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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 May 2022, Volume 65 Issue 5
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    Functional analysis of survivin gene in the mitosis of BmN4 cells of Bombyx mori
    ZHANG Bing, WANG Yi, LI Na, LI Dan-Dan, KAN Yun-Chao
    2022, 65(5):  541-547.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.05.001
    Abstract ( 139 )   PDF (5961KB) ( 72 )   PDF(mobile) (5961KB) ( 37 )     
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    【Aim】 To clarify the function of survivin gene in the mitosis of BmN4 cells of Bombyx mori. 【Methods】 The expression levels of BmSurvivin in different tissues (silk gland, midgut, Malpighian tubules, testis, ovary, fat body, epidermis and cuticle) of the day-3 5th instar larvae of B. mori were detected by qRT-PCR. The fusion vector pIZT/V5-His-BmSurvivin-GFP (BG) was constructed and transfected into BmN4 cells. The localization of BmSurvivin and Ser10 phosphorylated histone H3 (H3Ser10ph) in different mitotic stages of BmN4 cells was detected by immunofluorescence. 【Results】 The expression level of BmSurvivin was the highest in the Malpighian tubules of the day-3 5th instar larvae of B. mori, followed by that in the silk gland and midgut. pIZT/V5-His-BmSurvivin-GFP vector was successfully constructed. The immunofluorescence results showed that obvious GFP signal could be seen in the interphase nucleus of BmN4 cells, covering the nuclear and cytoplasmic regions indicating the location of BmSurvivin. At the mitotic phase, BmSurvivin was co-localized with chromatin indicated by GFP signal. When the BmN4 cells formed obvious double orientation, GFP signal was also visible in the spindle region. At the anaphase stage, with the separation of sister chromatids, BmSurvivin was located in the chromatin and cytokinesis region indicated by GFP signal. At the telophase stage, with the formation of two new daughter cells, BmSurvivin was located only in the cytokinesis region indicated by GFP signal. H3Ser10ph was located at the site of chromatin condensation at the prometaphase stage of BmN4 cells, and the signal intensity was the strongest at the metaphase, coinciding with the whole chromosome. The signal disappeared at the anaphase stage. 【Conclusion】 BmSurvivin is associated with the dynamic changes of chromatin and spindle during mitotic cycle.
    Expression and functional analysis of lncRNA63 and its co-expression gene Hr3 in Bombyx mori
    WANG Bo, LI Miao-Miao, WANG Jing-Ya, HU Xiao-Yue, KAN Yun-Chao, QIAO Hui-Li
    2022, 65(5):  548-557.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.05.002
    Abstract ( 86 )   PDF (5186KB) ( 58 )   PDF(mobile) (5186KB) ( 13 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to analyze the expression and function of a new long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and its co-expression gene in the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, so as to further clarify the molecular mechanism of lncRNA in regulating the metamorphosis and development of B. mori. 【Methods】 Based on the transcriptome sequencing data of the fat body of B. mori, we found that the expression of lncRNA63 was significantly up-regulated in the fat body of the early 5th instar larvae treated with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)(2 μg/μL) and the hormone receptor gene Hr3 of B. mori was co-expressed with lncRNA63. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression profiles of lncRNA63 and Hr3 in different developmental stages (4th-5th instar larva, pupa and adult), different tissues (head, integument, hemolymph, midgut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, silk gland, testis and ovary) of the 5th instar larvae and the fat body of the 5th instar larvae of B. mori treated with 20E (2 μg/μL) for 2, 6, 12 and 24 h. The localization of lncRNA63 in BmN cells of B. mori was detected by nucleocytoplasmic separation and in situ hybridization. The expression of lncRNA63 in the 5th instar larvae of B. mori was interfered by dsRNA, and the effects of RNA interference of lncRNA63 on the expression of Hr3 in the head, silk gland, fat body and integument were detected using qRT-PCR. 【Results】 The qRT-PCR results showed that there was an expression peak of lncRNA63 and Hr3 at the end of pupal stage before eclosion, and both are highly expressed in the head, integument and silk gland of the 5th instar larvae of B. mori. The expression of lncRNA63 and Hr3 in the fat body of the 5th instar larvae of B. mori treated with 2 μg/μL 20E for 2, 6 and 12 h was significantly up-regulated as compared to the control group (ethanol treatment group) and decreased to the level of the control group at 24 h after treatment, with their expression trend being completely consistent. LncRNA63 was mainly localized in the nucleus of BmN cells, but 20E induced the nucleocytoplasmic translocation of lncRNA63. After interference of the expression of lncRNA63 with dsRNA, the expression of Hr3 was significantly down-regulated. 【Conclusion】 20E can not only regulate the expression of lncRNA63, but also induce the nucleocytoplasmic translocation of lncRNA63. LncRNA63 may participate in the metamorphosis and development of B. mori by regulating the expression of its co-expressed gene Hr3.
