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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 July 2022, Volume 65 Issue 7
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Dynamics of ecdysone titer and the interference of methoxyfenozide on diapause during the development of Carposina sasakii(Lepidoptera: Carposinidae)
    LI Yong-Li, YAN Zuo-Bing, YIN Xin-Ming, LEI Zhen-Shan, ZHOU Zhou
    2022, 65(7):  791-798.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.07.001
    Abstract ( 224 )   PDF (1726KB) ( 125 )   PDF(mobile) (1726KB) ( 35 )     
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    【Aim】 Under short and long light photoperiod, the mature larvae of Carposina sasakii undergo diapause and non-diapause development, respectively. This study aims to interfere with the diapause of C. sasakii by using the ecdysone analog methoxyfenozide so as to lay a foundation for the new control technologies for C. sasakii. 【Methods】 The 20E titer dynamics in C. sasakii during larvae diapause and non-diapause developments were measured by ELISA. The interference effect of methoxyfenozide (0.05, 0.1, 1, 2, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/mL) and 20E (0.5 and 1 mg/mL) on the cocoon formation of C. sasakii was determined using the sandblast method with pure water as the control. The effects of 5 mg/mL methoxenozide and 1 mg/mL 20E sandblasting treatments on the 20E titer of C. sasakii were measured, and the effect of sandblasting with 0.1 and 5 mg/mL methoxenozide on the diapause of C. sasakii were investigated subsequently. 【Results】 There was no difference in 20E titer in the developmental process between diapause and non-diapause larvae of C. sasakii under two photoperiods (15L∶9D and 12L∶12D), and both gradually decreased with the increase of instar and reched the lowest when they escaped off fruits. However, the 20E titer in non-diapause larvae escaping off fruits under long photoperiod (0.473 ng/g) was significantly higher than that in diapause larvae escaping off fruits under short photoperiod (0.254 ng/g). The non-diapause developmental larvae entered the long cocoon pupation after defruiting, and the 20E titer increased significantly and maintained a high level (0.652-1.217 ng/g) in the pupal stage. The diapause developmental larvae entered the 
    round cocoon diapause after defruiting, and the 20E titer slowly increased in the first four days, reaching the first peak (0.656 ng/g) on the 4th day, then decreased and then increased again, reaching the 2nd peak (0.790 ng/g) on the 8th day. With the entry of diapause stabilization period, the 20E titer gradually decreased. After 70 d, the diapause was relieved, and the 20E titer remained at a low level. The lowest titer (0.424 ng/g) of diapause period was reached on the 90th day, and then the 20E titer began to rise. Methoxyfenozide at the concentration of 0.05 mg/mL could interfere with the formation of diapause round cocoons of C. sasakii larvae escaping off fruits under short photoperiod, and the LD50 value of methoxyfenozide to mature defruiting larvae of C. sasakii was 7.039 μg/individual. Both methoxyhydrazine and 20E at the concentration of more than 0.05 mg/mL sprayed on the sand surface could effectively interfere with the formation of diapause round cocoons of C. sasakii, and 20E showed higher interference activity than methoxyfenozide at the same concentration of 1 mg/mL. Both of them could make the diapause larvae produce long cocoon, abnormal cocoon and non-cocooning reaction, and the 20E titer in abnormal cocoon and non-cocooning larvae increased significantly. The percentages of cocooning failure in 5 mg/mL methoxyfenozide and 1 mg/mL 20E sand spraying treatments were 70.0% and 66.7%, respectively. The 20E titers in abnormal cocooning larvae significantly increased by 16.3% and 143.0%, respectively. The 20E titers in non-cocooning larvae significantly increased by 149.3% and 278.6%, respectively. Although some larvae could form round cocoons after being exposed to 0.1 mg/mL methoxyfenozide, the proportion of larvae successfully completing diapause and eclosion reduced, and the eclosion rate was only 20.8%. 【Conclusion】 The 20E titer in C. sasakii keeps a low titer during the diapause process, and a higher titer is needed in the reproductive developmental stage. Moreover, methoxyfenozide and 20E can interfere with its diapause state forming round cocoons. The increase range of 20E titer is consistent with the change of cocooning phenotype, and 20E shows higher interference activity than methoxyfenozide at the same concentration. Methoxyfenozide reduces the proportion of larvae successfully completing diapause.
