Classification, phylogeny and evolution of the Calyptratae (Insecta: Diptera)
YAN Li-Ping, PEI Wen-Ya, ZHANG Dong
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The Calyptratae (Diptera: Calyptratae) comprise 20% of the diversity of Diptera, one of the four superradiations of insects. The Calyptratae are distributed widely in the world, exhibit enormously diverse living habits, play vital roles in maintaining the stability of ecosystem, and are not only the hotspot groups in the studies of vectors, forensic medicine, pollinators and natural enemies of insects, but also key groups for exploring the phylogeny of Diptera and its successful adaptive radiation. To trace the evolutionary history of the Calyptratae, numerous dipterologists have conducted studies at various taxonomiclevels. TheCalyptratae arewellsupportedasa monophyletic group, and divided into three
superfamilies, i.e., Hippoboscoidea, Oestroidea, and Muscoidea, with monophyletic Oestroidea nested within paraphyletic Muscoidea, which are a sister group of Hippoboscoidea. At the family level, the Streblidae (Hippoboscoidea), Anthomyiidae (Muscoidea), Calliphoridae (Oestroidea), and Rhinophoridae (Oestroidea) are paraphyletic, and new families have been established, e.g., Polleniidae (Oestroidea) and Ulurumyiidae (Oestroidea). Therefore, the family level relationship of Calyptratae is still insufficiently resolved. Studies have been performed to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Hippoboscidae (Hippoboscoidea), Streblidae, Nycteribiidae (Hippoboscoidea), Muscidae (Muscoidea), Scathophagidae (Muscoidea), Sarcophagidae (Oestroidea), Gasterophilinae (Oestroidea: Oestridae), in terms of the origin and dispersal, host shift, and feeding habit. However, due to the lack of the biology information of some key groups and a well-resolved phylogeny, the evolutionary history of Calyptratae remains open. In this article we reviewed the research progress of classification, phylogeny and evolution of calyptrate flies, being the first review of the progress of the related research subjects of this group in the phylogenomic era.