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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 October 2020, Volume 63 Issue 10
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Analysis of the antennal transcriptome and olfaction-related genes of Agrilus zanthoxylumi (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)
    GONG Xue-Fang, XIE Shou-An, YANG Ping, GUO Li, CHEN Di, CHE Xian-Rong, WANG Yan-Lai, LÜ Shu-Jie
    2020, 63(10):  1159-1170.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.001
    Abstract ( 702 )   PDF (5538KB) ( 274 )   PDF(mobile) (5538KB) ( 62 )     
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    【Aim】 To establish the antennal transcriptome database of Agrilus zanthoxylumi adult and to explore target genes related to olfaction, so as to provide the theoretical basis for the future study of the chemosensory mechanism of its antenna and its biological control. 【Methods】 High-throughput sequencing platform Illumina NovaSeq 6000 was used for transcriptome sequencing of the antennae of female and male adults of A. zanthoxylumiTrinity software was used for sequence splicing and assembly of the high-quality reads obtained. BLAST software was used to compare the antennal transcriptome data with public databases NR, NT, Swiss-Prot, GO, KEGG, BLASTX, eggNOG, Pfam, TmHMM, SignalP, KO, Map, BLASTP and RNAMMER. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using MEGA software based on the nucleotide sequences of the preliminarily screened candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of A.zanthoxylumi, and homologous proteins from other coleopteran insects. The RPKM (reads per kilobase per million mapped reads) value was used to evaluate the expression levels of olfaction-related genes. 【Results】 By sequencing of the antennal transcriptome of female and male adults of A. zanthoxylumi, a total of 36 209 unigenes and 90 982 transcripts were obtained with the N50 of 2 103 and 2 523 bp, respectively, indicating the high completeness of assembly. Most unigenes (41.62%) were annotated to the NR database, with the highest proportion (19%) of genes similar to those of Tribolium castaneum. In the GO database, 11 614 unigenes were annotated and divided into 57 branches of three functional categories, cellular component, molecular function and biological process, among which binding (70.57%) and catalytic activity (45.51%) related unigenes in the category of molecular function were the most. The KEGG metabolic pathway analysis indicated that 7 427 unigenes are involved in five categories of metabolic pathways, with the most unigenes (815) involved in signal transduction. Seven candidate OBP genes and 5 CSP genes with full-length open reading frame were screened, and their encoded proteins have the typical characteristics of chemosensory protein family. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the OBPs and CSPs of A. zanthoxylumi have the highest sequence identity with the OBPs and CSPs of A. mali, respectively. The RPKM values showed that AzanOBP1 and AzanOBP2 were not expressed in the antennae of female adults, but slightly expressed in the antennae of male adults, and AzanOBP3 was expressed with high abundance in the antennae of male adults. 【Conclusion】 For the first time, the antennal transcriptome data of A. zanthoxylumi were obtained, and the olfaction-related OBP, CSP, OR, IR and SNMP genes of A. zanthoxylumi were screened. It is speculated that OBPs expressed with high abundance in the antennae play a key role in identifying pheromones released by female adults of the same species or the volatiles released by host plants. The results can lay a molecular basis for further studying the functions of chemosensory genes and olfactory sensitivity mechanism of A. zanthoxylumi.
