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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 April 2022, Volume 65 Issue 4
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    Gene cloning and expression of alkaline phosphatase HpALP of Holotrichia parallela (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and its binding affinity with Bt Cry8Ea3
    QIAO Ying-Cui, ZHAO Dan, WANG Zhe, LU Xiu-Jun, GUO Wei, LI Rui-Jun
    2022, 65(4):  409-416.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.04.001
    Abstract ( 237 )   PDF (2110KB) ( 163 )   PDF(mobile) (2110KB) ( 35 )     
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    【Aim】 To ascertain the insecticidal mechanism of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein against the larvae of the dark black chafer, Holotrichia parallela. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA sequence of alkaline phosphatase gene HpALP of H. parallela was cloned by PCR based on the transcriptome data of H. parallela. HpALP was expressed in vitro by prokaryotic expression system and detected by Western blot. The expression levels of HpALP in different tissues (foregut, midgut, rectum, ileum, Malpighian tubules, fat body and integument) of the day-2 3rd instar larvae of H. parallela were detected using qRT-PCR. The in vitro binding characteristics of HpALP with the Bt crystal protein Cry8Ea3 was analyzed by ligand blot and ELISA. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA of HpALP (GenBank accession no.: MZ004964) of H. parallela was obtained. It is 1 536 bp in length, encoding 512 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 57.32 kD and the pI of 4.70. HpALP has the highest amino acid sequence identity with ALP of Onthophagus taurus. The recombinant HpALP was obtained by prokaryotic expression, and it had the highest expression level at 8 h after IPTG induction detected by Western blot. Tissue expression profiles revealed that HpALP showed the highest abundance in the larval foregut analyzed by qRT-PCR. The recombinant HpALP could specifically bind to Cry8Ea3 with the dissociation constant Kd value of 76.21±26.44 nmol/L and the maximum affinity Bmax value of 0.59±0.068, but could not bind to the control Cry1Ab35 with the Kd value of 142.50±137.30 nmol/L and the Bmax value of 0.013±0.005. 【Conclusion】 Based on the isolation and identification of HpALP with high affinity to Bt Cry8Ea3, we inferred that HpALP might be the receptor protein of Cry8Ea3. The results provide a theoretic basis for clarifying the action mechanism of Cry8Ea3 protein on H. parallela.
    Cloning and functional characterization of the peptidoglycan recognition protein gene SePGRP-SA in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    LI Ya-Zi, ZHAO Dan, GUO Xiao-Chang, WU Han, LIU Zhao-Rui, GUO Wei
    2022, 65(4):  417-426.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.04.002
    Abstract ( 268 )   PDF (5599KB) ( 193 )   PDF(mobile) (5599KB) ( 30 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to elucidate the function of peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Spodoptera exigua larvae in response to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) infection. 【Methods】 The fulllength cDNA of SePGRP-SA from S. exigua larvae was cloned by PCR method. The relative expression levels of SePGRP-SA in different developmental stages (egg, 1st-5th instar larval, prepupal and pupal stages) and different tissues of the 4th instar larvae (midgut, Malpighian tubules, peritrophic membrane, fat body, hemolymph and epidermis) of S. exigua were analyzed by qRT-PCR. At 72 h after silencing SePGRP-SA by RNAi, the silence efficiency of SePGRP-SA, the changes in the expression levels of antimicrobial peptide-related genes (Ceropin, Attacin and Defensin) and the bacterial load in the midgut of the 4th instar larvae were detected by qRT-PCR. At 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h after the 4th instar larvae of S. exigua were fed with B. thuringiensis Bt-GS57 strain following silencing SePGRP-SA by RNAi for 24 h, the corrected mortality rates of larvae were calculated. The relative expression levels of SePGRP-SA, Ceropin, Attacin and Defensin in the migdut of the 4th instar larvae fed with Bt-GS57 for 0, 24, 48 and 72 h were detected by qRT-PCR. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA of SePGRP-SA (GenBank accession no.: MW265930) was successfully cloned. Its ORF is 576 bp in length encoding 191 amino acid residues with the molecular weight of 21.59 kD. Sequence analysis results indicated that SePGRP-SA contains typical conserved PGRP and Ami2 domains and a 19-amino-acid signal peptide, being a secretory protein. