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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 October 2019, Volume 62 Issue 10
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Expression characteristics of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase genes and their roles in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    ZHANG Dao-Wei, QIU Ling-Yu, KANG Kui, YU Ya-Ya, ZENG Bo-Ping, CHEN Jing, TANG Bin
    2019, 62(10):  1117-1128.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.10.001
    Abstract ( 550 )   PDF (1915KB) ( 181 )   PDF(mobile) (1915KB) ( 63 )     
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    【Aim】 Trehalose in insects is mainly synthesized in the fat body by trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), which can induce trehalose accumulation and thus plays a protective role when insects are under extreme environmental stress. This study aims to analyze the developmental and tissue expression patterns of two TPS genes in Sogatella furcifera, and their roles in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, so as to explore the specific roles of TPS genes in the growth and development of S. furcifera. 【Methods】 Based on the partial sequences of two trehalose synthase genes, SfTPS1 and SfTPS2,obtained in the early stage of the laboratory, gene cloning and sequencing were also carried out in this experiment. The two TPS gene sequences of the S. furcifera were determined by comparison. The phylogenetic tree based on the amino acid sequences of SfTPS and TPS proteins from other insect species was constructed by MEGA 7.0 software. The expression profiles of these two TPS genes in different developmental stages (from the day 1 4th instar nymph to 3 day-old adult), and different adult tissues (head, leg, wing, midgut, fat body, epidermis and Malpighian tubules) of S. furcifera were detected by qRT-PCR. The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of the two genes were synthesized and injected into the day 1 5th instar nymphs of S. furcifera for the RNAi. At 48 and 72 h after RNAi, the changes in expression levels of trehalase genes TRE1-1, TRE1-2 and TRE2, the contents of trehalose, glucose and total glycogen, and the trehalase activity were determined. 【Results】 The ORFs of SfTPS1 and SfTPS2 are 2 424 and 2 115 bp in length, respectively, and the numbers of encoded amino acids are 807 and 704, respectively. The predicted protein molecular weights are 90.37 and 80.56 kD, respectively, and the isoelectric points are 6.08 and 6.10, respectively. Moreover, the two TPS amino acid sequences of S. furcifera show the highest identities with Nilaparvata lugens TPS1 and TPS2. Developmental expression profiles revealed that SfTPS1 and SfTPS2 were expressed from the 4th instar nymphal stage to the adult stage, and tissue expression profiles revealed that the two genes showed significantly higher expression levels in Malpighian tubules, midgut and epidermis ofa S. furcifer adults. After RNAi of SfTPS1, the expression levels of TRE11 and TRE2 in the RNAi group increased slightly and significantly, respectively, as compared with those of the control group (dsGFP injection group), and the relative expression level of TRE1-2 increased significantly at 48 h and decreased significantly at 72 h after RNAi. The soluble trehalase activity did not change significantly, and the membrane-bound trehalase activity increased significantly, while the contents of trehalose, glucose and total glycogen in the 5th instar nymphs of S. furcifera increased significantly. After RNAi of SfTPS2, the expression levels of TRE1-2 and TRE2 in the RNAi group increased significantly at 48 h, while declined significantly at 72 h. And the expression level of TRE1-1 increased significantly at 48 and 72 h as compared to those of the control group. The soluble trehalase activity decreased significantly at 48 h and increased significantly at 72 h as compared to those of the control group after RNAi. The membrane-bound trehalase activity increased significantly at 72 h after RNAi of SfTPS2. In addition, the glucose content reduced significantly at 48 h after RNAi of SfTPS2, but the contents of trehalose, glucose and total glycogen in the 5th instar nymphs of S. furcifera increased significantly at 72 h after RNAi. 【Conclusion】 The expression levels of TRE1-1, TRE1-2 and TRE2 are affected and thus the trehalose content is regulated by regulating the expression of TPS genes in vivo in S. furcifera. The results provide a theoretical basis for later application of TPS as the target gene for pest control.
