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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 September 2020, Volume 63 Issue 9
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Cloning of the β-glucosidase gene RpBg7 from Reticulitermes perilucifugus (Blattariae: Rhinotermitidae) and its expression in Pichia pastoris
    SU Li-Juan, XIAO Yuan-Xi, LI Yan, WU Zhi-Wei, ZHAO Peng-Fei, CHU Jun-Peng, WEI Ji-Zhen, AN Shi-Heng, YIN Xin-Ming, SONG An-Dong
    2020, 63(9):  1039-1047.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.09.001
    Abstract ( 542 )   PDF (9722KB) ( 110 )   PDF(mobile) (9722KB) ( 26 )     
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     【Aim】 Termites are the organisms with the high efficiency to use lignocellulose in nature, and are the natural resource reservoir of cellulases. This study aims to explore cellulase genes of new sources and to provide new natural enzymes for efficient utilization of biomass energy. 【Methods】 Based on the previous proteome analysis, the full-length cDNA sequence of β-glucosidase 7 gene (RpBg7) was cloned from Reticulitermes perilucifugus by using RCR and RACE technology, and the RpBg7 sequence was analyzed by bioinformatic software. The RpBg7 protein was expressed with expression vector pPICZαA in Pichia pastoris X-33, and the enzyme activity of the expressed RpBg7 protein was assayed with 4-nitrophenyl β-d-glucopyranoside (4pNPG) as the substrate. 【Results】 We obtained an endogenous β-glucosidase 7 gene, RpBg7 (GenBank accession no: MN944395), from R. perilucifugus. Its open reading frame is 1 485 bp in length, encoding 495 amino acids. The RpBg7 protein has the predicated molecular weight of 57 kD and belongs to glycoside hydrolase 1 (GH1) family with conservative basic amino acid residues Glu187 and Glu394. The RpBg7 protein was successfully expressed in the P. pastoris expression system. The enzyme activity assay results showed that the enzyme activity of RpBg7 in the crude solutions of extracellular secretion proteins and intracellular proteins of P. pastoris was 4.43 and 7.47 U/mL, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The β-glucosidase 7 gene of GH1 in R. perilucifugus was cloned and expressed in P. pastoris, providing conditions for the modification and application of cellulases afterwards.
    Cloning and functional characterization of eight odorant receptor genes in Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae)
    LI Bin, ZHANG Sai, WANG Chen-Rui, WANG Gui-Rong, LIU Yang
    2020, 63(9):  1048-1058.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.09.002
    Abstract ( 660 )   PDF (2347KB) ( 185 )   PDF(mobile) (2347KB) ( 77 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clone odorant receptor (OR) genes in Apolygus lucorum and to assay their expression levels in different adult tissues and their electrophysiological responses to host plant volatiles, so as to provide the theoretical basis for understanding the mechanism of host plant recognition in A. lucorum. 【Methods】 Based on the sequencing and analysis of the antennal transcriptome of A. lucorum, the full-length sequences of eight OR genes with intact ORF were cloned by PCR. The expression levels of these genes in different adult tissues (antenna, head without antenna, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing) were detected by using qPCR. The electrophysiological responses of these ORs to 56 odor compounds were tested in Xenopus oocytes as a heterologous expression system using two-electrode voltage clamp recording. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequences of 8 OR genes AlucOR9, AlucOR16, AlucOR38, AlucOR53, AlucOR55, AlucOR56, AlucOR57 and AlucOR58 (GenBank accession no.: MN905538-MN905545)of A. lucorum were cloned. These ORs contain seven transmembrane domains, with the intracellular N-terminus and extracellular C-terminus, consistent with the typical characteristics of insect ORs. The qPCR results showed that all the eight OR genes were highly expressed in adult antennae and lowly expressed in all the other tissues of A. lucorum. Moreover, the expression of the other seven OR genes except AlucOR38 in the antennae showed significant differences between male and female. The results of two-electrode voltage clamp recording showed that only AlucOR57 responded to 15 odor compounds [benzaldehyde, (-)-caryophyllene oxide, heptanal, (E)-2-hexenal, benzyl acetate, (1R)-(-)-myrtenal, 4-ethylbenzaldehyde, nonyl acetate, 3,7-dimethyl-3-octanol, tridecane, (E)-3-hexenol, butyl acrylate, butyl propionate, octyl acetate and amyl acetate], while the other seven ORs did not respond to all the odor compounds tested. 【Conclusion】 AlucOR57 responds to partial odor compounds tested, suggesting that it might be involved in the recognition of host plant volatiles in A. lucorum. The other seven ORs fail to respond to all the tested odor compounds, and their
    functions need further study.