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SePGRP-SA is most closely related to SlPGRP of Spodoptera litura, sharing 91.1% amino acid sequence identity. Developmental expression profiles revealed that SePGRP-SA was highly expressed in the 4th and 5th instar larval, pre-pupal and pupal stages of S. exigua. Tissue expression profiles showed that SePGRP-SA was expressed in various tissues of the 4th instar larvae, with the highest expression level in the hemolymph. After the 4th instar larvae of S. exigua were injected with dsSePGRP-SA for 72 h, the expression level of SePGRP-SA in the midgut was down-regulated by 95.26%, while those of Cecropin, Attacin and Defensin were significantly down-regulated, and the microbial load in the midgut was significantly increased as compared to those in the control (infection with dsEGFP). At 72 h after the 4th instar larvae of S. exigua were fed with Bt-GS57 following injection with dsEGFP and dsSePGRP-SA, the corrected mortality rates of larvae were 50.00% and 73.33%, respectively, indicating the significantly increased sensitivity of larvae to Bt-GS57. After the 4th instar larvae of S. exigua were fed with Bt-GS57, the expression levels of SePGRP-SA, Cecropin, Attacin and Defensin in the midgut were increased significantly at 48 h after feeding, but decreased at 72 h after feeding. 【Conclusion】 SePGRP-SA gene of S. exigua can activate the expression of antimicrobial peptide-related genes Cecropin, Attacin and Defensin after infection of Bt.
    Expression and functional analysis of inorganic pyrophosphatase EoPPase672 from Ectropis obliqua (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)
    YIN Heng, FU Zi-Zhuo, YANG Xiao-Xia, YUAN Dong-Xue, MAO Xin-Fang, LIU Zhong-Yuan
    2022, 65(4):  427-436.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.04.003
    Abstract ( 181 )   PDF (5712KB) ( 157 )   PDF(mobile) (5712KB) ( 14 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this study is to clone the coding sequence of the inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) gene EoPPase672 related to detoxification in the tea geometrid, Ectropis obliqua and to conduct prokaryotic expression and functional verification, so as to provide a theoretical basis for further understanding the role of EoPPase672 in the detoxification process of this insect and the application of related functions. 【Methods】 The EoPPase672 cDNA was screened from the transcriptome database of E. obliqua. The prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a-EoPPase672 was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot, and its concentration and the optimum temperature, pH and metal ion in the enzymatic reaction were detected. The expression levels of EoPPase672 in E. obliqua larvae at different instars after exposed to the sublethal concentration (LC10=2.08 mg/L) of deltamethrin for different time were determined by qRT-PCR. Based on the characteristics of PPase, the effects of the recombinant EoPPase672 in PCR reaction on the removal of pyrophosphate (PPi) and the PCR amplification efficiency were analyzed. 【Results】 The recombinant EoPPase672 was obtained by prokaryotic expression and purification. According to the standard curve of inorganic phosphate (Pi) content, the specific activity of the enzyme was 1 279.6 U/mg, and the optimum temperature, pH and metal ion of enzymatic reaction were 65℃, pH 7.5, and Mg2+, respectively. After exposure to deltamethrin (2.08 mg/L) for 12 h, the expression levels of EoPPase672 in the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae were significantly up-regulated and that in the 4th instar larvae was slightly up-regulated as compared to that of the control group. After exposure to deltamethrin for 24 h, the expression levels of EoPPase672 in the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae were still significantly up-regulated as compared with that of the control group, but down-regulated as compared with those in the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae exposed to deltamethrin for 12 h. After adding the recombinant EoPPase672 in the PCR reaction, partial PPi was hydrolyzed, resulting in relieving the inhibition of PPi on PCR amplification and enhancing the PCR amplification efficiency. 【Conclusion】 These results show that the recombinant EoPPase672 can enhance the PCR amplification efficiency, and EoPPase672 may be involved in the detoxification process of E. obliqua, providing a basis for further studying the function of EoPPase672 in E. obliqua.