    Cloning and characterization of arrestin gene Btarrestin in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci MED (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
    LIANG Jin-Jin, HE Chao, LIU Shao-Nan, XIE Wen, ZHANG You-Jun
    2019, 62(10):  1129-1139.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.10.002
    Abstract ( 440 )   PDF (2253KB) ( 100 )   PDF(mobile) (2253KB) ( 20 )     
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    【Aim】 To clarify the relationship between arrestin gene Btarrestin and imidacloprid resistance in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci MED. 【Methods】 Based on the previous transcriptome data of B. tabaci, the full-length cDNA sequence of Btarrestin was cloned by RT-PCR in B. tabaci MED and then subjected to bioinformatics analysis. The expression levels of Btarrestin at different developmental stages (egg, 1st-2nd instar, 3rd instar and 4th instar nymph, and female and male adult) and in adults exposed to imidacloprid (100 mg/L) were detected by qPCR. After silencing Btarrestin by RNAi, the expression level of Btarrestin and the mortality of B. tabaci MED adults were detected. 【Results】 The cDNA sequence of Btarrestin (GenBank accession no.: MK204377) was cloned from B. tabaci MED. The complete cDNA is 1 127 bp in length encoding 409 amino acids, with the molecular weight of 45.33 kD and the pI value of 8.38. Conserved domain analysis indicated that Btarrestin has conserved domains of the two superfamilies Arrestin_N and Arrestin_C, consistent with the family characteristics of arrestins. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that Btarrestin shares high homology with the arrestin of Nilaparvata lugens. Developmental stage-specific expression results revealed that the expression level of Btarrestin was increased gradually with its development and reached the peak at the adult stage. The expression level of Btarrestin in adults exposed to 100 mg/L imidacloprid for 24 h increased by 2.39-fold as compared with that in the control. The RNAi results showed that knockdown of Btarrestin in B. tabaci MED increased the mortality of imidacloprid-treated adults by 31.27%. 【Conclusion】 Btarrestin might be involved in imidacloprid resistance in B. tabaci MED.
    Cloning and expression dynamics of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase gene SmHMGR during diapause and metamorphosis in Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)
    LIU Yu-Han, LIANG Ting-Ting, ZHAO Jia-Jia, CHENG Wei-Ning, ZHU Ke-Yan
    2019, 62(10):  1140-1149.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.10.003
    Abstract ( 452 )   PDF (3952KB) ( 81 )   PDF(mobile) (3952KB) ( 9 )     
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    【Aim】 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) is a rate-limiting enzyme of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis. This study aims to explore the potential roles of HMGR gene in diapause and metamorphosis of Sitodiplosis mosellana, an insect species undergoing obligatory larval diapause. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA of HMGR gene was cloned from S. mosellana pre-diapause larvae by RT-PCR and RACE technologies. The sequence characteristics of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the cloned HMGR were analyzed by bioinformatics programs. The mRNA expression levels of HMGR in the 3rd instar larva of S. mosellana in different stages of diapause (pre-diapause, diapause, post-diapause quiescent and post-diapause development) and different developmental stages (the 1st-2nd instar larva, pre-pupa, early pupa, middle pupa and late pupa, as well as male adult and female adult) were determined by qPCR. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequence of HMGR was obtained from S. mosellana and named SmHMGR, which was deposited at GenBank under the accession number MG876766. SmHMGR is 2 548 bp in length and contains a 2 328 bp ORF, encoding a protein of 775 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 84.16 kD and a theoretical pI of 8.29. The deduced amino acid sequence contains the conserved HMG-CoA-reductase-classⅠ domain and other motifs of the HMGR protein family. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that SmHMGR has the highest similarity and the closest relationship to HMGRs from the Nematocera including Anopheles darling. The expression level of SmHMGR increased as the larvae entered the early 3rd instar before diapause, maintained high after diapause, and peaked in the post-diapause quiescence phase (from December to the next January). The expression level of SmHMGR was lower in the pupal stage than in the larval stage, the lowest in the pre-pupal stage, and significantly higher in female adults than in pupae and male adults. 【Conclusion】 SmHMGR expression is related to the development of S. mosellana, and might play key roles in diapause induction, maintenance and post-diapause quiescence as well as in adult reproduction, whereas the metamorphosis from larva to pupa might be correlated with its reduced expression.