    Analysis of gene co-expression patterns in different tissues of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
    LIU Jie, LI Bo, CHEN Xiao-Jie, CHEN Bin
    2020, 63(10):  1171-1182.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.002
    Abstract ( 589 )   PDF (2524KB) ( 162 )   PDF(mobile) (2524KB) ( 28 )     
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    【Aim】 To explore the co-expression patterns of genes in different tissues of Aedes aegypti by using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). 【Methods】 Paired sequencing data of representative nine adult tissues (antenna and brain of female and male, proboscis, maxillary palp and ovary of female, and foreleg, midleg, hindleg and abdominal tip of male) were selected from the transcriptome data of different tissues of A. aegypti in the NCBI SRA database. After removing missing values and calculating variance, 5 000 genes with the highest variance were chosen, and the WGCNA package in R software was used to establish the gene co-expression networks in different adult tissues of A. aegypti and divide modules. Then the clusterProfiler package was used to conduct GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) enrichment analysis of the genes in the tissue-specific modules, and CytoHubba plug-in in Cytoscape software was adopted to screen the hub genes in co-expression modules. 【Results】 A total of 11 gene co-expression modules in different adult tissues of A. aegypti were identified, and one specific expression module was identified in every tissue of the antenna, proboscis, ovary and maxillary palp of female adult, and the brain and abdominal tip of male adult. There was no specific expression module in tissues of the foreleg, midleg and hindleg of male adults. Genes in six tissue-specific expression modules were annotated to biological functions of the corresponding tissues. Among them, genes in the female antenna specific green module have functions such as odor binding and olfactory receptor activity. Genes in the female proboscis specific purple module have functions such as serine-type endopeptidase activity and serine hydrolase activity. Genes in the male brain specific blue module play a major role in regulation of biological process, signal transduction, and nervous system processes. The hub genes with high connectivity in selected tissue-specific modules, including AAEL010426, AAEL002896, AAEL002600, AAEL000961, AAEL007784 and AAEL006429, were identified by using CytoHubba. 【Conclusion】 In this study, based on the transcriptome data of different tissues of A. aegypti we discovered many important co-expressed gene modules by using the WGCNA method. The results provide new ideas and a method basis for the analysis of mosquito gene co-expression patterns and have reference value for exploring the unique gene resource information and bioinformatical studies of functional genes in different tissues of mosquitoes.
    Effects of tefluthrin and deltamethrin on gut microbiota in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    JIANG Xiao-Wei, GUAN Dan-Yang, LI Qing-Ya, LIU Xiao, Hongmei LI-BYARLAY, HE Bing-Jun
    2020, 63(10):  1183-1193.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.003
    Abstract ( 566 )   PDF (6544KB) ( 183 )   PDF(mobile) (6544KB) ( 29 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to address the effects of pyrethroid insecticides on the structure and metabolism of larval gut microbiota of Helicoverpa armigera and to enrich the knowledge about the action mechanisms of pesticides. 【Methods】 The 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of H. armigera were fed with the normal artificial diet (control group, SS) and diets containing 2% tefluthrin (type I pyrethroid) powder (tefluthrin treatment group, Te) and 2.5% deltamethrin (type II pyrethroid) emulsifiable concentrate (deltamethrin treatment group, DM), respectively, and then the genomic DNA of gut bacteria of the 3rd instar larvae was extracted. Then the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA of gut bacteria was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq of the 2nd generation high-throughput sequencing technology to analyze the diversity and abundance of gut bacteria, and qPCR was performed to verify the 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis results. In addition, the gut samples of the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of H. armigera were milled for Biolog-Eco experiment to analyze the metabolism of 31 carbon sources by gut bacteria on the Eco plate. 【Results】 Sequencing results of 16S rDNA showed that the gut bacteria of the 3rd instar larvae of H. armigera were mainly composed of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria. Compared with the control group, the α-diversity index of the larval gut bacteria in the deltamethrin and tefluthrin treatment groups did not change significantly, but the community structure of bacteria changed. At the phylum level, the relative abundance of Bacteroides in the deltamethrin and tefluthrin treatment groups decreased as compared with that in the control group, while that of Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria increased. qPCR verification results supported the above 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis results. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Pseudomonas was reduced, and that of Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Escherichia-Shigella, and Halomonas increased, especially Halomonas with significant increase. Biolog-Eco results showed that the metabolic capacity of carboxylic acid carbon sources in the 2nd instar larvae in the deltamethrin treatment group and the metabolic capacity of DL-alpha-glycerophosphate, hepatose, and L-phenylalanine in the 3rd instar larvae in the tefluthrin and deltamethrin treatment groups decreased as compared with those in the control group. 【Conclusion】 The results indicate that pyrethroid insecticides have notable effects on the structure and metabolic capacity of larval gut microbiota of H. armigera. Pyrethroid insecticides reduce the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria but increase the relative abundance of pathogenic bacteria in the gut of H. armigera. Short-term pyrethroid treatment does not result in the increased abundance of resistant bacteria. The qPCR results are similar to the 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis results. Type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ pyrethroids exhibit different effects on the structure and metabolic functions of gut bacteria of H. armigera.