    Effects of combined pollution of heavy metals on the metabolomics of Eucriotettix oculatus (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae)
    RONG Wan-Tao, SONG Zhe, XIN Lei, DENG Wei-An, QIN Yu-Yue, LI Xiao-Dong
    2022, 65(4):  437-450.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.04.004
    Abstract ( 197 )   PDF (3566KB) ( 137 )   PDF(mobile) (3566KB) ( 9 )     
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    【Aim】 To analyze the contents of heavy metals and metabolomics of Eucriotettix oculatus living in metal and non-metal mining areas, and to explore the effects of combined pollution of heavy metals on the accumulation and metabolomics of heavy metals in E. oculatus. 【Methods】 ICP-MS method was used to determine the content of heavy metals in E. oculatus adults. At the same time, based on UPLC-MS/MS detection platform, selfbuilt database and multivariate statistical analysis, the differences of metabolites in the intestine of E. oculatus adults between the metal mining area and the non-metal mining area were analyzed, and KEGG database was used to conduct annotation and pathway enrichment analysis of the differential metabolites. 【Results】 The contents of nine heavy metals in E. oculatus adults in the metal mining area were 0.4-212.4 times as high as those in the non-metal mining area. The results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that the contents of 112 metabolites changed significantly in the intestine of E. oculatus adults in the metal mining area, mainly including amino acids, fatty acyls, organic acids, nucleotides and benzenes. KEGG annotation and pathway enrichment analysis showed that there were 49 significantly differential metabolites that could be annotated, and 40 significantly differential metabolites were related to metabolic pathways. The most significant enrichment pathways included thyroid hormone synthesis pathway, oxytocin signaling pathway, bile secretion pathway and tyrosine metabolism pathway. 【Conclusion】 There are multiple kinds of heavy metals accumulated in E. oculatus adults living in the environment polluted by multiple heavy metals. Heavy metals can change the composition of metabolites in the intestine of E. oculatus, and the change of some metabolites may be a strategy for E. oculatus to adapt to the habitat polluted by multiple heavy metals.
    Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Aclerda takahashii (Hemiptera: Aclerdidae)
    DENG Jun, WANG Gang, LU Cong-Cong, ZHANG Jiang-Tao, HUANG Xiao-Lei
    2022, 65(4):  451-459.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.04.005
    Abstract ( 290 )   PDF (3391KB) ( 447 )   PDF(mobile) (3391KB) ( 22 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to sequence and analyze the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Aclerda takahashii, which represents the first complete mitogenome of the family Aclerdidae of Hemiptera, and to investigate the phylogenetic relationships with other Coccoidea groups. 【Methods】 The whole mitogenome of A. takahashii was sequenced based on the Illumina sequencing technique, and analyzed with bioinformatics methods. The phylogenetic trees of hemipteran insects were constructed based on the reported complete mitochondrial genomes of 31 speciec of 15 families of Hemiptera using the maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. 【Results】 The mitogenome of A. takahashii is 16 599 bp in length with high A+T content (84.51%). The truncated tRNAs are common in this mitogenome, ten tRNAs lacking of a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm or TΨC (T) arm. The DHU and T arm of tRNAser(S1) and tRNAser(S2) are both missing. The phylogenic trees showed that Aclerdidae has the closest relationship with Coccidae. 【Conclusion】 This study reported the first mitogenome of Aclerdidae, and revealed that truncated tRNAs are prevalent in the mitogenome of A. takahashii, providing data for the further systematic research of mitogenomes of scale insects.