    Molecular cloning and functional analysis of Nl15 in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    WANG Fu-Xin, WANG Wei-Xia, WEI Qi, HE Jia-Chun, LAI Feng-Xiang, FU Qiang, WAN Pin-Jun
    2022, 65(5):  558-567.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.05.003
    Abstract ( 191 )   PDF (1898KB) ( 93 )   PDF(mobile) (1898KB) ( 110 )     
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     【Aim】 The phytophagous piercing-sucking insect saliva protein participates in the regulation of plant defense response against insects and affects insect adaptability to host plants. The aim of the present study is to clone the important salivary protein gene Nl15 in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and to investigate its temporal and spatial expression patterns, so as to clarify its roles in virulence of N. lugens. 【Methods】 Based on the transcriptome data of IR56 population of N. lugens, the cDNA sequence of Nl15 was cloned from N. lugens by RT-PCR, and subjected to bioinformatics analysis. The expression profiles of Nl15 in different developmental stages (egg, 1st-5th instar nymph, and female and male adult) and female adult tissues (head, thorax, abdomen and leg) of TN1 and IR56 populations of N. lugens were determined by qPCR. The RNAi of Nl15 was carried out by dsRNA microinjection into the 4th instar nymphs of TN1 and IR56 populations of N. lugens. The relative expression levels of Nl15 in N. lugens nymphs after RNAi of Nl15 and defense-related genes OsLecRK4, OsMPK10, OsWRKY24, OsLox, OsNPR1, and OsGns5 in rice plants fed by N. lugens nymphs for 3 d following RNAi of Nl15 were detected by qPCR. The survival rate and the honeydew amount and body weight gain of N. lugens adults after RNAi of Nl15 were determined by bioassay. 【Results】 The cDNA sequence of Nl15 (GenBank accession no.: OK181113) of N. lugens was cloned. It has an open reading frame of 1 008 bp in length, encoding 335 amino acids with the predicted isoelectric point of 7.54 and the molecular weight of 38.7 kD. The Nl15 protein contains a signal peptide sequence of 23 aa and a predicted glycosylation modification site, whereas has no transmembrane domain and other known functional domains. Nl15 shares 45% amino acid sequence identity with the homologous protein from Laodelphax striatellus. Developmental expression profile revealed that Nl15 was expressed in various developmental stages of N. lugens, with the highest expression level in the 3rd-4th instar nymphs. Tissue expression profile showed that Nl15 exhibited the highest expression level in the head of female adults of N. lugens, with a higher expression level in the head of IR56 population than in the head of TN1 population. RNAi results showed that the expression level of Nl15 in dsNl15 injection group was significantly down-regulated by 89.5%, the survival rate and the honeydew amount and body weight gain of adults of N. lugens were significantly decreased, and the expression levels of the above six rice defense-related genes were significantly up-regulated as compared to those in the control group (dsGFP injection group). 【Conclusion】 Nl15 in IR56 population of N. lugens is involved in the interaction of defense and counter defense between N. lugens and rice. This study provides insights into the mechanisms by which N. lugens overcomes resistance genes and the molecular network of interactions between insects and plants.