    Identification and expression profiling of calcium-binding protein genes in Galeruca daurica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
    LI Shuang, LI Ling, ZHOU Xiao-Rong, PANG Bao-Ping, SHAN Yan-Min
    2020, 63(9):  1059-1069.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.09.003
    Abstract ( 427 )   PDF (3834KB) ( 129 )   PDF(mobile) (3834KB) ( 11 )     
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    【Aim】 Galeruca daurica is a new pest with great outbreaks in grasslands in Inner Mongolia in recent years. This study aims to clone the calcium-binding protein (CaBP) genes from G. daurica and to analyze their expression profiles at different developmental stages of the adults and under different temperatures, so as to lay a foundation for further study on their roles in the growth, development, and diapause of G. daurica. 【Methods】 The full-length ORFs of CaBP genes were cloned from G. daurica by RT-PCR according to the sequence information available in the transcriptome and proteome data of G. daurica, and their sequences were subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Their expression profiles in different day-old adults (3, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, 90 and 110 d after eclosion) and in the 3-day-old adults exposed to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35℃, respectively, for 1 h were detected by qPCR. 【Results】The cDNA sequences with complete ORFs of four CaBP genes were cloned from G. daurica, and named GdCaM, GdCAPSLGdTnCl and GdCRT (GenBank accession numbers: MN695412-695415), respectively. Their ORFs are 480, 648, 516 and 1 209 bp in length, encoding 149, 215, 171 and 402 amino acids, respectively, and only GdCRT has a signal peptide. Homologous sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that GdCaM, GdCAPSL, GdTnC and GdCRT have the highest amino acid sequence identity with CaM, CAPSL and TnCL of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and CRT of Leptinotarsa decemlineata, respectively (100.0%, 74.0%, 88.2% and 92.5%, respectively). The qPCR results showed that four CaBPs were differentially expressed in different day-old adults with diverse expression patterns. The expression level of GdCaM was relatively high in adults before diapause (3 d after eclosion), declined in adults beginning to enter diapause (7 d after eclosion), changed faintly during diapause (7-60 d after eclosion), and decreased further after diapause termination (90 d after eclosion). The expression levels of GdCAPSL maintained low in adults during the early diapause stage (10 d after eclosion), began to increase during the middle and late diapause stages (40 and 60 d after eclosion), and suddenly dropped to the lowest after diapause termination but abruptly rose to the highest 110 d after adult eclosion. The expression of GdTnCl was high in adults during the early diapause stage (15-20 d after eclosion), rapidly down-regulated to the lowest levels during the middle and late diapause stages (30-60 d after eclosion), up-regulated again after diapause termination, and suddenly down-regulated to the lowest level 110 d after adult eclosion. The expression levels of GdCRT in adults started to decrease gradually after diapause initiation, kept low during diapause maintenance (15-60 d after eclosion), and began to increase again after diapause termination. Temperature affected significantly the expression levels of the other three CaBP genes except for GdCRT in the 3-day-old adults. The expression levels of GdCaM rose with temperature declining when the temperature was below 20℃, but abruptly dropped at 0℃, while increased with temperature rising when temperature was above 20℃. The expression levels of GdCAPSL had an increasing tendency with temperature increasing, reached the highest at 25℃, and then declined. The expression 
    levels of GdTnCl had a decreasing tendency with temperature increasing. 【Conclusion】 CaBPs might play important roles in the growth, development, and regulation of summer diapause of G. daurica adults.