    Impact of overexpression and knockdown of ame-miR-13b on the expression of genes in larval gut of Apis mellifera ligustica
    ZHU Zhi-Wei, WANG Jie, LONG Qi, XU Ya-Jing, FENG Rui-Rong, LIU Jia-Mei, ZHAO Hao-Dong, ZHU Le-Ran, HOU Hai-Qing, CHEN Da-Fu, GUO Rui
    2022, 65(4):  460-468.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.04.006
    Abstract ( 307 )   PDF (3671KB) ( 250 )   PDF(mobile) (3671KB) ( 16 )     
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    【Aim】MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in important life processes such as reproduction, development and immunity in insects. The aim of this study is to explore the impact of overexpression and knockdown of ame-miR-13b on the expression of target genes in Apis mellifera ligustica larvae, so as to provide theoretical and experimental bases for further investigation of regulation mechanism of ame-miR-13b underlying the development of A. m. ligustica larval gut. 【Methods】 Based on the nucleotide sequence of ame-miR-13b, the sequences of the corresponding mimic-ame-miR-13b and inhibitor-ame-miR-13b and their counterpart controls mimic-NC and inhibitor-NC were designed and synthesized, and then mixed with the diet which was used to feed the 3-day-old larvae for 6 times with the diet changed every 12 h to perform overexpression and knockdown of ame-miR-13b, respectively. RT-qPCR was performed to detect the expression levels of ame-miR-13b and target genes Ecr, Egfr and P450 18a1 in the larval gut of A. m. ligustica after overexpression and knockdown of ame-miR-13b. 【Results】 The expression levels of ame-miR-13b in the guts of the 4- and 6-day-old larvae of A. m. ligustica fed with mimic-ame-miR-13b were significantly up-regulated as compared to that in the group fed with mimic-NC, and those in the guts of the 4-day-old larvae and in the guts of the 5- and 6-dayold larvae fed with inhibitor-ame-miR-13b were down-regulated and significantly down-regulated, respectively, as compared to that in the group fed with inhibitor-NC. After overexpression of ame-miR-13b, the expression level of Egfr in the gut of the 6-day-old larvae was significantly decreased, while those of Ecr and P450 18a1 were significantly increased as compared to that in the group fed with mimic-NC. After knockdown of ame-miR-13b, the expression of Egfr in the gut of the 6 day-old larvae was up-regulated insignificantly, that of Ecr was significantly up-regulated, whereas that of P450 18a1 was significantly down-regulated as compared to that in the group fed with inhibitor-NC. 【Conclusion】 Overexpression and knockdown of miRNA in larval individuals of A. m. ligustica are successfully achieved by feeding method. There is a potential negative regulatory relationship between ame-miR-13b and Egfr.
    Analysis of differentially expressed genes in response to low temperature stress in Apis mellifera worker pupae
    LIU Yi-Ming, XU Xin-Jian, ZHOU Shu-Jing, YAO Dan, LI Han, ZHU Chen-Yu, LI Xiang, HE Yu-Chang, ZHOU Bing-Feng, ZHU Xiang-Jie
    2022, 65(4):  469-479.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.04.007
    Abstract ( 267 )   PDF (2498KB) ( 196 )   PDF(mobile) (2498KB) ( 18 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to screen and analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) across different pupal stages of Apis mellifera workers in response to low temperature stress at the transcriptomic level. 【Methods】 The 3-d-old post-capped prepupae, and 6- and 9-d-old post-capped pupae of A. mellifera workers were exposed to 20℃ for 4 h as the cold treatment groups (T), and those reared at 35℃ (their optimal developmental temperature) for 4 h as the control groups (CK). The DEGs in A. mellifera at the three developmental stages between the cold treatment groups and the control groups were screened by transcriptomic technology, followed by GO functional classification and KEGG pathway analysis. Subsequently, the expression profiles of 8, 6, and 5 DEGs from the 3-d-old post-capped prepupae, and 6- and 9-d-old post-capped pupae, respectively, were validated by RT-qPCR. 