    Cloning, prokaryotic expression and functional analysis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP) gene in Holotrichia parallela (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)
    LIU Zhao-Rui, WU Han, GUO Xiao-Chang, LI Ya-Zi, ZHAO Dan, GUO Wei
    2022, 65(5):  568-576.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.05.004
    Abstract ( 72 )   PDF (3651KB) ( 47 )   PDF(mobile) (3651KB) ( 7 )     
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     【Aim】 The aim of this study is to elucidate the sequence characteristics and function of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP) gene HpUAP in the dark black chafer, Holotrichia parallela. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA sequence of HpUAP was amplified from the 2nd instar larvae of H. parallela by PCR and analyzed with bioinformatics. The recombinant expression vector pET30a-HpUAP was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) to express the protein after IPTG induction. The expression levels of HpUAP in different larval stages (the 1st-3rd instar larva) and tissues of the day-2 3rd instar larvae (integument, midgut, ileum, rectum, Malpighian tubules, and fat body) of H. parallela were analyzed by qRT-PCR. After the HpUAP gene in the 2nd instar larvae of H. parallela was silenced by RNAi, their growth, development and survival were observed, and the expression level of HpUAP and the chitin content in their integument were determined at 72 h after RNAi. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequence of HpUAP (GenBank accession no.: MW676788) of H. parallela was obtained by PCR amplification. Its open reading frame is 1 461 bp in length, encoding 486 amino acid residues with the molecular weight of about 53.9 kD. The result of phylogenetic analysis showed that the amino acid sequences of HpUAP and Onthophagus taurinus UAP were clustered into one clade with high confidence. The HpUAP protein of 53.9 kD induced by IPTG was consistent with the expected size. Developmental expression profile revealed that HpUAP was highly expressed in the day-1 1st and 3rd instar larvae, and tissue expression profile showed that HpUAP was highly expressed in the midgut and integument of the day-2 3rd instar larvae. RNAi of HpUAP resulted in the slow growth and movement of the 2nd instar larvae of H. parallela, and their body surface became deeper and shriveled. At 72 h after RNAi, the expression level of HpUAP in the dsHpUAP injection group was decreased by 93.06%, the mortality rate was increased by ~40%, and the chitin content in the integument was decreased by 29% as compared with those of the control group (dsGFP injection group). 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that HpUAP is involved in chitin metabolism and plays a key role in the growth and development of H. parallela larvae.
    Effects of CO2 narcosis on the ovarian development of virgin queens of Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    ZHOU Jian-Yang, SONG Hua-Li, DENG Ping, TAO Kun-Ling, TANG Xiang-You, YAN Le-Le, ZHANG Xiao-Yan, SHI Peng, XU Jin-Shan
    2022, 65(5):  577-586.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.05.005
    Abstract ( 130 )   PDF (19278KB) ( 108 )   PDF(mobile) (19278KB) ( 13 )     
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    【Aim】 To clarify the dynamic changes of reproductive system of queens of the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana) after emergence, and to explore the effects of CO2 narcosis on the ovarian development of their virgin queens. 【Methods】 Through artificial breeding technology and storage of the queens, we obtained different day-old virgin queens of A. cerana cerana, observed the morphological characteristics of their reproductive system after emergence, and determined the morphological indexes of their reproductive system including the body weight, ovarian weight, diameter of spermatheca, and number of ovarioles. After the virgin queens were narcotized with different concentrations (50%, 75% and 90%) of CO2 in two consecutive days (at the 5- and 6-d-old, respectively) for 8 min, and different day-old virgin queens were respectively narcotized with 75% CO2 for 1-3 times (each time for 8 min), the morphological characteristics of the ovaries of the 10-d-old queen were observed by paraffin section and HE staining, and their ovarian weight and the length of the largest oocyte of ovaries were detected. Meanwhile, the relative expression level of vitellogenin gene (Vg) in the head of the 10-d-old queens was measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). 【Results】 The number of ovarioles and the diameter of spermatheca of the queens of A. cerana cerana did not fluctuate obviously with the age increasing. However, the ovarian weight of queens increased obviously during the 6-12-d-old and then tended to be stable. As compared to the control (not subjected to CO2 narcosis), narcosis with 50%, 75% and 90% CO2 resulted in the increase of the ovarian weight and the length of the largest oocyte of queens of A. cerana cerana and the upregulation of the relative expression level of Vg gene in the queen head. Moreover, narcosis with 75% CO2 twice significantly promoted the ovarian development of A. cerana cerana queens. 【Conclusion】 The ovaries of A. cerana cerana queens present obvious developmental changes after emergence, and CO2 narcosis can accelerate their ovarian development.