    Cloning and functional characterization of the peptidoglycan recognition protein gene BdPGRP-SB1 in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    ZHANG Ying-Xin, CHEN Dong, ZHANG Su-Yun, WEI Dong, WANG Jin-Jun
    2020, 63(9):  1070-1080.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.09.004
    Abstract ( 691 )   PDF (3634KB) ( 129 )   PDF(mobile) (3634KB) ( 32 )     
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    【Aim】 To explore the role of a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) gene, BdPGRP-SB1, in the immunity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA sequence of BdPGRP-SB1 of B. dorsalis was cloned by PCR. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence characteristics of this gene were analyzed using bioinformatics software. The relative expression levels of BdPGRP-SB1 in different developmental stages (egg, larva, pupa and adult) and tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, hindgut, fat body, ovary and testis) of the 5-day-old adult of B. dorsalis were analyzed by RT-qPCR. The expression levels of BdPGRP-SB1 in the 5-day-old female adults of B. dorsalis injected with the peptidoglycan PGN-EB from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 and PGN-SA from Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, were detected by RT-qPCR. After the expression of BdPGRP-SB1 was suppressed by RNAi, the mortality of female adults of B. dorsalis post injection of E. coli and S. aureus and the expression levels of three antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes including attacin-A, defensin and diptercin in female adults of B. dorsalis post infection ofi  E. colwere assayed. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequence of BdPGRP-SB1 (GenBank accession no.: MN892482) was successfully cloned, and its ORF is 558 bp in length, encoding a protein of 185 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 21.45 kD and a theoretical pI of 8.57. Sequence analysis indicated that BdPGRP-SB1 is a secreted protein with a signal peptide and a conserved PGRP domain but without transmembrane domain, and has the Zn2+-dependent amidase activity and the recognition sites of DAP-type peptidoglycan. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that BdPGRP-SB1 is the most closely related to PGRP-SB1 of B. latifrons, sharing 96% amino acid sequence identity. The developmental expression profile revealed that BdPGRP-SB1 was highly expressed in the 3-day-old larva and adult of B. dorsalis, and the tissue expression profile showed that it was expressed in various tissues of the 5-day-old adults, with the highest expression level in fat body. Both PGN-EB and PGN-SA induced the expression of BdPGRP-SB1 in female adults of B. dorsalis. After the suppression of BdPGRP-SB1 expression by RNAi, E. coli infection resulted in significantly higher mortality and significant up-regulation of attacin-A, defensin and diptercin in female adults of B. dorsalis. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that BdPGRP-SB1 is involved in the recognition of gram-negative bacteria and may participate in Imd pathway to regulate immune response in B. dorsalis.
    Effects of chlorogenic acid on the growth and development and detoxification-related protein activities in Hyphantria cunea(Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) larvae
    PAN Zhong-Yu, MO Xia-Na, MENG Xiang, CHEN Min
    2020, 63(9):  1081-1090.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.09.005
    Abstract ( 622 )   PDF (1959KB) ( 93 )   PDF(mobile) (1959KB) ( 19 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to unveil the effects of chlorogenic acid on the growth and development and detoxification-related protein activities in the larvae of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea. 【Methods】 H. cunea larvae were fed with the artificial diets containing different concentrations of chlorogenic acid (0, 0.125%, 0.250%, 0.500%, 1.000% and 2.000%), and the mortality rates of the 5th instar larvae in various groups within 6 d, the nutritional efficiency parameters of the 5th instar larvae in various groups at 48 h after feeding, the growth and development of the larvae (from the 3rd instar) in the 0.500% chlorogenic acid treated group, and the detoxification-related protein activities in the gut of the 5th instar larvae in various groups at 36 h after feeding were determined. 【Results】 The mortality rates of the 5th instar larvae of H. cunea in the chlorogenic acid treated groups in 6 d increased with the increase of the concentration of chlorogenic acid in the artificial diets, and were significantly higher than that in the control group (fed on the diet with 10% DMSO). Chlorogenic acid had significant influences on the nutritional efficiency of the 5th instar larvae of H. cunea. The relative consumption rate (RCR) and approximate digestibility (AD) in the chlorogenic acid treated groups were significantly higher than those in the control group, while the efficiency of conversation of digested food (ECD) in the chlorogenic acid treated groups, and the efficiency of conversation of ingested food (ECI) and relative growth rate (RGR) in the chlorogenic acid treated groups except the 0.125% chlorogenic acid treated group were significantly lower than those in the control. The 0.500% chlorogenic acid extended the duration of the 3rd-5th instar larvae by 28.24% (3.7 d) while shortened the duration of the mature larvae (6th-7th instar) by 8.97% (0.7 d). Moreover, the developmental parameters such as the larval survival rate, pupation rate, eclosion rate, female-to-male sex ratio and oviposition amount in the 0.500% chlorogenic acid treated group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Various concentrations of chlorogenic acid had significant influences on the activities of CYP450, GSTs, UGT and ABC transporters in the gut of the 5th instar larvae of H. cunea, but showed no significant effects on the CarE activity. 【Conclusion】 Chlorogenic acid can affect the survival rate, the food utilization efficiency and the growth and development of H. cunea larvae. H. cunea larvae may adapt chlorogenic acid in food by regulating food utilization efficiency and inducing the activities of metabolic detoxification-related proteins.