【Results】 There were 220, 50 and 26 DEGs between the 3-d-old post-capped prepupae and 6- and 9-d-old post-capped pupae exposed to low temperature and their control groups, respectively. GO functional classification of DEGs showed that the most enriched terms are related to metabolic process, cellular process, catalytic activity and binding. In addition, more DEGs in the 3-d-old post-capped prepupae were enriched in biological process regulation, cell part and organelle. KEGG pathway analysis showed that DEGs in A. mellifera at the three developmental stages between the cold treatment groups and the control groups were enriched in global and overview maps, amino acid metabolism, signal transduction, transport and catabolism. The expression of the shared DEG 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 gene PDK1 in the 3-d-old post-capped prepupae and 6- and 9-d-old post-capped pupae exposed to low temperature was up-regulated and this gene was enriched in autophagy-animal, and mTOR and FoxO signaling pathways. In the 3-d-old post-capped prepupae in response to low temperature, the expression levels of insulin receptor substrate 1-B gene IRS1-B and Kruppel homolog 1 gene Kr-h1 were up-regulated, while those of the nuclear hormone receptor FTZ-F1 gene Ftz-F1 and ecdysis triggering hormone gene Eth were down-regulated significantly, suggesting that autophagy and ecdysis are inhibited to a greater degree in the 3-d-old post-capped prepupae in response to low temperature. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase gene TyHyd related to tanning and immunity in the 6-d-old post-capped pupae exposed to low temperature was down-regulated. The number of DEGs identified between the 9-d-old post-capped pupae exposed to low temperature and the control group was the least, suggesting that the 9-d-old post-capped pupae are less affected by low temperature among the three pupal stages. 【Conclusion】 In this study, the DEGs in different developmental stages of A. mellifera pupa in response to low temperature were determined. The results show that most of DEGs are stage-specific, suggesting that different developmental stages of A. mellifera have different response mechanisms to low temperature. The function and mechanism of some shared and stage-specific DEGs are the key content to further study the low temperature response mechanism of honeybee, which provides basic data for exploring the molecular mechanism of the response of suggesting honeybee pupae to low temperature stress.
    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant extracts and their toxicity to Coptotermes formosanus (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae)
    XIE Xiao-Jun, YANG Gui-Ying, YU Bao-Ting, HU Yin, MO Jian-Chu
    2022, 65(4):  480-489.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.04.008
    Abstract ( 278 )   PDF (11219KB) ( 188 )   PDF(mobile) (11219KB) ( 17 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to make green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extracts of multiple medicinal plants, and to detect and analyze their toxicity and action mechanism against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, so as to explore the potential of AgNPs in termite control and expand its future application in agriculture. 【Methods】 The aqueous extracts of four medicinal plants including root of rhubarb (Rheum palmatum), plants of decumbent bugle herb (Ajuga nipponensis), root of lightyellow sophorn (Sophora flavescens) and plants of houttuynia (Houttuynia cordata) were used as the raw materials to synthesize AgNPs. The formation of AgNPs was characterized by UV-visiblespectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectrum(EDS) and nanoparticle size analyzer to assess the size, shape and aggregation degree of AgNPs. Then, the toxicity of AgNPs to C. formosanus workers was measured in the laboratory condition and the action mechanism of AgNPs on termites was explored by determining the soluble protein content, acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and filter paper activity (FPA) in C. formosanus workers at 7 d after treatment with 800 mg/L AgNPs.【Results】 The green synthesized AgNPs with the aqueous extracts of four medicinal plants were spherical particles, with an average particle diameter of 69-180 nm. The LC50 values of AgNPs against C. formosanus workers in 7 d were 150, 340, 342 and 309 mg/L, respectively. The soluble protein contents, AchE activities and FPA in C. formosanus workers at 7 d after treatment with 800 mg/L AgNPs were significantly decreased compared with those in the control. 【Conclusion】 AgNPs synthesized by four plant extracts show high toxicity to C. formosanus workers, and the survival of termites can be affected by AgNPs by reducing the soluble protein content, AchE activity and FPA, suggesting that AgNPs have great potential in control of C. formosanus.