    Histological observation of the internal organs and systems of adult Culicoides punctatus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)
    NING Yuan, LI Hong, LI Jia-Hao, ZENG Wen-Wen, DENG Jun-Jie, LI Yi-Ling, LU Xue, JIANG Xiao-Hong, HOU Xiao-Hui
    2022, 65(5):  587-594.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.05.006
    Abstract ( 53 )   PDF (10219KB) ( 61 )   PDF(mobile) (10219KB) ( 5 )     
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    【Aim】 Culicoides punctatus, an important vector midge, is the main transmission vector of Schmallenberg virus (SBV). The histological structure of the internal organs and systems of adult C. punctatus was observed by paraffin section and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. 【Methods】 C. punctatus adults were collected by net and light trap. With legs and wings removed, C. punctatus adults were fixed in Duboscq-Brasil fixation solution at the room temperature. Then glass slides were made after step-by-step dehydration, xylene transparency, paraffin embedding, continuous section and hematoxylin-eosin staining, and observed and photographed under light microscope. 【Results】 There is no gender difference in the digestive system of C. punctatus adults, which is composed of the digestive tract and salivary glands. The central nervous system is composed of the brain and the ventral nerve cord. The brain can be divided into three functional areas, i.e. protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum. The compound eyes and antennae are the main sensory organs. The ventral nerve cord is divided into subpharyngeal ganglion, thoracic ganglion and ventral ganglion. The respiratory system mainly consists of tracheas, which are distributed all over the body and have no lung tissue. The thorax has two pairs of valves, which are located in the mesothorax and metathorax. The air sac tissue is vesicular and not obviously stained. The reproductive system includes internal and external reproductive organs, the female internal reproductive organs mainly include ovary, fallopian tube, seminal vesicle and accessory glands, and the male internal reproductive organs mainly include testis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct and accessory glands. 【Conclusion】 This study ascertained the structural characteristics of the digestive system, nervous system, respiratory system, reproductive system and sensory organs of C. punctatus adults, providing more direct and accurate evidence for the study on the development of Culicoides and being helpful to improve the comprehensiveness and accuracy of monitoring, forecast and control of biting midges.
    Biological characteristics of Cladiucha huangbki (Hymenoptera:Tenthredinidae) and pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae against its larvae
    ZENG Li-Qiong, LUO Ming-Yong, LIN Xi-Bi, CHEN Zhi-Ping, LUO Jian-Song, CHEN Hong-Mei, CAI Shou-Ping, WEI Mei-Cai, HE Xue-You
    2022, 65(5):  595-603.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.05.007
    Abstract ( 52 )   PDF (9289KB) ( 29 )   PDF(mobile) (9289KB) ( 6 )     
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    【Aim】 Cladiucha huangbki is a newly identified sawfly of Cladiucha of Tenthredinidae. Its larvae feed on leaves of Manglietia yuyuanensis with large population density and cause serious damage. This study aims to clarify the biological characteristics 
    of C. huangbki and screen out the high pathogenicity strains of Metarhizium anisopliae against this sawfly, so as to provide theoretical basis and strain resources for the biological control of this insect pest. 【Methods】 The morphological and biological characteristics of various developmental stages of C. huangbki including host plants, distribution, and life history were observed in both the laboratory and field. High pathogenic strains of M. anisopliae against this insect pest were screened by using spraying spore suspension. 【Results】 The results of field and laboratory observations showed that C. huangbki larvae feed on Manglietia plants of Magnoliaceae. C. huangbki has only one generation each year in Yong′an City, Fujian Province. Mature larvae (prepupae) oversummer and overwinter in the soil chamber and start to pupate in early March of the next year. Adults begin to emerge in late March, and female adults reach the oviposition peak in early April. Larvae are hatched in mid-April and cause enormous damage in late April to early May. Mature larvae burrow into soil in the depth of 30-150 mm to make soil chambers in mid-May. The results of pathogenicity test showed that the corrected mortality rates of C. huangbki caused by the suspension of all the tested strains of M. anisopliae at 