    Pathogenicity and field efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae strain MaFZ-13 against Milionia basalis (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) larvae 
    ZHENG Hong
    2020, 63(10):  1194-1200.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.004
    Abstract ( 437 )   PDF (3288KB) ( 94 )   PDF(mobile) (3288KB) ( 26 )     
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     【Aim】 Milionia basalis is an insect pest causing serious damage to buddhist pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus) and broadleaf podocarpus (Podocarpus nagi) in southern China in recent years, and spreads rapidly, causing huge loss. This study aims to search new biocontrol agent for this pest by evaluating the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae strain MaFZ-13 against M. basalis larvae. 【Methods】 M. basalis larvae were inoculated with different concentrations (1.0×105-1.0×109 conidia/mL) of spore suspension of M. anisopliae strain MaFZ-13, and then the bioassay data were analyzed using time-dose-mortality (TDM) model. In the meantime, the field control efficacy against this pest was also tested by spraying the spore suspension of M. anisopliae strain MaFZ-13 at the concentration of 1.0×108 conidia/mL. 【Results】 The cumulative mortality of M. basalis larvae increased with the spore concentration of M. anisopliae strain MaFZ-13 spore suspension and inoculation time. The cumulative mortality of M. basalis larvae reached 100% at 8 d after inoculation with the spore suspension at the concentration of 1.0×109 conidia/mL and 10 d after inoculation with the spore suspension at the concentration of 1.0×108 conidia/mL, respectively. When inoculated with the spore suspension at the concentration of 1.0×107 conidia/mL, 95.6% larvae died at 15 d after inoculation. The data analysis using TDM model revealed that the constructed model fitted the data well as shown by Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test, and the values of lethal dose and lethal time of this fungal strain against M. basalis larvae were estimated with the model. The logarithm values of the estimated LC50 values of M. anisopliae strain MaFZ-13 against M. basalis larvae were 7.99, 7.12, 6.46 and 5.83, respectively, at 4, 5, 6 and 7 d after inoculation. When inoculated with M. anisopliae suspension at the concentrations of 1.0×107, 1.0×108 and 1.0×109 spores/mL, the median lethal time (LT50) values of M. anisopliae strain MaFZ-13 against M. basalis larvae were 5.19, 3.99 and 2.81 d, respectively. The spore suspension of M. anisopliae strain MaFZ-13 at the concentration of 1.0×108 conidia/mL caused 85.8% mortality of M. basalis larvae in the field at 9 d after spraying, with the control efficacy of 85.05%. 【Conclusion】 M. anisopliae strain MaFZ-13 has high pathogenicity and field efficacy against M. basalis larvae, with high potential application value.
    Expression of Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac fusion protein in the transgenic cry1Ab/cry1Ac maize and its control efficacy against the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the laboratory
    LIU Xiao-Bei, BAI Shu-Xiong, WANG Zhen-Ying, WANG Yue-Qin, WANG Qin-Ying, HE Kang-Lai
    2020, 63(10):  1201-1206.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.005
    Abstract ( 559 )   PDF (1046KB) ( 85 )   PDF(mobile) (1046KB) ( 6 )     
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    【Aim】 Evaluating the efficacy of transgenic Bt maize for resistance to target insect in the laboratory is a key part of the research and development and the environmental safety assessment of insect resistant transgenic maize. 【Methods】 The expression levels of Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac fusion protein in fresh whorl leaves of transgenic cry1Ab/cry1Ac maize ZZM030 were quantified by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The survival rates of neonates of the susceptible strain (ACB-BtS), Cry1Ab-resistant strain (ACB-AbR) and Cry1Ac-resistant strain (ACB-AcR) of the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, fed on whorl leaves of the transgenic maize ZZM030 and non-transgenic maize X249 were determined by using laboratory bioassays. 【Results】 The expression levels of Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac fusion protein in the whorl leaves of the transgenic maize ZZM030 at the 4-leaf stage and 8-leaf stage were 10.62 and 2.94 μg/g FW, respectively. The survival rates of ACB-BtS neonates fed on whorl leaves of the transgenic maize ZZM030 for 2 d and more than 4 d were only 23.6% and 0, respectively, while the survival rate of ACB-BtS neonates fed on the non-Bt control maize X249 for 4 d was 93.1%. The survival rates of ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR neonates fed on whorl leaves of the transgenic maize ZZM030 for 6 d were 11.1% and 12.5%, respectively, whereas those fed on whorl leaves of non-Bt maize X249 for 6 d were 81.9% and 77.8%, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The highly expressed Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac fusion protein in transgenic cry1Ab/cry1Ac maize ZZM030 has an excellent control efficacy against ACB neonates.