    miR-252-5p affects metamorphosis by targetedly regulating the expression of juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase gene JHAMTin Drosophila
    ZHANG Ze-Lin, JI Jie, XU Wen-Yu, LIU Zhuo, FAN Xiao-Chun, DENG Chang-Xin, HE Qian-Yu
    2022, 65(7):  799-806.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.07.002
    Abstract ( 136 )   PDF (3459KB) ( 68 )   PDF(mobile) (3459KB) ( 25 )     
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    【Aim】 Juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase (JHAMT) is the key rate-limiting enzyme in the juvenile hormone (JH) synthetic pathway. This study aims to screen and verify the miRNAs targetedly regulating the transcription of JHAMT, and to eveal the important action mechanism of miRNAs in JH biosynthesis in Drosophila melanogaster. 【Methods】 MiRNAs targeting JHAMT in D. melanogaster were predicted using online websites miRanda, TargetScan and microT-CDS, and those predicted by all the three websites were selected as the miRNA candidates targeting JHAMT. The targeted relationship between candidate miRNAs and JHAMT were verified using a dual luciferase assay system. The expression profiles of miRNA and JHAMT during D. melanogaster development were detected by qRT-PCR. The effects of miRNAs on the JHAMT expression and metamorphosis in D. melanogaster were tested by overexpressing miRNA in the corpora allata using qRT-PCR and the fly GAL4-UAS system, respectively. 【Results】 A total of 5, 18 and 16 miRNAs targeting JHAMT were predicted by miRanda, TargetScan and microT-CDS, respectively, and four miRNAs including miR-252-5p, miR-277-3p, miR-1002-5p and miR-987-5p were coincidentally predicted by these three algorithms. Dual luciferase assay results showed that miR-252-5p mimics significantly decreased the luciferase activities of wild-type JHAMT 3′UTR luciferase reporter, and the suppression effect was compromised when the miR-252-5p binding sites within the 3′UTR of JHAMT were mutated. qRT-PCR results showed that miR-252-5p and JHAMT displayed opposite expression patterns in egg, larval and prepupal stages of D. melanogaster, and overexpression of miR-252 in the corpora allata significantly decreased the expression levels of JHAMT and the JH primary response gene Kr-h1. Meanwhile, overexpression of miR-252 resulted in similar phenotypes as JH deletion, such as delayed pupation, reduced pupal size and increased pupal lethality. 【Conclusion】 miR-252-5p affects Drosophila metamorphosis through targeting JHAMT and regulating JH biosynthesis.
    Effects of RNAi-mediated gene silencing of GdHsp60 and GdHsp70 on the cold hardiness of Galeruca daurica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae
    ZHANG Hong-Ling, REN Hao, LI Kai-Xuan, TIAN Yu, ZHANG Heng, LI Yan-Yan, LI Ling, PANG Bao-Ping, TAN Yao
    2022, 65(7):  807-817.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.07.003
    Abstract ( 131 )   PDF (1829KB) ( 98 )   PDF(mobile) (1829KB) ( 8 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to compare the efficiency of different RNAi methods for silencing the heat shock protein genes (GdHsp60 and GdHsp70) of Galeruca daurica, so as to select a method for efficiently reducing the expression level of target gene expression for the functional study to clarify the function of these two genes in the cold hardiness of G. daurica larvae. 【Methods】 GdHsp60 and GdHsp70 in the 1st and 2nd instar larvae of G. daurica were silenced by RNAi via feeding and microinjection, respectively, and their silencing efficiencies were detected by qPCR. After RNAi of GdHsp60 and GdHsp70 by microinjection for 24 h, the super-cooling point and freezing point of the 2nd instar larvae of G. daurica were determined with thermocouple method, and the median lethal temperature (Ltemp50) for the 2nd instar larvae exposed to different low temperatures (-6--14℃) for 2 h and the median lethal time (Ltime50) for exposed to -5℃ for different periods were determined by bioassay. 【Results】 GdHsp60 and GdHsp70 could be silenced by RNAi via both feeding and microinjection, but microinjection-based RNAi had higher silencing efficiency. After microinjection of dsGdHsp60 and dsGdHsp70 into the 2nd instar larvae of G. daurica for 24 h, the expression levels of GdHsp60 and GdHsp70 decreased to the lowest point, being decreased by 84.15% and 92.38%, respectively, as compared to that in the control (microinjected with dsGFP).  In the 2nd instar larvae of G. daurica, the super-cooling point, freezing point, and Ltemp50 and Ltime50 values after microinjection of dsGdHsp60 for 24 h were -10.56±0.42℃, -7.66±0.56℃, -8.33℃ and 49.25 h, respectively, while those after microinjection of dsGdHsp70 for 24 h were -9.08±0.23℃, -6.09±0.28℃, -8.20℃, and 52.21 h, respectively, and those in the control were 14.71±0.11℃, 13.94±0.09℃, -10.63℃ and 87.13 h, respectively. Compared with the control (microinjected with dsGFP), the super-cooling point, freezing point and Ltemp50 in the 2nd instar larvae of G. daurica microinjected with dsGdHsp60 and dsGdHsp70 for 24 h significantly increased, while the Ltime50 value significantly shortened. 【Conclusion】 Microinjection method can be used to efficiently silence the Hsp-related genes in G. daurica. Silencing GdHsp60 and GdHsp70 can significantly decrease the cold hardiness of G. daurica larvae.