    the concentration of 1×107 spores/mL were over 85% at 11 d post inoculation, and the strains MaQZ-01, MaYTTR-04-05, Ma3 and MaFZ-13 caused the larval corrected mortality rates of 100%. The strain MaFZ-08 caused the highest cadaver rate of C. huangbki (60%), followed by MaYTTR-04-05, causing the cadaver rate of 50%. The median lethal time (LT50) values of various strains of M. anisopliae to C. huangbki larvae were about 6 d, showing little difference between different strains, while the LT50 value of MaYTTR-04-05 to C. huangbki larvae was the shortest, being 5.090 d.【Conclusion】 C. huangbki has only one generation each year in Yong′an, Fujian, and mature larvae burrow into soil to make soil chambers for oversummering and overwintering of prepupae after early-May. The strain MaYTTR-04-05 screened out in this study shows high pathogenicity to C. huangbki larvae, and has a good application value in the control of this insect pest.
    Visual and olfactory responses of Danaus chrysippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) during foraging and courtship
    LIU Jie, LI Ming-Tao, CHEN Shun-An, YAO Jun, SHI Lei, CHEN Xiao-Ming
    2022, 65(5):  604-611.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.05.008
    Abstract ( 83 )   PDF (10106KB) ( 53 )   PDF(mobile) (10106KB) ( 2 )     
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     【Aim】 To elucidate the mechanism of visual and olfactory information utilization in the foraging and courtship of Danaus chrysippus. 【Methods】 Through behavioral observations, we tested the foraging response of D. chrysippus to seven different colors of artificial flowers and artificial flowers sprayed with 10% honey water, and verified the behavioral responses of D. chrysippus to color and odor by natural population courtship and plastic model visiting experiments. 【Results】 The total visiting frequency of D. chrysippus adults to seven odorless artificial flowers was 138. D. chrysippus adults showed an obvious color tendency to long-wavelength red (620-750 nm) (accounting for 52.17% of the total visiting frequency), followed by to blue and orange (accounting for 15.22% and 11.59% of the total visiting frequency, respectively), and the proportion of visiting the other four colors was less. After spraying 10% honey water on the artificial flowers, the total visiting frequency of D. chrysippus adults increased by 3.05 times, and the visiting frequencies of female and male adults increased by 3.31 and 2.86 times, respectively. Hardly adult D. chrysippus visited on corolla odorless flower branches. However, after spraying 10% honey water on corolla flowers, the total visiting frequency of adult D. chrysippus increased by 146 times. There was no significant difference in the visiting frequency of D. chrysippus adults to single color and single odor. The total visiting frequency of adult D. chrysippus to odor plus color increased by 2.88 times, and the visiting frequencies of female and male adults increased by 2.95 and 2.83 times, respectively, as compared to those to single odor. The sensitivity of males to color and odor was higher than that of females. In the courtship process, both the natural population and the butterfly wing model had four mating patterns of male chasing male, male chasing female, female chasing female, and female chasing male, but the frequency of chasing odorless butterfly wing model was significantly lower than that of chasing the natural population. Under natural light, the color and pattern of wings of male and female butterflies were similar, and showed no obvious difference except one white sex mark on the ventral side of rear wing of male butterflies. Under ultraviolet light, the color and pattern of butterfly wing models were more obvious than those of natural wings, which may help the opposite sex recognition. 【Conclusion】 Visual and olfactory are equally important during the foraging and courtship of D. chrysippus adults. The color is stable, eye-catching and easy to be found, while the smell is unstable, volatile and greatly disturbed by the environment. Vision is used to conduct initial localization, and smell and taste are used to identify food resources during the foraging of D. chrysippus. In the courtship process, D. chrysippus adults initially distinguish the opposite sex through vision, and then rely on olfactory for precise identification.