    EPG-based comparison of feeding behaviors of three piercing-sucking pests on apple seedlings
    ZHOU Hao, LI Yu, TENG Zi-Wen, DU Ling-Jun, WAN Fang-Hao, ZHOU Hong-Xu
    2020, 63(10):  1207-1214.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.006
    Abstract ( 569 )   PDF (1407KB) ( 90 )   PDF(mobile) (1407KB) ( 19 )     
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    【Aim】 Eriosoma lanigerum, Aphis citricola and Stephanitis nashi are important insect pests in apple orchards, and cause different degrees of damages to apple trees by piercing-sucking mouthparts. This study aims to explore the differences of feeding behaviors of the three piercing-sucking insects on apple tree. 【Methods】 The EPG parameters of E. lanigerum and A. citricola  adults in the phloem and non-phloem of apple seedlings and the feeding behaviors of E. lanigerum, A.citricola and S. nashi adults on apple seedlings were compared by using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. At the same time, the proportions of the average duration of various waveforms of the adults of the three pests feeding on apple seedlings for 8 h were also analyzed. 【Results】 There are six types of sucking waveforms produced by E. lanigerum and A. citricola adults on apple seedlings, i.e., the non-penetration (np) wave, stylet pathway phase wave (C), intracellular feeding wave (pd), xylem feeding wave (G), release of saliva into the phloem wave (E1) and ingestion from phloem wave (E2), while there are four types of sucking waveforms produced by S. nashi adults, i.e., the non-penetration (np) wave, surface piercing wave (A), mesophyll cell feeding wave (Gc), and xylem feeding wave (E). According to the EPG parameters of aphids in the non-phloem of apple seedlings, the average duration of pd wave of E. lanigerum adults was significantly longer than that of A. citricola adults, but the count of probes, total time of np wave and count of pd waves of E. lanigerum adults were significantly lower than those of A. citricola adults. According to the EPG parameters of aphids in the phloem of apple seedlings, there was no significant difference in every parameter except the time from the first probe to the first E2. According to the proportions of duration of various waveforms of three pests feeding on apple seedlings, the proportion of the total time of np waves of S. nashi adults was the highest (53%), followed by that of A. citricola adults (24%), and that of E. lanigerum adults was the lowest (1%). At the same time, the feeding waves of E. lanigerum and A. citricola adults were E2 waves, which accounted for 35% and 25% of the total time, respectively, while those of S. nashi adults were Gc wave (accounting for 36% of the total time) and E wave (accounting for 11% of the total time).【Conclusion】 This study illustrates the mechanisms of niche separation and feeding behavior of pests with piercing-sucking mouthparts in apple orchards, providing a theoretical basis for the comprehensive management of pests with piercing-sucking mouthparts in orchards.