    Effects of juvenile hormone analogs on the growth and development, parasitism rate and activities of molting-related enzymes in Aphidius gifuensis (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae)
    BAI Jing-Jing, GU Gang, LAI Rong-Quan, ZHOU Ting, WU Xiao-Ting, CHEN Dan-Ming, SHU Jing
    2020, 63(9):  1091-1100.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.09.006
    Abstract ( 616 )   PDF (3165KB) ( 96 )   PDF(mobile) (3165KB) ( 11 )     
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    【Aim】 Myzus persicae is one of the most important tobacco pests. Aphidius gifuensis is a critical parasitoid for this pest. This study aims to screen out the optimal juvenile hormone analogs that can delay the emergence time of A. gifuensis and to solve the problems in the actual mass rearing process of aphid control, such as the inconsistency of emergence of A. gifuensis wasps and the insufficient quantity of A. gifuensis wasps. 【Methods】 The effects of five juvenile hormone analogs including S-hydroprene (ZR-512), kinoprene (ZR-777), methoprene (ZR-515), fenoxycarb [ethyl (2-(p-phenoxy) ethyl) carbamate] and juvenile hormone Ⅲ (2,6-nonadienoic acid) at different concentrations (5 000, 1 000, 200, 40 and 8 ng/μL) on the emergence rate, emergence time, proportion of female adults and parasitism rate were determined by liquid immersion method, the contents and activities of molting-related enzymes in A. gifuensis pupae treated with the five juvenile hormone analogs at the concentration of 1 000 ng/μL were measured by biochemical method, and the optimal analogs that can delay the emergence time of A. gifuensis were screened. 【Results】 Among the tested five juvenile hormone analogs at different concentrations, 200 ng/μL ZR-777 and 1 000 ng/μL ZR-512 significantly delayed the emergence time of A. gifuensis by 44.00 and 56.00 h, respectively, as compared to the control (treated with 10% acetone), and ZR-515 and fenoxycarb at different concentrations significantly reduced the emergence rate of A. gifuensis as compared to the control. Compared with the control group, the five juvenile hormone analogs at different concentrations showed no significant effect on the adult longevity of A. gifuensis, while 1 000 and 40 ng/μL ZR-777 reduced the proportion of female adults of A. gifuensisTreatments with 200 ng/μL ZR-777, 1 000 ng/μL ZR-512 and 5 000 ng/μL ZR-512 had no significant effect on the parasitism rate of A. gifuensis. The content and activity of phenoloxidase and the activity of chitinase in A. gifuensis pupae treated with ZR-512 were the lowest when the five juvenile hormone analogs were applied at the concentration of 1 000 ng/μL. 【Conclusion】 In practice, 1 000 ng/μL ZR-512 or 200 ng/μL ZR-777 can be used to deal with A. gifuensis, so as to delay its emergence time and to obtain its wasps in sufficient quantity and with good consistency. The results provide theoretical references for the mass rearing of A. gifuensis.