    Determination of the optimal reaction conditions of endoglucanases from Cyrtotrachelus buqueti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and screening of their key genes
    WANG Ming-Jun, WANG Chang-Ji, CHEN Xiao-Ya, LI Yuan-Qiu, LIANG Jiao-Jiao, LUO Chao-Bing
    2019, 62(10):  1150-1161.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.10.004
    Abstract ( 488 )   PDF (1825KB) ( 61 )   PDF(mobile) (1825KB) ( 25 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the optimal reaction conditions of endoglucanases from Cyrtotrachelus buqueti, and to explore the key genes of endoglucanases in the gut of C. buqueti. 【Methods】 Single factor and orthogonal optimization experiments were carried out. The optimal reaction conditions for endoglucanases were determined by using 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (MC) as the substrate. The endoglucanase-encoding gene sequences in the transcriptomes of different developmental stages of C. buqueti were subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Through correlation analysis between gene expression level and enzyme activity, key endoglucanase genes in different developmental stages of C. buqueti were screened. And the expression levels of key genes of endoglucanases in the gut of C. buqueti of different developmental stages were validated by using qRT-PCR. 【Results】 The results showed that the optimum reaction conditions for endoglucanases in C. buqueti adults were 45℃, pH 5.6, and 2% substrate concentration, with the enzyme activity of 59.85 and 52.87 U/mg in female and male, respectively, while the optimum reaction conditions for endoglucanases in C. buqueti larvae were 35℃, pH 4.8, and 2% substrate concentration, with the enzyme activity of 38.34 U/mg. Moreover, two key endoglucanase genes, c64192_g1 and c57057_g1, were identified, and they exhibited higher expression level in adults than in larvae. 【Conclusion】 The endoglucanase activities in female and male adults of C. buqueti are higher than that in larvae, and two key genes, c64192_g1 and c57057_g1, affecting the endoglucanase activity in C. buqueti were screened. These foundings enrich the endoglucanase source and provide data reference for the heterologous expression of endoglucanase gene in C. buqueti, laying a foundation for the pretreatment of lignocellulose and the development and utilization of biomass energy.
    Screening and validation of SNPs associated with chalkbrood resistance in non-coding regions of DNA of chromosomes of Apis mellifera ligustica
    NIE Hong-Yi, XU Shu-Peng, WANG Xue-Yan, GAO Yan, ZHU Ya-Nan, SU Song-Kun
    2019, 62(10):  1162-1171.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.10.005
    Abstract ( 315 )   PDF (1722KB) ( 75 )   PDF(mobile) (1722KB) ( 26 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to screen and verify the SNPs associated with chalkbrood resistance in the non-coding regions of DNA of chromosomes of Apis mellifera ligustica. 【Methods】 Ascosphaera apis spores were inoculated to the artificially reared 3-day-old larvae of A. m. ligustica, and the disease-resistant individuals and susceptible larvae were screened based on whether they displayed typical symptoms. According to the SNP information associated with chalkbrood resistance in the non-coding regions of DNA of chromosomes 2 and 11 from our previous resequencing results, 55 SNPs associated with chalkbrood resistance located in the non-coding regions of DNA of chromosomes 2 and 11 of A. m. ligustica larva were screened and validated by sequencing of PCR products. 【Results】 The results revealed that the SNP T14570310C located in the 5′ non-coding region of the LOC100578413 gene on chromosome 11 of A. m. ligustica showed a higher T allele frequency than the C allele frequency in the disease-resistant individuals and a significantly higher T allele frequency in the disease-resistant individuals than in the susceptible larvae, suggesting that this SNP is associated with the resistance to chalkbrood disease. This molecular marker was consistent with the SNP C2587245T located in the coding region screened previously in respect of the distinction between the disease-resistant and susceptible individuals. 【Conclusion】 The SNP T14570310C in the non-coding region of DNA of chromosome 11 of A. m. ligustica was screened and verified to be associated with the resistance to chalkbrood disease. This SNP provides a new molecular marker for molecular-assisted breeding against chalkbrood disease, and has important significance in early detection of chalkbrood infection and breeding bees resistant to chalkbrood disease.