    Cloning of four carboxylesterase genes in Pardosa astrigera (Araneae: Lycosidae) and their expression profiles under deltamethrin stress
    WANG Ya-Li, ZHAO Rui, WANG Mei, ZHAO Meng-Meng, ZHANG Xiao-Chen, LI Rui
    2022, 65(4):  490-499.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.04.009
    Abstract ( 188 )   PDF (2253KB) ( 268 )   PDF(mobile) (2253KB) ( 13 )     
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    【Aim】 To investigate whether carboxylesterase genes PaCarE1-4 of Pardosa astrigera are related to the metabolism of deltamethrin.【Methods】 The cDNA sequences of four carboxylesterase genes PaCarE1-4 of P. astrigera were cloned by RT-PCR, and their sequence characteristics were analyzed by bioinformatics software. The relative expression levels of the four carboxylesterase genes in different tissues (cephalothorax, abdomen, and leg) of female and male adults of P. astrigera and in male adults of P. astrigera after exposed to different concentrations (LC10=5.151 mg/L; LC30=8.619 mg/L; and LC50=12.311 mg/L) of deltamethrin for 12 h and LC30 of deltamethrin for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h were assayed by RT-qPCR. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequences of carboxylesterase genes PaCarE1-4 (GenBank accession numbers: MZ643212, MZ643214, MZ643215 and MZ643216, respectively) were cloned. Their open reading frames (ORFs) are 1 653, 1 803, 1 827 and 1 818 bp, encoding 550, 600, 608 and 605 amino acids, respectively. Tissue expression profiles revealed that PaCarE1 and PaCarE2 were highly expressed in the abdomen of female and male adults of P. astrigera, with higher expression level in males than in females, while PaCarE3 and PaCarE4 were highly expressed in the cephalothorax of female and male adults of P. astrigera, with PaCarE3 showing higher expression level in females than in males and PaCarE4 showing higher expression level in males than in females. After treatment for 12 h, LC30 of deltamethrin induced the expression of PaCarE1 in male adults of P. astrigera, while LC10 and LC30 of deltamethrin induced the expression of PaCarE2. In male adults of P. astrigera exposed to LC30 of deltamethrin, the relative expression levels of PaCarE4 at various time points after treatment showed no significant difference from that in the control group (acetone treatment group), while the relative expression levels of PaCarE1 at 2, 8 and 12 h after treatment, PaCarE2 at 12 h after treatment and PaCarE3 at 24 h after treatment were significantly upregulated as compared to that in the control group. 【Conclusion】 The carboxylesterase genes PaCarE1, PaCarE2 and PaCarE3 can be induced by deltamethrin, indicating that they may participate in the metabolism of deltamethrin in P. astrigera. The results of this study are helpful for understanding the metabolism mechanism of foreign substances in P. astrigera, providing new ideas for the protection of this predatory enemy.