    Effects of microwave irradiation on the growth, development and reproduction of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae(Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    ZHANG Xuan, YI Peng, CHU Ping-Fu, YUAN Xiang-Qun, ZHAN En-Ling, LENG Chun-Meng, LI Yin, HU Di, LI Yi-Ping
    2020, 63(10):  1215-1222.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.007
    Abstract ( 556 )   PDF (1748KB) ( 101 )   PDF(mobile) (1748KB) ( 23 )     
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     【Aim】 This study aims to screen out the safe microwave frequencies and irradiation duration that have a lethal effect on the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, so as to provide references for exploring new physical prevention technology for aphids to make up for deficiencies in chemical control. 【Methods】 The 1-day-old apterous adults of M. persicae were subjected to microwave irradiation at four different frequencies (1 375, 2 750, 5 500, and 11 000 MHz) for different duration (15, 30, 60, and 120 s) in a dark box. Then, they were reared in an artificial climate cabinet, and their growth, development, and reproduction were observed at 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post irradiation, the mortality, the fertility (cumulative aphid yield), and the rate of alate progeny were counted and analzyed. 【Results】 Microwave irradiation at the four different frequencies for different duration had varying effects on the mortality rate and reproduction of the 1-day-old apterous adults of M. persicae, and the wing morph differentiation of their progeny. At 72 h post irradiation, the microwave irradiation at a frequency of 5 500 MHz for 15 s had the strongest lethal effect on the 1-day-old apterous adults of M. persicaecausing a mortality rate of 55.00%, and the microwave irradiation at this frequency for 30 and 120 s inhibited the differentiation of the progeny to alate aphids. The microwave irradiation at a frequency of 2 750 MHz for 30 and 60 s promoted the reproduction of the 1-day-old apterous adults of M. persicae, the apterous aphids had the strongest fertility when subjected to microwave irradiation at this frequency for 30 s, but their reproduction was inhibited when subjected to microwave irradiation at this frequency for 15 and 120 s. In addition, the microwave irradiation at 2 750 MHz for 30 s inhibited the differentiation of the progeny of M. persicae to alate aphids. 【Conclusion】 Microwave irradiation can affect the survival and reproduction of the 1-day-old apterous adults of M. persicae and the wing morph differentiation of the irprogeny. The microwave frequency and irradiation duration that have a lethal effect on the 1-day-old apterous adults of M. persicae have been preliminarily screened out in this study.
    Biological characteristics of the solanum mealybug, Phenacoccus solani (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), on seven succulent plants
    PAN Ying-Jia, CUI Xu-Hong, SHAO Yin, SHANG Han-Wu
    2020, 63(10):  1223-1233.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.008
    Abstract ( 583 )   PDF (1659KB) ( 71 )   PDF(mobile) (1659KB) ( 19 )     
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    【Aim】 The solanum mealybug, Phenacoccus solani (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is an important invasive insect pest on succulent plants newly discovered and recorded in China in recent years. This study aims to ascertain the differences in the survival and reproduction of P. solani on different succulents and its potential damage in China. 【Methods】 Seven representative succulents of seven genera of Aizoaceae, Crassulaceae, Liliaceae, and Portulacaceae, including Sempervivum tecrum, Aeonium arboreum, Cotyledon tomentosa, Graptopetalum paraguayuense, Lithops pseudotruncatella, Anacampseros telephiastrum and Haworthia cooperi var. truncata, were chosen as host plants to cultivate P. solani in an environmental chamber (25±1℃, RH 70%±5%, and photoperiod 14L∶10D). We observed and recorded the biological characteristics of P. solani on these host plants, built the experimental population life table, and surveyed its occurrence in the succulent plant production greenhouses in Hangzhou, Jiaxing, Huzhou and Jinhua cities of Zhejiang Province, eastern China. 【Results】 P. solani could not complete the growth and development on A. telephiastrum and H. cooperi var. truncata, but could complete the whole life cycle on the other five succulents. The 1st and 2nd instar nymphs of P. solani had high mortality rates, but almost all the nymphs after the 3rd instar could develop into adults and reproduce. P. solani fed on A. arboretum and G. paraguayuense had the lowest mortality rate, the highest oviposition amount and the highest egg hatching rate of F1 generation. In contrast, P. solani on C. tomentosa and L. pseudotruncatella had the highest mortality rate and the lowest oviposition amount and egg hatching rate of F1 generation. With respect to the life table parameters, the net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase of P. solani on A. arboretum and G. paraguayuense were the highest, and the population doubling time on the two succulent plants was the shortest. However, the net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase of P. solani on L. pseudotruncatella and C. tomentosa were the lowest, but the population doubling time on the two succulent plants was the longest. Greenhouse survey revealed that P. solani had different levels of occurrence on 87 succulent species of 24 genera of 5 families (Crassulaceae, Aizoaceae, Cactaceae, Liliaceae and Portulacaceae). 【Conclusion】 Among the seven succulent plants tested, A. arboretum and G. paraguayuense are the most suitable plants for the growth, development and reproduction of P. solani, followed by S. tecrum. The 1st and 2nd instar nymphs are the key stages for control of P. solani. This insect can feed on various succulent species and be transferred widely, easily resulting in its spread and outbreak. So it is necessary to attach great importance to its potential risks in the introduction and cultivation of succulents.