    Effects of different diets on the diversity of larval gut bacteria of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
    WU Xiao-Lu, XIA Xiao-Feng, CHEN Jun-Hui, Geoff M. GURR, YOU Min-Sheng
    2019, 62(10):  1172-1185.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.10.006
    Abstract ( 547 )   PDF (3643KB) ( 196 )   PDF(mobile) (3643KB) ( 36 )     
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    【Aim】 The composition of the gut bacteria in herbivorous insects is closely related to their foods. This study aims to address the relationship and mutual adaptation between the diversity of larval gut bacteria of Plutella xylostella and its diets. 【Methods】 The gut bacterial DNA was extracted from the 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella feeding on artificial diet (S) and the larvae shifted from artificial diet to feeding on cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Chinese cabbage Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis and cauliflower Brassica oleracea var. italic for one generation (G1C, G1CC and G1WC, respectively), and three generations (G3C, G3CC and G3WC, respectively). The diversity and abundance of gut bacteria was then analyzed based on Illumina MiSeq of the 2nd generation high-throughput sequencing technology. 【Results】 The α-diversity index analysis indicated that the gut bacterial diversity of the 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella feeding on different diets was ranked as G1WC>G1CC>S>G1C. Firmicutes was the major phylum of the gut bacteria in sample S, while the relative abundance of Firmicutes in G1C, G1CC and G1WC decreased significantly. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria increased as the major phylum in G1C and G1CC, and that of Bacteroidetes increased as the dominant phylum in G1WC. No significant differences in terms of the α-diversity index of gut bacteria of P. xylostella were observed between the 1st and the 3rd generation of larvae feeding on all the host plants. However, the relative abundance of a few bacterial phyla had significant differences between the 1st and the 3rd generation of larvae feeding on cabbage and Chinese cabbage. Compared with G1C, G3C had a significantly reduced relative abundance of Bacillales. Similarly, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Nitrospirae in G3CC was significantly increased as compared with that in G1CC. 【Conclusion】 The gut bacterial diversity and community composition of P. xylostella larvae reared on artificial diet and different host plants vary significantly. Host plants have a great influence on the structure and composition of the gut microbes of P. xylostella, which may have a long-term adaptation process to host plants. This should be a case study for the factors that influence gut bacteria of P. xylostella, and may provide insights into the interactions between gut bacteria and different host plants.
    Effects of dimethoate on the gonads and oxidative stress response in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    SHI Min, LI Guan-Nan, ZHENG Xi, LIU Feng-Dan, ZHAO Shan, CAI Miao, ZHU Yong
    2019, 62(10):  1186-1196.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.10.007
    Abstract ( 385 )   PDF (4925KB) ( 62 )   PDF(mobile) (4925KB) ( 6 )     
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    【Aim】 Due to improper application of pesticides, environmental pollution has become an important obstacle to the development of sericulture. This study aims to assess the effects of field application of the organophosphorus pesticide dimethoate on the silkworm, Bombyx mori, so as to elucidate its damage mechanism to the gonads of this insect. 【Methods】 According to the LD50 value of dimethoate to B. mori larvae (400 mg/L) reported in the literature, the 5th instar larvae of B. mori were fed with mulberry leaves that had been soaked in different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/L) of dimethoate solution. After treatment with dimethoate, the cocoon quality and body weight of the 5th instar larvae, and the residual content of dimethoate and the H2O2 content, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the mRNA expression levels of these enzymes in the gonads of both male and female larvae were determined. 【Results】 The results showed that the cocoon quality and body weight of the 5th instar larvae of B. mori and the residual content of dimethoate in the gonads of both female and male larvae after treatment with dimethoate showed the concentration-effect relationship. The H2O2 content in the gonads of both female and male larvae treated with 100-200 mg/L dimethoate significantly increased as compared with that in the control (treated with water). With the increase of the concentration of dimethoate, both SOD and CAT activities showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing, and both of them were lower than those in the control group. And there was a positive correlation between the SOD or CAT activity and the mRNA expression levels of the corresponding gene. After HE staining and in vitro culture of the spermatogenic sac of the silkworm, the morphological structure of gonads in male and female larvae after treatment with dimethoate showed obvious change, with their morphology abnormal, intracellular vacuoles increased, and the number of germ cells reduced relatively. Besides, with the increase in the concentration of dimethoate, its damage to gonads became more serious. 【Conclusion】 The results of this study suggest that using leaves that have been soaked in dimethoate solution at a concentration below LD50 to feed the 5th instar larvae of B. mori have toxic effects on the development of gonads of B. mori, and this provides a basis for banning the use of dimethoate in the field and strengthening the regional management of agricultural production.