    Genetic differentiation analysis of geographical populations of Dendrothrips minowai (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in South China
    LUO Lin-Li, MENG Ze-Hong, LI Shuai, ZHAO Xing-Li, ZHOU Luo-Na, HE Sheng-Ling, WEI Ru-Hui, ZHANG Xin, ZHOU Yu-Feng
    2022, 65(4):  500-511.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.04.010
    Abstract ( 215 )   PDF (2101KB) ( 133 )   PDF(mobile) (2101KB) ( 11 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this study is to investigate the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of geographical populations of the stick tea thrip, Dendrothrips minowai, in South China based on the combined sequence of mtDNA COⅠ and COⅡ. 【Methods】 The genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, gene flow, analysis of molecular variance and correlations between geographical distance and genetic distance of eight geographical populations of D. minowai in South China were analyzed by using software MEGA 6.0, DnaSP 5.10, Arlequin, etc., and their demographic history was deduced. 【Results】 Both the mtDNA COⅠ and COⅡ sequences of D. minowai have obvious AT bias, and the combined sequence of COⅠ and COⅡ is 1 146 bp in length with 22 haplotypes. The total population of D. minowai in South China had a high level of genetic diversity, high haplotype diversity (Hd=0.924) and low nucleotide diversity (π=0.00600). The total population of the eight geographical populations had a high degree of genetic differentiation (FST=0.84830) and low level of gene communication (Nm=0.040). Significant differentiation might have occurred among different geographical populations due to genetic drift. AMOVA analysis showed that the genetic variation mainly came from the populations among groups (FCT=0.84922). Mantel test indicated that the geographical distance was significantly positively correlated with the genetic distance (r=0.5029, P<0.01). Neutrality test results revealed that the geographical populations of D. minowai  except the two geographical populations in Yunnan Province have experienced population expansion recently. 【Conclusion】 Geographical populations of D. minowai in South China have a high level of genetic diversity, a high degree of genetic differentiation and a low level of gene communication. Geographical distance might be one of the key factors affecting genetic differentiation among geographical populations of D. minowai
    Molecular mechanisms of reproductive regulation in hematophagous insects
    WANG Xue-Li, LI Shan, LYU Xiang-Yang, ZOU Zhen
    2022, 65(4):  512-521.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.04.011
    Abstract ( 424 )   PDF (1715KB) ( 476 )   PDF(mobile) (1715KB) ( 19 )     
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    Hematophagous insects are arthropods that can spread insect-borne pathogens, including mosquitoes, sandflies, midges, kissing bugs, fleas and so on. Blood-feeding behavior makes them become the vectors transmitting malaria, dengue fever, filariasis, trypanosomiasis, and other acute infectious diseases. The fast and wide-spreading of vector-borne diseases, in addition to heavy damage to human health, might result in huge economic losses. Due to the scarcity of effective medicines and increasing drug resistance of pathogens, the interruption of reproduction of hematophagous insects is an effective measure to control the spread of insect-borne diseases. Juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) play important roles in insect reproduction. JH binds to intracellular receptor complex Met/Tai to regulate the expression of JH/Met target genes, and then promotes vitellogenesis, which provides pre-requisite to bloodfeeding and oviposition of insects. Heterodimer EcR/USP is an intracellular receptor of 20E. The combination of 20E with EcR/USP complex can activate downstream gene expression and induce the synthesis of vitellogenin (Vg) to provide nutrition for the developing ovary. Nutrient signaling pathways (insulin signaling pathway and amino acidmediated target of rapamycin signaling pathway) can also activate Vg synthesis and promote insect reproduction. In addition, nutrient signaling pathways can interplay with JH and 20E signaling cascades to regulate the development and reproduction of hematophagous insects. Energy metabolism, such as carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, is the main energy source during insect reproduction, which can meet the extremely high energy requirements in different stages of reproductive development of hematophagous insects. Studies have shown that JH and 20E signaling pathways play important regulatory roles in energy metabolism. MicroRNAs have been proved to be closely related to physiological processes such as gut microbiome homeostasis, blood digestion and lipid metabolism in mosquitoes, further affecting the development mosquitoes. In recent years, with the innovation of molecular biology and sequencing technology, new progress has been made in the study of reproductive regulation mechanisms in hematophagous insects. In this article, we present the research progress and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive regulation in hematophagous insects, which will provide important clues for blocking the transmission of vector-borne diseases by regulating the reproduction of hematophagous insects.