    Evaluation of the reproductive potential of Clania variegata(Lepidoptera: Psychidae), an serious garden defoliator, on four host plants(In English)
    CHEN Qi, WANG Rui, WEI Ya-Juan, LIU Jian-Jun
    2020, 63(10):  1234-1241.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.009
    Abstract ( 477 )   PDF (1450KB) ( 52 )   PDF(mobile) (1450KB) ( 5 )     
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    【Aim】 Clania variegata (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) is a major defoliating pest on several tree species worldwide. In order to control this pest through wise arrangement of plant species in gardens and parks, we evaluated the reproductive potential of C. variegata on four host plants (Platanus acerifolia, Osmanthus fragrans, Albizia julibrissin and Amygdalus persica). 【Methods】 The duration of egg, larval and pupal stages, survival rate, adult longevity, oviposition period of female adult and daily number of eggs laid per female of C. variegata on P. acerifolia, O. fragrans, A. julibrissin, and A. persica were recorded in a natural open environment, in Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, from July 15, 2018 to June 21, 2019. The data of developmental duration, survival rate, adult longevity, and female fecundity were analyzed by the age-stage, two-sex life table theory, using TWOSEX-MSChart software. 【Results】 The developmental duration and adult longevity of C. variegata were significantly affected by the host plant species. The duration of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th larval instars of C. variegata on O. fragrans was significantly longer than that on the other host plants. C. variegata adult females exhibited significantly greater longevity on A. persica (11.47 d) than on O. fragrans (10.26 d). The oviposition period of C. variegata on O. fragrans (7.04 d) was significantly shorter than those on P. acerifolia (7.52 d), A. julibrissin (7.59 d), and A. persica (8.11 d). The net reproductive rate (R0) of C. variegata on P. acerifolia (2 015.70 eggs) was significantly higher than those on O. fragrans (1 419.12 eggs), A. persica (1 289.66 eggs), and A. julibrissin (976.67 eggs). The intrinsic rate of increase (r) of C. variegata on P. acerifolia (0.02523/d) was significantly greater than those on O. fragrans (0.02377/d), A. julibrissin (0.02304/d), and A. persica (0.02194/d). 【Conclusion】 The reproductive potential of C. variegata on P. acerifolia was significantly greater than those on O. fragrans, A. julibrissin, and A. persica. Alternate planting of O. fragrans, A. julibrissin, and A. persica might help reduce the damage of C. variegata to non-preferable plants.
    Effects of landscape pattern around tea plantation on the population genetic structure of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)
    LI Jin-Yu, NIU Dong-Sheng, CHEN Jie, YOU Shi-Jun, YOU Min-Sheng
    2020, 63(10):  1242-1259.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.010
    Abstract ( 448 )   PDF (8005KB) ( 122 )   PDF(mobile) (8005KB) ( 25 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to analyze the patterns of genetic differentiation and gene flow among different populations of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii, in different tea plantations, and to investigate the genetic structure difference and dispersion characteristics of E. onukii populations and their relationship with the landscape pattern around tea plantation. 【Methods】 A total of 530 E. onukii samples were collected from 18 tea plantations in Anxi County, Fujian Province, southeastern China. ArcMap 10.5 and raster of R package were used to analyze the landscape composition and configuration around each studied tea plantation. E. onukii samples were then individually amplified and individually genotyped at 23 microsatellite loci. The genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of E. onukii populations were measured using ARLEQUIN 3.5.2, FSTAT 2.9.3 and R package adegenet 2.0.0. Population genetic differentiation was analyzed using both STRUCTURE 2.3.4 and DAPC in R package adegenet 2.0.0. BAYESASS 3.0.4 was used to estimate the dispersal rates over the last few generations among populations. Meanwhile the correlation between the genetic differentiation of E. onukii populations and the spatial data of landscape composition and landscape configuration was analyzed by using Mantel tests, multiple regression on distance matrices (MRM) and generalized linear mixed models (GLMM). 