    Effects of parasitization by Aphidius gifuensis (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on the growth, development and reproduction of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    CHEN Dan-Ming, GU Gang, LAI Rong-Quan, ZHOU Ting, BAI Jing-Jing, CHEN Zhi-Hou, WU Xiao-Ting
    2020, 63(9):  1101-1107.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.09.007
    Abstract ( 466 )   PDF (2163KB) ( 105 )   PDF(mobile) (2163KB) ( 21 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the effects of parasitization by Aphidius gifuensis on the growth, development and reproduction of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, and its role in the control of this aphid. 【Methods】 After M. persicae at different developmental stages (the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar nymph and adult) were parasitized by A. gifuensis, the developmental duration, life span and litter size of the F0 and F1 generations of M. persicae were evaluated by breeding in Petri dish using tobacco leaves in the laboratory. 【Results】 After the 1st instar nymphs of M. persicae were parasitized by A. gifuensis, the developmental duration of the 1st instar nymph of M. persicae was significantly shortened by 0.65 d (33.00%) as compared with that of the unparasitized control, while the developmental duration of the 2nd instar nymph to adult of M. persicae was not significantly affected. After the 2nd instar nymphs of M. persicae were parasitized by A. gifuensis, the developmental duration of the 4th instar nymph and adult of M. persicae was significantly shortened by 1.50 d (100.00%) and 0.83 d (100.00%), respectively, as compared with that of the unparasitized control, while the developmental duration of the 2nd and 3rd instar nymphs of M. persicae was not significantly affected. After the 3rd instar nymphs of M. persicae were parasitized by A. gifuensis, the developmental duration of the 4th instar nymph and adult of M. persicae was significantly shortened by 1.50 d (100.00%) and 0.83 d (100.00%), respectively, as compared with that of the unparasitized control, while the developmental duration of the 3rd instar nymph of M. persicae was not significantly affected. After the 2nd instar nymphs of M. persicae were parasitized by A. gifuensis, their life span was significantly shortened by 8.39 d (54.00%) and the litter size per female was decreased by 48.67 individuals (100.00%), as compared with those of the unparasitized control. Additionally, after the 2nd and 3rd instar nymphs of M. persicae were parasitized by A. gifuensis, the developmental duration of the 1st instar nymph of M. persicae offspring (F1) was shortened by 0.80 d (40.00%), and this decrease was more significant for the 1st instar nymph of M. persicae offspring (F1) than for the other instar nymphs. The average life span of the parasitized M. persicae offspring (F1) significantly increased by 5.72 d (41.20%) as compared with that of the unparasitized aphid offspring, while their litter size was not significantly different from that of the control. 【Conclusion】 After M. persicae at different developmental stages were parasitized by A. gifuensis, the developmental duration and life span of M. persicae were significantly shortened, and its litter size was significantly decreased as compared with that of the unparasitized aphids. The average life span of the offspring (F1) of parasitized aphids was longer than that of the offspring of the unparasitized ones, while the litter size of the offspring of the parasitized and unparasitized aphids was not significantly different. The 2nd instar nymph of M. persicae is the key stage for controlling this aphid by A. gifuensis. These results provide important data for determining the optimal control time and understanding the underlying mechanism for the control of M. persicae by A. gifuensis.
    Effects of fluctuating temperature on the growth, development and reproduction of Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    ZHAO Chen-Yu, LI Xin-Chang, CUI Juan, GAO Yu, SHI Shu-Sen
    2020, 63(9):  1108-1116.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.09.008
    Abstract ( 504 )   PDF (1395KB) ( 485 )   PDF(mobile) (1395KB) ( 25 )     