    Research progress on the occurrence, damage and control of Mythimna loreyi (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    DUAN Yun, CHEN Qi, GUO Pei, MIAO Jin, XIA Peng-Liang, GONG Zhong-Jun, JIANG Yue-Li, LI Tong, WU Yu-Qing
    2022, 65(4):  522-532.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.04.012
    Abstract ( 539 )   PDF (1666KB) ( 236 )   PDF(mobile) (1666KB) ( 36 )     
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     Mythimna loreyi is a relative species of Mythimna seperata. The two pest species are similar in morphology and have basically the same damage characteristics, but there may be some differences in the occurrence and damage rules in different regions. In recent years, M. loreyi has become a common agricultural pest with frequent outbreaks in many countries and regions. In order to deeply study the outbreak law and to comprehensively prevent and control this pest, we summarized its research status based on the analysis of domestic and foreign research data in this article. At present, M. loreyi has been distributed in nearly 80 countries and regions in Asia, Europe, Africa, Oceania and North America. The larvae of this pest feed on a variety of gramineous crops and weeds, such as corn, rice and wheat. Before the 3rd instar, the larvae eat less, the 5th-6th instar larvae eat more, and enter the gluttony stage. The larvae of M. loreyi are aggregative, omnivorous and gluttonous, and the adults are migratory. The damage caused by this pest is covert, sporadic and fulminant. There are differences in the law of the occurrence and damage of M. loreyi due to different regions, years and seasons. Climatic conditions, food and natural enemies are the main factors that affect its damage. At the same time, it is pointed out that climatic factors, human activities and the biological characteristics of M. loreyi are the important factors that have led to its occurrence expansion and damage aggravation in recent years. Sex attractants, natural enemies and biological pesticides are the main research directions in the biological control of this pest in recent years. Based on the occurrence and research status of M. loreyi in China, the following three aspects are suggested to be carried out in the future work: (1) By learning from the prevention and control strategies and experience of M. seperata, strengthening the prediction and forecast of M. loreyi from two aspects of air forecast and ground forecast; (2) carrying out comprehensive prevention and control work from agricultural control, physical control, biological control and chemical control; and (3) applying modern technologies and methods such as biotechnology and modern agricultural information technology to study the law of outbreak and disaster, integrated prevention and control of M. loreyi, and to establish the comprehensive prevention and control technology systems.
    A survey of the composition and occurrence of agromyzid leafminers and their parasitoids in Baiyin, Gansu, northwestern China
    HE Jing, DU Su-Jie, CHENG Xin-Fei, WANG Qi-Jing, GUO Jian-Yang, WANG Zuo-Wei, WANG Fu-Lian, LIU Wan-Xue
    2022, 65(4):  533-540.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.04.013
    Abstract ( 293 )   PDF (1349KB) ( 157 )   PDF(mobile) (1349KB) ( 14 )     
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    【Aim】 The purpose of this study is to reveal the diversity and population composition of the agromyzid leafminers attacking crops and their parasitoids in Baiyin, Gansu province, northwestern China. 【Methods】 The vegetables, flowers, and weeds damaged by the agromyzid leafminers were surveyed and sampled in fields by five-point sampling method, and the agromyzid leafminers and their parasitoids were identified by morphological and molecular methods. 【Results】 In total six species of agromyzid leafminers were found in the collected samples in Baiyin, Gansu province during 2016-2020, including native species Chromatomyia horticola and Liriomyza chinensis, and invasive species L. huidobrensis, L. trifolii, L. bryoniae, and L. sativae. Among them, C. horticola was the dominant species which damaged multi-family host plants. L. chinensis was only found on Allium fistulosum. L. huidobrensis occurred seriously on vegetables in the greenhouse. Furthermore, it was the first time to find L. trifolii in Baiyin. Besides, L. bryoniae and L. sativae had less damage than other agromyzid leafminers. In addition, the surveyed parasitoids included 24 species, 12 genera and 3 families, and the dominant species were Diglyphus isaea, Neochrysocharis formosa, D. wani, and Dacnusa sibirica. 【Conclusion】 On the one hand, monitoring and early warning of the occurrence of the invasive agromyzid leafminers should be strengthened in Baiyin. On the other hand, the parasitoids of the agromyzid leafminers are abundant in Baiyin and may play an important role in natural control of the main damage by the agromyzid leafminers in the field, so it is recommended to protect and apply of local parasitoids.
    Contents of Vol. 65 Issue 4
    2022, 65(4):  541-541. 
    Abstract ( 141 )   PDF (519KB) ( 166 )   PDF(mobile) (519KB) ( 7 )     
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