【Results】 All the 23 microsatellite loci in 18 E. onukii populations were polymorphic, with alleles varying from 9 to 52, the allelic richness (AR) from 3.686 to 4.397, the gene diversity (DIV) from 0.676 to 0.734, and the expected heterozygosity (Hefrom 0.659 to 0.729. Cluster analysis showed that the populations of five sampling sites from the tea plantations surrounded by woodland habitats in the northwestern Anxi clustered into one distinct cluster, the populations of five sampling sites from the tea plantations surrounded by residential areas and croplands in the northeastern Anxi formed two separate clusters, and the populations of sampling sites from the intensified tea plantations in the southern Anxi formed two clusters. The Nei’s distance between two populations ranged from 0.042 to 0.984, Provesti’s genetic distance from 0.207 to 0.650, and the pairwise FST value from 0.002 to 0.222. BAYESASS analysis showed fairly low gene flow (Nm)(0.007-0.180) among populations, and the gene flow within population ranged from 0.674 to 0.854. The Mantel tests and MRM model demonstrated that geographical distance and the area percentage of grassland in the circular sector of 1 000 m radius around sampling site were two key factors in shaping genetic patterns of E. onukii populations. GLMM further confirmed a significant linear relationship between the genetic differentiation of E. onukii populations and these two key factors, and also between genetic diversity of E. onukii populations and the area percentage of grassland in the circular sector of 1 000 m radius around sampling site.【Conclusion】 The results provide direct evidence for significant population genetic differentiation and isolation by distance in E. onukii, and suggest that limited recent gene flow has occurred among populations sampled from different sites. These findings support the idea that E. onukii may have limited dispersal capacity and is unlikely to naturally undergo long-distance migration. The grassland habitat adjacent to tea plantation at the spatial scale of 1 000 m has positive effects on the genetic diversity of E. onukii populations. The landscape composition and scale around tea plantations may be related to the genetic structure of E. onukii by affecting the dispersal and colonization of E. onukii populations.
    Microsatellite DNA analysis of the genetic diversity of Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) populations at different altitudes in Longshan, Hunan, central China
    XU Hao, CHEN Xiao-Mei, LIN Zhe-Guang, JI Ting
    2020, 63(10):  1260-1267.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.011
    Abstract ( 503 )   PDF (1281KB) ( 95 )   PDF(mobile) (1281KB) ( 7 )     
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    【Aim】 To analyze the genetic diversity of Apis cerana cerana populations in Longshan, Hunan, central China by using 11 pairs of microsatellite markers, so as to evaluate the genetic variation within the population and genetic differentiation between populations. 【Methods】 A total of 60 colonies of A. c. cerana were collected from Longshan County, Hunan Province at different altitudes (1 080 and 665 m). Ten to twenty adult worker bees were randomly collected from each colony, of which one individual was randomly selected to extract DNA as a template, and PCR was performed using 11 pairs of microsatellite primers. Based on PCR amplification products, the dominant allele frequency (Pi), expected heterozygosity (He) and polymorphism information content (PIC) of each locus in the high altitude population (G) and the low altitude population (D) were calculated by Microsatellite-Toolkit software. The inbreeding coefficient (Fis) within population was calculated according to the FSTAT program. The significance of differences in Pi, He, PIC and Fis between the two populations (G and D) was analyzed by using SPSS 25.0 software. 【Results】 The Pi analysis indicated that both the high altitude (G) and low altitude (D) populations of A. c. cerana in Longshan County, Hunan Province had high genetic diversity. The average values of He, PIC and Fis in the high altitude population (G) were 0.593, 0.556 and 0.121, respectively, which were slightly lower than those of the low altitude population (D) (0.631, 0.587 and 0.187, respectively). There was no significant difference in Pi, He, PIC and Fis between the high and low altitude populations (PPi=0.721>0.05, PHe=0.759>0.05, PPIC=0.802>0.05, PFis=0.767>0.05). 【Conclusion】 A. c. cerana populations from high and low altitudes in Longshan County in Wuling Mountain area have high genetic diversity, but the degree of genetic differentiation is not high, suggesting that the altitude factor may not directly affect the population genetic diversity of A. c. cerana.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Research progress in pigmentation and the formation mechanisms of black stripes and spots on the body in insects
    GAO Yun, LIANG Yan-Ting, LIU Yi-Qin, XU Yu-Song, WANG Hua-Bing
    2020, 63(10):  1268-1275.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.012
    Abstract ( 1006 )   PDF (3193KB) ( 226 )   PDF(mobile) (3193KB) ( 49 )     