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     【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the effects of fluctuating temperature on the growth, development and reproduction of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae, and to explore its adaptability to environmental temperature. 【Methods】 M. brassicae eggs were bred with soybean (Glycine max) leaves and observed under five gradient fluctuating temperature ranges 13-25℃ (daily average 19℃), 16-28℃ (daily average 22℃), 19-31℃ (daily average 25℃), 22-34℃ (daily average 28℃), and 25-37℃ (daily average 31℃) in the laboratory, and the developmental duration, developmental rate, fecundity, developmental threshold temperature and effective accumulated temperature of M. brassicae at various developmental stages were measured. 【Results】 The developmental duration of M. brassicae at the fluctuating temperature range 13-25℃ was the longest, and the generation time was 65.93 d, which was significantly longer than that at the other fluctuating temperature ranges. The duration of different developmental stages decreased as the temperature increased. The developmental duration at the fluctuating temperature range 22-34℃ was the shortest, and the generation time was 38.46 d, which was significantly shorter than that at other fluctuating temperature ranges. Under the fluctuating temperatures ranging from 25℃ to 37℃, the larvae could not normally complete the individual development. In the range of daily average temperature (T) of 19-28℃ (maximum temperature difference 12℃), the developmental rate of egg, larval and pupal stages were accelerated with increasing temperature, and the fitting equations of the developmental rate (V) of each developmental stage conformed to the linear model: Vegg=0.125+0.048T, Vlarva=0.023+0.012T, Vpupa=0.027+0.013T, Vadult=0.073+0.47T. The longevity of female and male adults decreased with temperature. The longevity of female and male adults at the fluctuating temperature range 13-25℃ was the longest, being 7.91 d and 8.00 d, respective, and that at the fluctuating temperature range 22-34℃ was the shortest, being  3.00 d and 3.57 d, respectively. The developmental threshold temperatures of egg, larva, pupa, and adult were 7.98, 6.54, 9.36, and 10.78℃, respectively, and the corresponding effective accumulated temperatures were 87.00, 607.36, 351.51, and 108.52 d·℃, respectively. The fluctuating temperature range 16-28℃ was more optimal for the development, survival and reproduction of M. brassicae, at which its population trend index I was 117.81. 【Conclusion】 M. brassicae is a low temperature adaptive pest and has a low ability to adapt to high temperature. The results provide a scientific basis for further studying the natural population occurrence law of M. brassicae and forecasting its occurrence period and degree.
    Phenotypic plasticity along altitudinal gradient affects the feeding efficiency and development of the parthenium beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)(In English)
    Daya Ram BHUSAL, Kishor Chandra GHIMIRE, Rekha UPADHYAY, Mahadev BISTA, Bhupendra KUMAR
    2020, 63(9):  1117-1124.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.09.009
    Abstract ( 539 )   PDF (1039KB) ( 79 )   PDF(mobile) (1039KB) ( 11 )     
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    【Aim】 The present study was designed to find out whether eco-climatic factors affect the morphometric parameters and basic biology of the progeny of the parthenium beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata adults inhabiting the Parthenium hysterophorus abundant regions of Nepal. 【Methods】 Z. bicolorata adults were collected from Kathmandu (24℃, 1 400 m above sea level, warm-temperate climate), Chitwan (25℃, 415 m above sea level, upper-tropical/sub-tropical climate) and Mahendranagar (34℃, 229 m above sea level, humid-subtropical climate) regions of Nepal, and the 4th instar larvae and adult females of the first generation (F1) per eco-climatic zone were assessed for their feeding attributes under optimal laboratory conditions. We hypothesized that rearing the progeny under ad libitum food and optimal abiotic conditions would nullify the indirect effect of food and temperature; and regardless of the eco-climatic regions to which parents belong, the progeny would utilize the food uniformly. 【Results】 We found that despite being reared under optimal conditions, the progeny of Z. bicolorata displayed body size pattern and feeding attributes similar to their parents. Offspring obtained from larger parents (Kathmandu) were large, but had lower food utilization efficiency than the progeny from smaller parents (Chitwan and Mahendranagar). Irrespective of the three eco-climatic regions, developing female adults were heavier and had reduced food utilization efficiency than the larvae. 【Conclusion】 Present findings suggest that immediate effect of food and optimal abiotic conditions may not affect the phenotypic plasticity of Z. bicolorata progeny, and the progeny display body size pattern and feeding attributes similar to the parents. Possibly the heritable changes might be owing to genetic diversity within the species. We anticipate that such findings may be utilized to understand phenotypic plasticity, distribution pattern and feeding behaviour of Z. bicolorata adults under changing climate scenario.