    Effects of parental body color and environmental factors on the body color, longevity and reproduction of Saccharosydne procerus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) adults
    YIN Hai-Chen, LI Jian-Hong, LIU Chao-Hua, WAN Peng
    2019, 62(10):  1197-1204.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.10.008
    Abstract ( 303 )   PDF (1365KB) ( 64 )   PDF(mobile) (1365KB) ( 20 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the effects of parental body color and environmental factors on the body color of F1 generation adults and the changes of the fecundity, mating rate and longevity of Saccharosydne procerus adults with different body colors in different environments. 【Methods】 The nymphs from S. procerus parents with different body colors (melanic and non-malanic) were subjected to treatments of different ambient temperature (30℃ and 22℃) and photoperiod (20L∶4D and 16L∶8D) combinations in the laboratory, and the melanism rate of adults was observed. The adults with different body colors were also subjected to treatments of these same temperature and photoperiod combinations, the changes in the body color, longevity, fecundity and mating rate of adults were recorded, and the contribution rates of different factors on these indicators were analyzed. 【Results】 The results showed that the variation range of melanism rate of S. procerus adults was 18.6%-60.8% when the nymphs from the parents with different body colors were subjected to treatments of the above temperature and photoperiod combinations in the laboratory. High temperature, long photophase in the nymphal stage and melanic parents significantly increased the proportion of melanic individuals in the offspring. The longevity of non-melanic individuals was significantly longer than that of melanic individuals under low temperature or short photophase conditions in the adult stage, while it was opposite under high temperature and long photophase conditions. The mating rate and fecundity of melanic individuals decreased with the decrease of temperature and photophase, while the mating rate and fecundity of non-melanogenic individuals were mainly affected by photoperiod. The statistical analysis showed that temperature had the highest contribution rate to the mating rate of S. procerus (39.1%), photoperiod had the highest contribution rate to the change of body color and fecundity of S. procerus (42.5% and 47.4%, respectively), and the interaction between body color and temperature had the highest contribution rate to the longevity of male and female adults (50.3% and 60.6%, respectively). 【Conclusion】 This study demonstrates that photoperiod in the nymphal stage has the most significant influence on the body color of S. procerus adults, changing their biological characteristics in certain extent and improving their adaptability to the environment.
    Analysis of nutritional components in plant leaves affecting the feeding, longevity and fecundity of Holotrichia parallela (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) adults
    XU Chang, WANG Zhe, ZHU Xiu-Lei, LU Xiu-Jun, ZHAO Dan, QI Guo-Hui, GUO Wei, LI Rui-Jun
    2019, 62(10):  1205-1211.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.10.009
    Abstract ( 405 )   PDF (1129KB) ( 100 )   PDF(mobile) (1129KB) ( 21 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to ascertain the relationship between the main nutritional components in plant leaves and the feeding preference of Holotrichia parallela adults, and to identify the main nutritional components affecting its adult feeding, longevity and fecundity. 【Methods】 The longevity, feeding amount and oviposition amount of H. parallela adults on five kinds of plants (Arachis hypogaea, Juglans regia, Ulmus pumila, Ligustrum vicaryi and Populus tomentosa) in the laboratory were determined, and the correlation between the contents of four main nutritional components (amino acid, fatty acid, crude fiber and total phosphorus) in plant leaves and the feeding amount, oviposition amount and longevity of H. parallela adults was analyzed. 【Results】 The daily average feeding amount of H. parallela adults on the leaves of five kinds of plants ranked in descending order as: A. hypogaea>J. regia>U. pumila>L. vicaryi>P. tomentosa. The total feeding amount and total oviposition amount per adult on J. regia, A. hypogaea and U. pumila leaves were significantly higher than those on L. vicaryi and P. tomentosa leaves (P<0.01). The total feeding amount of H. parallela adults showed significant correlation with the content of amino acids in plant leaves (P<0.05; r=0.515). Moreover, the total oviposition amount per female adult of H. parallela showed extremely significant correlation with the contents of fatty acids and amino acids in plant leaves (P<0.01)(r=0.698 and r=0.746, respectively). The correlations between the contents of essential amino acids in plant leaves and the feeding amount and oviposition amount of H. parallela adults were similar to those between the content of total amino acids in plant leaves and the feeding amount and oviposition amount of H. parallela adults. The total feeding amount of H. parallela adults showed the most significant correlation with the content of lysine in plant leaves, and the total oviposition amount per adult showed a correlation with the contents of essential amino acids in plant leaves. Adult longevity was not correlated with the contents of nutritional components of plant leaves. 【Conclusion】 The lysine content in the plant leaves is the key factor that affects the feeding preference of H. parallela adults, and the contents of essential amino acids and fatty acids in plant leaves further affect its fecundity.