    Determination of the flight capacity of Lithocolletis ringoniella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)
    HOU Guo-Hui, CUI Xiao-Xiong, ZHU Yue, XIONG Ren-Ci, YAO Yong-Sheng
    2022, 65(5):  612-620.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.05.009
    Abstract ( 65 )   PDF (1525KB) ( 55 )   PDF(mobile) (1525KB) ( 9 )     
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    【Aim】 To determine the flight capacity of the Asiatic apple leafminer, Lithocolletis ringoniella, under its own physiological state and to understand the basic parameters of its flight biology. 【Methods】 The flight distance, flight duration and flight speed of different day-old adults of both genders of L. ringoniella, and the 5-d-old female and male adults provided with complementary nutrition (5% honey water) and under different mating states were measured in the laboratory with insect flying mill system. 【Results】 Subjected to continuous 12 h tethered flight, the 3-6-d-old adults of L. ringoniella had better flight capacity, and the 5-d-old adults had the best flight capacity. The average flight distance, flight duration and flight speed of the 5-d-old female adults were 2.293±0.254 km, 5.341±0.617 h and 0.711±0.126 km/h, respectively, and those of males were 2.142±0.276 km, 5.132±0.628 h and 0.620±0.132 km/h, respectively, suggesting that the flight capacity is not significantly different between male and female adults. The flight capacities of the 5-d-old male and female adults were significantly improved after being fed with 5% honey water. The flight distance, flight duration and flight speed of the 5-d-old female adults fed with 5% honey water were increased by 46.945%, 15.430% and 15.978%, respectively, and those of the 5-d-old male adults were increased by 42.610%, 13.590% and 6.529%, respectively, as compared with those in the control (fed with water). After mating, the flight distance, flight duration and flight speed of the 5-d-old female adults were increased by 41.628%, 7.152% and 39.925%, respectively, as compared with unmated females, while those of the 5-d-old male adults were decreased by 35.823%, 17.888% and 46.129%, respectively, as compared with unmated males.【Conclusion】 L. ringoniella adults have a certain flight capacity, which is affected by complementary nutrition and their own mating states.
    Effects of temperature on the biocontrol potential of thelytokous adults of Neochrysocharis formosa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) against agromyzid leafminers
    WANG Qi-Jing, YANG Yue-Mei, DU Su-Jie, LIANG Yong-Xuan, GUO Jian-Yang, WANG Fu-Lian, LIU Wan-Xue
    2022, 65(5):  621-629.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.05.010
    Abstract ( 50 )   PDF (1466KB) ( 32 )   PDF(mobile) (1466KB) ( 5 )     
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    【Aim】 Neochrysocharis formosa is a dominant parasitoid against agromyzid leafminers. Both arrhenotoky and thelytoky exist in N. formosa. Thelytokous individuals can quickly establish populations at a low density without the need of raising drones, and the 
    thelytokous strain show more important potential in terms of breeding cost and biological control application. This study aims to analyze the effects of ambient temperature on the biocontrol potential of thelytokous N. formosa so as to provide reference for its 
    large-scale breeding and field release. 【Methods】 The late 2nd to the early 3rd instar larvae of Liriomyza sativae were used as hosts. The life history traits and biocontrol parameters including the numbers of host-feeding events, parasitism events, and host-stinging events, total number of host-killing events, daily number of host-killing events and longevity of the thelytokous female adults of N. formosa at four temperature conditions (22, 26, 30 and 34℃) were assessed in the laboratory. 【Results】 The numbers 
    of host-feeding events, parasitism events and host-stinging events, total number of host-killing events, and daily total number of host-killing events of thelytokous female adults of N. formosa increased generally and then decreased with the temperature increasing. The numbers of host-feeding events, parasitism events, and host-stinging events reached the peak at 30℃, which were 236.1, 69.2, and 49.7, respectively, and were the lowest at 34℃, which were 115.2, 19.8 and 21.6, respectively. The total numbers of host-killing events at 26℃ (282.4) and 30℃ (355.0) were significantly higher than those at 22℃ (194.5) and 34℃ (156.5), and the daily total number of host-killing events reached the peak at 30℃ (25.5). In addition, the longevity of thelytokous female adults of 
    N. formosa was the longest at 22℃ and the lowest at 34℃, which were 16.9 and 7.2 d, respectively, indicating that the life span of this parasitoid gradually decreased with the increase of temperature. 【Conclusion】 Although high temperatures shorten the longevity of the thelytokous adults of N. formosa, they show the pronounced ability to kill the host at 30℃, suggesting that the thelytokous adults of N. formosa can exert their biocontrol potential at 30℃ against such agromyzid leafminers with high heat tolerance as L. sativae.