    Ultrastructure of the female reproductive system of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae)
    LIU Jia-Ning, QIN Dao-Zheng
    2020, 63(9):  1125-1135.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.09.010
    Abstract ( 614 )   PDF (1247KB) ( 134 )   PDF(mobile) (1247KB) ( 16 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the whole morphology and ultrastructure characteristics of the female reproductive system of the spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula, so as to provide more morphological evidence for the taxonomy and phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily Fulgoroidea. 【Methods】 The general morphology and ultrastructure of the reproductive system of female adult of L. delicutula were observed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope. 【Results】 The reproductive system of female adult of L. delicatula mainly includes one pair of ovaries, one common oviduct, one bursa copulatrix, one bursa copulatrix duct, one anterior vagina, one posterior vagina, one spermatheca, one ductus receptaculi and two spermathecal accessory glands. The ovary is telotrophic and consists of 14 ovarian tubules, the egg chamber is composed of tunica propria, follicular cells and oocytes, and trophoblasts in ovarioles are clearly visible. The common oviduct is located at the ventral part of the anterior vagina, and comprised of lumen, epithelial cells, muscle sheath and basement membrane. The bursa copulatrix is spherical, and the wall is composed of epithelial cells, muscle layer and basement membrane. The bursa copulatrix duct is cylindrical, connecting with bursa copulatrix and posterior vagina, and comprised of muscle sheath, epithelial cell and lumen. The ultrastructure of the anterior and posterior vagina is similar, mainly composed of muscle sheath, basement membrane, epithelial cells and lumen, but there are secretory granules around the nucleus of the posterior vagina epithelial cells and lots of microvilli in the lumen, while there are lots of vesicles in the anterior vagina wall. The ductus receptaculi extends from the end of common oviduct to spermatheca and consists of basement membrane, thick muscular sheath and lumen. The spermatheca is saclike and slightly enlarged at the proximal end of the ductus receptaculi, and composed of muscle sheath, basement membrane, epithelial cells and lumen. The female spermathecal accessory gland is located at the end of the spermatheca, and in the from of a uniform spiral tube mainly composed of muscle layer, epithelial cell layer and the central lumen of the accessory gland. 【Conclusion】 The reproductive system of female adult of L. delicutula is similar to those of the previously reported fulgoroid groups, but the number of ovarian tubules differs from those of other families. The morphological characteristics of female accessory glands and spermathecal gland differ among families in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha. The ultrastructure of L. delicatula is also somewhat different from that of the species in Cicadelloidea and Cercopoidea. Whether these differences can be used for the division of higher taxa of Auchenorrhyncha needs to be studied further.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Research progress in the molecular and neural mechanisms of sex pheromone reception in male Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    LIU Xiao-Lan, YIN Xin-Ming, WANG Gui-Rong, ZHAO Xin-Cheng
    2020, 63(9):  1136-1144.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.09.011
    Abstract ( 660 )   PDF (3820KB) ( 171 )   PDF(mobile) (3820KB) ( 32 )     
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    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, mainly relies on sex pheromone communication for mate orientation and reproduction. The mechanisms of pheromone reception in H. armigera are the hot topic in the field of chemical ecology in China. In this article, we reviewed the reception mechanism to female sex pheromone in male H. armigera, hoping to provide references for further investigation of the molecular and neural mechanisms of sex pheromone perception in H. armigera and other related insects. In the sex pheromone glands of female adult, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated fatty aldehydes, and alcohols were synthesized, among which Z11-16∶Ald was used as the main sex pheromone component, while Z9-16∶Ald and Z9-14∶Ald as the secondary sex pheromone components. The blends of these components at certain ratios show enhanced attraction to male H. armigera. Z11-16∶OH and a high-dose Z9-14∶Ald inhibit the attractiveness of pheromone blends to male H. armigera. Correspondingly, three types of trichoid sensilla, types A, B, and C, on the antennae of male H. armigera could detect these compounds. The receptor OR13 responding to Z11-16∶Ald is expressed in the type-A trichoid sensillum, OR14b responding to Z9-14∶Ald is expressed in the type-B trichoid sensillum, and OR6 and OR16 responding to Z9-16∶Ald, Z9-14∶Ald, and Z11-16∶OH are expressed in the type-C trichoid sensillum. The expression sites and functions of the receptors are consistent with the electrophysiological characteristics of different types of trichoid sensilla. In addition, the results of calcium imaging showed that three macroglomeruli tune to these odors, among which the glomerulus of cumulus tunes to Z11-16∶Ald, the posterior dorsomedial glomerulus to Z9-16∶Ald, and the anterior dorsomedial glomerulus to Z9-14∶Ald, Z11-16∶Ac and Z11-16∶OH. These results revealed the mechanisms of pheromone reception in male H. armigera at the levels of sensillum, receptor and central nervous system. Based upon these studies, we think it is necessary to make further studies on the following aspects: (1) further identifying the function and location of the related sex pheromone receptors; (2) further studying the processing and integration of sex pheromone information in high brain center; (3) clarifying the influences and mechanisms of such environmental factors as host plant, photoperiod, temperature and humidity on the sex pheromone perception in H. armigera.