    Morphology of female genitalia of tabanids in Hokkaido, Japan (Diptera: Tabanidae) (In English)
    Chao YANG, Hitoshi SASAK
    2019, 62(10):  1212-1227.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.10.010
    Abstract ( 465 )   PDF (22162KB) ( 52 )   PDF(mobile) (22162KB) ( 11 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to estimate and verify the roles of genitalia of tabanids in taxonomy with species from Hokkaido, Japan. 【Methods】 Samples of tabanid adults from Hokkaido soaked in physiological saline were dissected in petri dish by needle and tweezers under a binocular microscope and drawn. The morphological characteristics of the tergites 9 and 10, the cercus, sternite 8, the spermathecae, the spermathecal duct and the genital fork were observed and presented. 【Results】 In total 38 species of 3 subfamilies and 7 genera of tabanids have been recorded from Hokkaido. The main features of the female genitalia of 24 species of 3 subfamilies and 6 genera of tabanids in Hokkaido were observed and described here. There are the differences at the subfamily level. However, among genera, it is difficult to establish a way to determine the common points. Among species, similarities are seen only within the genus Chrysops. In other genera, the species are diversified. Consequently, for subfamily-level classification, the characteristics of tergite 9, sternite 8 and the spermathecae are enough for separation; while for genus and species-level classification, the combined characteristics of tergite 9, tergite 10, the cercus, sternite 8, the spermathecae, the spermathecal duct and the genital fork must be compared. Keys to female genitalia of tabanids are provided. 【Conclusion】 Genitalia is a critical characteristic to classification in Tabanidae as in many other insects, which is significant to facilitate the development of taxonomy and phylogenesis. This is the first systematic study on the female genitalia of the tabanids in Hokkaido.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Advances in Kashmir bee virus (KBV)
    WANG Shuai, LIN Zhe-Guang, CHEN Gong-Wen, DENG Jie, ZHENG Huo-Qing, HU Fu-Liang​
    2019, 62(10):  1228-1238.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.10.011
    Abstract ( 477 )   PDF (1462KB) ( 97 )   PDF(mobile) (1462KB) ( 36 )     
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     Kashmir bee virus (KBV), as an acute bee virus with high virulence, has been found to extensively infest Apis cerana and Apis mellifera around the world since it was isolated and identified in the 1970s. KBV spreads in honeybee colonies via both vertical and horizontal ways, and Varroa destructor plays an important role in this process, urging the continuous spreading of KBV’s distribution. In addition to honeybees, KBV can also infect bumblebees, wasps and other wild pollinators. Meanwhile, as a typical virus of Dicistroviridae, due to the high similarity in the molecular biology between KBV and acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) in the same family, chaos related to its epidemic investigation, detection, classification and other research also come one after another. Here, we reviewed the relevant studies of KBV over the last forty years, aiming to provide insights for further studying KBV and similar insect virus and to facilitate the healthy development of beekeeping.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 62 Issue 10
    2019, 62(10):  1239-1239.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.10.012
    Abstract ( 347 )   PDF (465KB) ( 18 )   PDF(mobile) (465KB) ( 4 )     
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