    Potential geographical distribution of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in the world based on MaxEnt model
    MA Shi-Yan, YU Hong-Chun, ZHAO Kui-Jun, XIE Tong-Yin
    2022, 65(5):  630-637.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.05.011
    Abstract ( 60 )   PDF (2741KB) ( 54 )   PDF(mobile) (2741KB) ( 5 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this study is to predict and analyze the potential geographical distribution of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the world, and to study the relationship between its potential geographical distribution and environmental variables. 【Methods】 Maximum entropy niche-based modeling (MaxEnt) was combined with the geographic information system ArcGIS to predict the potential geographical distribution of A. glycines in the world and to infer the influence of environmental variables on its 
    distribution based on the distribution records of A. glycines and a set of environmental variables. 【Results】 The results showed that the suitable distribution areas of A. glycines are mainly in the low altitude areas, and the high suitable distribution areas are China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Canada, the United States, Italy, and Georgia at 25°-50°N. The dominant environmental variables affecting the potential geographical distribution of A. glycines are the precipitation of warmest quarter, mean temperature of warmest quarter, mean temperature of wettest quarter, precipitation of driest month, mean diurnal range [mean of monthly (max temp-min temp)], and temperature seasonality (stardard deviation×100). 【Conclusion】 The potential geographical distribution of A. glycines is wide. To prevent A. glycines from further spreading, inspection and quarantine should be done properly in the global trade of soybean agricultural products.
    Whole-genome resequencing reveals the genetic diversity and adaptive evolution of Apis cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on the eastern and southeastern edges of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    TANG Xiang-You, SONG Hua-Li, SHI Peng, ZHANG Xiao-Yan, TANG Zi-Han, WANG Wen-Feng, ZHA Luo, CHEN Xin-Lan, ZHOU Ze-Yang, XU Jin-Shan
    2022, 65(5):  638-647.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.05.012
    Abstract ( 120 )   PDF (3213KB) ( 52 )   PDF(mobile) (3213KB) ( 11 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to study the population genetic diversity and adaptive evolution of Apis cerana samples from the eastern and southeastern edges of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and adjacent areas, so as to provide references for further revealing their genetic resource diversity, population diffusion rules and molecular evolutionary mechanisms of adapting to plateau habitats. 【Methods】 The whole-genomes of 77 colonies of A. cerana samples collected from the eastern and southeastern edges of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and adjacent areas were resequenced. The whole-genome reseqeuncing data of the 77 colonies of A. cerana and the reseqeuncing raw data of 90 colonies of A. cerana downloaded from GenBank database were analyzed using population genetic method based on the population structure, principal component analysis, phylogenetic tree, genetic differentiation index, mitochondrial genome haplotype and selective signal analysis. 【Results】 The 167 colonies of A. cerana were separated into four plateau colonies including colonies from Western Sichuan Plateau, Southern Tibet Plateau, Northern Yunnan Plateau and Northern Sichuan Plateau, which clustered into two clades. The average genetic differentiation index of A. cerana colonies in the plateau region (Fst=0.1178) was higher than that in the non-plateau region (Fst=0.0411). The analysis of the minimum genetic distance among populations showed that the colonies of Southern Tibet Plateau, Northern Yunnan Plateau and South Yunnan on the southeastern edge had closer genetic relationships. The colonies of Western Sichuan Plateau and Northern Sichuan Plateau on the eastern edge had closer genetic relationship with those of the Western Sichuan Mountain and Qinba, respectively. Combined with the haplotype analysis of the mitochondrial genome, the ancestral haplotype and origin of the