cheng
    2019, 62(9):  1102-1108.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.011
    Abstract ( 542 )   PDF (26573KB) ( 126 )   PDF(mobile) (26573KB) ( 10 )     
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    【Aim】 To reveal the anatomical organization of the abdominal ganglion of the green mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae). 【Methods】 The neuropils of the abdominal ganglion of A. lucorum adults were labeled by immunohistochemical staining with synaptic protein antibody. Digital images of the abdominal ganglion were obtained by using a confocal laser scanning microscope. The three-dimensional models were reconstructed by using image analysis software. 【Results】 The abdominal ganglion of A. lucorum adults is located at the distal end of the ventral nerve cord, fused with the mesothoracic and metathoracic ganglia and becoming a posterior ganglion. Like brain and thoracic ganglia, the abdominal ganglion is composed of outer somata and inner neuropils. Nerve fibers of the abdominal ganglion include two connectives in ventral and nine pairs of nerve bundles given off from the lateral. Nine nerve bundles are respectively connected with nine neuromeres full of synapsin. These neuromeres are fused tightly without distinct boundary. The last two neuromeres are expanded forming the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG). Bilateral neuromeres are connected by transverse commissures. Around the abdominal ganglion, there are massive, small and close packed somata. In the middle of the anterior dorsal portion and the posterior ventral portion, there are two and five big somata, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The results demonstrate the anatomical organization of the abdominal ganglion of A. lucorum and provide the morphological basis for the study of behavioral regulation and the development and evolution of nervous system of insects.
    Analysis of factors affecting the abundance of parasitic fleas on wild myomorph rodents in the Yulong plague focus of Yunnan Province, southwestern China
    WANG Meng-Di, ZHOU Yun, XU Dan-Dan, HONG Ru-Dan, LIU Zheng-Xiang, HONG Mei, WEI Zhao-Fei, ZHAO Qiu-Fang, YIN Jia-Xiang
    2019, 62(9):  1109-1116.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.012
    Abstract ( 429 )   PDF (1237KB) ( 38 )   PDF(mobile) (1237KB) ( 8 )     
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    【Aim】 To analyze the predictors of the abundance of parasitic fleas on wild myomorph rodents in the Yulong plague focus of Yunnan Province, southwestern China. 【Methods】 Field rodent trapping was carried out in three altitudes and four seasons of plague foci in Yulong County, Yunnan Province. The parasitic fleas on myomorph rodents were collected by comb method and identified under a microscope. Data of potential predictors of the abundance of parasitic fleas, including characters of myomorph rodents (such as species, age, gender, body length, and weight) and environmental factors (such as altitude and season), were collected through measurement and observation. Data set was established using EpiData 3.0.2. The relationship between the abundance of parasitic fleas and the potential predictors was explored using hurdle negative binomial regression model under R software. 【Results】 A total of 484 parasitic fleas belonging to nine species were collected from 884 myomorph rodents. Among them, Neopsylla specialis specialis, Ctenophthalmus quadrates, Macrostylophora euteles and Ctenophthalmus yunnanus fleas are dominant, with their individual number accounting for 86.16% of the total number of individuals of fleas. Regression analysis revealed that the probability of flea infestation at 2 700-3 000 m and above 3 000 m increased by 1.27 and 3.72 times as compared with that at 2 400-2 700 m, respectively. The probability of flea infestation under the humidity over 70% decreased by 41% as compared with that under the humidity not exceeding 70%. The probability of flea infestation on Apodemus draco reduced by 50% as compared with that on Apodemus chevrieri, while the probability of flea infestation on Eothenomys miletus increased by 79%. The probability of flea infestation on myomorph rodents with the body length exceeding 104 mm increased by 76% as compared with that on myomorph rodents with the body length less than or equal to 104 mm. When air temperature exceeded 15℃, the number of fleas on myomorph rodents decreased by 67% as compared with that at the air temperature not exceeding 15℃. The number of fleas on adult myomorph rodents increased by 2.25 times as compared with that of immature myomorph rodents. The number of fleas in summer increased by 2.00 times, the probability of flea infestation in autumn decreased by 48%, and the probability of flea infestation and the number of fleas in winter increased by 1.44 and 1.06 times, respectively, as compared with those in spring. 【Conclusion】 Neopsylla specialis specialis, Ctenophthalmus quadrates, Macrostylophora euteles and Ctenophthalmus yunnanus are the dominant species of parasitic fleas on wild myomorph rodents in the Yulong plague focus. The abundance of parasitic fleas is closely related to the environmental factors such as altitude, season, air temperature and humidity, and the characters of myomorph rodents such as species, body length, and age.
    Contents of Vol. 62 Issue 9
    2019, 62(9):  1117-1117.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.013
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