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     Insects are constantly attacked by predators and exhibit adaptive traits for defense against predators during their growth and development. One of the defense strategies is an adaptive stripe pattern. The various coloration patterns of insects represent warning signals or mimic host plants to escape detection by predators and hasten avoidance learning. Furthermore, insect pigmentation patterns play important roles in such processes as mate preference, geographical adaptation, thermoregulation, and ultraviolet resistance. Thus, multifarious pigmentation patterns are highly researched. Lepidopteran insects include multiple species that are widely distributed. The adaptive stripe pattern is often observed in lepidopteran insects; thus, its biological roles are more evident than those in other insects. Recent research suggests that pigmentary color and schemochrome are the main determinants of insect color patterns, and ommochromes, melanin, and peridines significantly influence visual color patterns. In addition, hosts, environmental factors, and hormones are also thought to dramatically affect the diversity of color patterns in insects. In recent years, many genes that are crucial to pigmentation have been identified through positional cloning strategies, classical linkage maps, RNA interference, and high-throughput sequencing technologies combined with genome editing techniques. Recent studies suggest that TH, DDC, yellow, laccase2, ebony, AA-NAT, tan, and GTPCHI all play key roles in pigment synthesis. Furthermore, the pleiotropic genes spz3, apt-like, and wnt1 as well as the 20E-inducible transcription factors E75A and spalt target the melanin synthesis pathway, affecting the synthesis and deposition of melanin. In this article, we reviewed the progress in the research of the formation and influencing factors of the diversity of insect body color and markings, the type and material basis of insect coloration, and the regulation of black spots and markings on insects, hoping to provide a theoretical basis for the utilization of pigmentation-related genes and new insights for pest control.
    Nanoinsecticides and their application in agricultural insect pest management
    ZHANG Da-Xia, PAN Shou-He, BAI Hai-Xiu, DU Jiang, LIU Feng, HOU You-Ming
    2020, 63(10):  1276-1286.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.013
    Abstract ( 875 )   PDF (2035KB) ( 643 )   PDF(mobile) (2035KB) ( 57 )     
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     Nanotechnology has received great attention in the field of agriculture, and it is expected to improve the utilization rate and application effect of pesticides and fertilizers. In recent years, a number of experiments have been carried out to verify the potential for nanoinsecticides controlling agricultural insect pests and laid the foundation for the green agriculture, modern agriculture and intelligent agriculture. In this article, we reviewed the research status of the advantages of nanoinsecticides and the mechanisms of their synergistic effects. The advantages of nanoinsecticides lie in that: nanocarriers may damage the body wall, causing water loss or disturbing the normal physiological function of pests; the active ingredients can be delivered to the target position by the functionalized nanocarriers for improving utilization rate; the adhesion of insecticides on plant surface and their absorption by plants can be improved due to the functional groups and nanoscale effects of nanocarriers; and nucleic acid pesticides can be transported into plants by nanocarriers to regulate the expression of target genes in plants or pests. Although nanoinsecticides show many advantages, there are still some problems to be studied: (1) the uptake of nanoinsecticides by plants depends on the size and type of carrier, so suitable scales and carriers should be selected according to the application scenarios to improve the utilization rate of pesticides while reducing pesticide residues; (2) it is of great significance to comprehensively evaluate the environmental risks of nanoinsecticides by studying their degradation, transfer, and enrichment behavior in the environment as well as the influence caused by the difference in carriers; (3) at present, the preparation process of most of nanoinsecticides is too complex and sophisticated to be suitable for industrialization; and (4) the standard of nano-preparation and the evaluation criteria of environmental risks should be established to provide the basis for pesticide registration. In addition, the potential of nanosensors in agricultural pest monitoring is also worth attention.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 63 Issue 10
    2020, 63(10):  1287-1287. 
    Abstract ( 202 )   PDF (477KB) ( 17 )   PDF(mobile) (477KB) ( 2 )     
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