plateau populations on the eastern and southeastern edges of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were preliminarily inferred. Through selective analysis, potential selected genes involved in signaling pathways of fatty acid metabolism, phototransduction, temperature adaptation, and ovarian development were identified. Two co-selected genes, ISL-1 and FOXO, were found in the populations of Southern Tibet Plateau and Northern Yunnan Plateau to be mainly involved in insulin secretion in response to cellular stress, suggesting that they play important roles in the adaption of A. cerana to the habitat of the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. 【Conclusion】 The genetic diversity of A. cerana in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is highly abundant, and the colonies of Southern Tibet Plateau and Northern Yunnan Plateau on the southeastern edge and Western Sichuan Plateau and Northern Sichuan Plateau on the eastern edge can be obviously distinguished. The four plateau colonies are geographically isolated after the diffusion of non-plateau populations in adjacent areas, resulting in population differentiation. The 
    potential genes of plateau environmental adaptability of A. cerana were identified by preliminary screening. This study lays a basis for further exploring the molecular evolutionary mechanism of the adaptation of A. cerana to plateau habitat.
    A comparative study of cell structures of Apis florea in Honghe and Baoshan regions of Yunnan, southwestern China
    DENG Shang-Kao, YANG Shun-Hua, MENG Qing-Xin, ZHI Dan-Dan, GONG Xue-Yang, DONG Kun
    2022, 65(5):  648-656.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.05.013
    Abstract ( 57 )   PDF (3074KB) ( 44 )   PDF(mobile) (3074KB) ( 6 )     
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    【Aim】 The aim of this study is to quantitatively analyze the cell structures of the dwarf honeybee, Apis florea, distributed in Honghe and Baoshan regions, Yunnan, southwestern China with significantly different natural environmental conditions, so as to reveal the structural differences of A. florea cells between these two regions. 【Methods】 The thickness of the comb and the width of 10 successive worker cells of A. florea were measured. The cell was filled with epoxy resin to make a cell model. Based on the cell 
    model, we measured the differences in the cell diameter, side length on the mouth, edge length, depth, volume and inclination angle of single worker and drone cell of A. florea between the two regions. 【Results】 The thickness of brood comb of worker and drone of A. florea in Honghe was significantly smaller than that in Baoshan. The width of 10 successive worker cells in the direction of 0° was significantly greater than those in the 60° and 120° directions in the two regions, and there was no significant difference in the width 
    of 10 successive worker cells between the 60° and 120° directions. The diameter of a single worker cell also showed significant difference in three directions between the two regions, while there was no significant difference in the diameter of a single drone cell 
    in three directions between the two regions. The diameter of worker cell in each corresponding direction in Honghe was significantly smaller than that in Baoshan, while the diameter of drone cell in each corresponding direction had no significant difference between the two regions. The side length on the mouth, edge length, depth and volume of single worker and drone cell in Honghe were extremely significantly smaller than those in Baoshan, and there was no significant difference in the inclination angle of worker cells 
    between the two regions. 【Conclusion】 There are regional differences in the structure of A. florea cells, and the cell size in high altitude and low temperature region is obviously larger than that in low altitude and high temperature region. The results of this study not only enrich the biology knowledge of A. florea, but also provide ideas for further studying the correlation between cell structure indexes and morphological indexes of A. florea.
    Contents of Vol. 65 Issue 5
    2022, 65(5):  657-657. 
    Abstract ( 59 )   PDF (499KB) ( 28 )   PDF(mobile) (499KB) ( 3 )     
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