    Review and prospects of accurate detection methods for wood defects caused by diseases and pests
    ZHOU Hong-Wei, JIANG Qin-Xiao, LIU Yang, ZHOU Hong-Ju, LI Xiao-Dong, MA Ling
    2020, 63(9):  1145-1152.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.09.012
    Abstract ( 531 )   PDF (4793KB) ( 133 )   PDF(mobile) (4793KB) ( 34 )     
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    China has a vast territory and abundant forest resources. With the invasion of alien insects, the outbreak rate of tree pests and diseases in China has increased year by year, causing a huge impact on China’s ecology and economy. However, monitoring of tree pests and diseases can only be carried out accurately after the outbreak of pests and diseases in some areas. If tree pests and diseases have not been discovered and treated in the early stages, they may cause an explosive and serious situation, and the prevention and control work will be in a passive situation. Therefore, it is particularly important to accurately detect internal defects of wood caused by diseases and pests. For earlier and more accurate predictions of tree pests and diseases, regular testing and monitoring are required. The early traditional methods such as visual inspection, percussion discrimination and anatomical observation have the disadvantages of low accuracy, poor timeliness and irreversible damage to trees. In recent years, modern detection methods have been developed, including the ultrasonic testing methods with good directivity and high energy, the lowcost, highly penetrating stress wave testing methods and the electromagnetic wave testing methods with accurate imaging suitable for different environments. Different detection methods have corresponding imaging algorithms, such as travel time method, frequency domain analysis method and Born approximation method. These imaging algorithms have advantages in resolution, accuracy, precision, and computational speed. By summarizing the development status of these three detection methods, understanding the advantages and disadvantages of various detection methods will help to better detect the pests and diseases of trees under different conditions, turning passive control after the outbreak of tree pests and diseases into active prevention before the outbreak of tree pests and diseases so as to make early response plans.
    SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
    Flight ability of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), fed on different host plants
    GONG Qiang, GONG Ya-Jun, CAO Li-Jun, ZHENG Xiao-Yu, PU De-Qiang, HUANG Qiong, WEI Shu-Jun
    2020, 63(9):  1153-1158.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.09.013
    Abstract ( 512 )   PDF (2772KB) ( 111 )   PDF(mobile) (2772KB) ( 34 )     
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    【Aim】 To evaluate the flight ability of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii, fed on different host plants, so as to provide basic data for its forecast and management. 【Methods】 The flight ability of female and male adults of C. sasakii fed on different host plants (crabapple, apple and apricot) was measured by using a flight mill device, and the average flight distance, average flight duration, average flight speed and maximum flight speed were compared between female and male adults fed on the same host plant and among individuals of the same sex fed on different host plants. 【Results】 The longest flight distance, the longest flight duration and the maximum flight speed of C. sasakii adults within 12h flight testing  were 24.54 km, ~12 h and 5.88 km/h, respectively. The highest proportion of individuals (36.98%) had a flight duration ranging between 11 and 12 h. The values of various flight parameters were higher in female adults than in male adults fed on the same host plant. There was significant difference in the average flight distance between female and male adults fed on apple and crabapple, and the average flight distance of female adults fed on apple was significuntly longer than that fed on apricot. The average flight speed and the maximum flight speed of female adults fed on apple were significantly higher than those fed on the other two hosts. However, the values of various flight parameters of male adults fed on different host plants showed no significant difference. 【Conclusion】 C. sasakii adults have a relatively strong flight ability, and exhibit different flight abilities between female and males fed on the same host plant and among female individuals fed on different host plants.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 63 Issue 9
    2020, 63(9):  1159-1159. 
    Abstract ( 291 )   PDF (477KB) ( 29 )   PDF(mobile) (477KB) ( 11 )     
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