    Binding properties of the chemosensory protein CchiCSP8 in Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to pear tree volatiles
    YAO Wei-Chen, XU Ji-Wei, XU Lu, ZHU Xiu-Yun, ZHANG Ya-Nan
    2022, 65(7):  818-830.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.07.004
    Abstract ( 108 )   PDF (5668KB) ( 91 )   PDF(mobile) (5668KB) ( 8 )     
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    【Aim】 Cacopsylla chinensis is an important pest of pear trees in China. The objectives of this study are to analyze the binding properties of the chemosensory protein 8 of C. chinensis (CchiCSP8) to volatiles of pear trees, and to comprehensively study the 
    olfactory function of CchiCSP8, so as to provide a preliminary basis for explaining the olfactory mechanism of C. chinensis locating pear trees in the future. 【Methods】 We cloned the full-length open reading frame (ORF) of CchiCSP8 by PCR, and performed homology 
    alignment and phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequences of CchiCSP8 with CSPs from other hemipteran insects. We then constructed the prokaryotic expression vector pET30a(+)-CchiCSP8 and determined the binding affinities of the recombinant CchiCSP8 to 41 pear tree volatiles by in vitro expression of Escherichia coli, His-tag protein nickel beads purification technology and fluorescence competitive binding assay. CchiCSP8 was subsequently subjected to homologous modeling and molecular docking analysis. 【Results】 The full-length ORF sequence of CchiCSP8 was cloned and obtained. It is 426 bp 
    in length, encoding 141 amino acids, with a signal peptide consisting of 21 amino acids at the N-terminus. The predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point of mature CchiCSP8 protein are 15.02 kD and 9.77, respectively. By sequence alignment with the CSPs of the same order insects, it was found that CchiCSP8 has four conserved cysteine sites and is of the closest evolutionary relationship with DcitCSP11 of Diaphorina citri. pET30a(+)-CchiCSP8 was successfully expressed in E. coli after induction by IPTG, and a clean 
    CchiCSP8 protein was purified by nickel magnetic beads. The binding affinities of the recombinant CchiCSP8 analyzed by fluorescence competitive binding assay showed that CchiCSP8 had certain binding affinities to 18 volatiles of pear tree, including 4 alkenes, 6 alcohols, 4 aldehydes, 1 ketone, 1 ester and 2 aromatics ligands, with the Ki values of 14-30 μmol/L. The binding affinities of CchiCSP8 with ligands changed with the number of carbon atoms. The molecular docking results showed that the binding energy (-4.2-6.0 
    kJ/mol) between CchiCSP8 and each ligand was not obviously different, being consistent with the results of the above fluorescence competitive binding assay. During the binding process between CchiCSP8 and different ligands, several common amino acid residues, including 5 non-polar residues (A38, A42, L93, L99 and V100) and 2 polar residues (Q107 and K46), play a most prominent role. 【Conclusion】 CchiCSP8 can bind 18 pear tree volatiles of different types, suggesting that it plays an important role in the process of identifying pear tree volatiles by C. chinensis. The results of this study lay a theoretical basis for clarifying the olfactory mechanism of C. chinensis in the process of locating pear trees, providing a new idea for behavioral regulation of C. chinensis based on disturbing the olfactory behavior of the pest.
    cDNA cloning, expression and ligand binding properties of the chemosensory protein PyasCSP4 in Scythropus yasumatsui (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    HONG Bo, CHANG Qing, ZHAI Ying-Yan, REN Bo-Wen, XIE Yu-Fen, ZHANG Feng
    2022, 65(7):  831-842.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.07.005
    Abstract ( 114 )   PDF (3700KB) ( 51 )   PDF(mobile) (3700KB) ( 16 )     
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     【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the expression features and ligand binding characteristics of chemosensory protein 4 (CSP4) in Scythropus yasumatsui, a major pest of Zizyphus jujuba. 【Methods】 Based on the antennal transcriptome data of S. yasumatsui 
    adults, the cDNA sequence of PyasCSP4 was cloned by using RT-PCR and then subjected to bioinformatical analysis. The expression levels of PyasCSP4 in different adult tissues (antennae, heads without antennae, thoraxes, abdomens, legs and wings) of S. yasumatsui adults were assayed by RT-qPCR. The recombinant PyasCSP4 was prokaryotically expressed and then purified by Ni-NTA resin. The binding characteristics of the recombinant PyasCSP4 with 35 jujube volatiles were assayed by fluorescence competitive binding assay. 【Results】 The cDNA sequence of PyasCSP4 (GenBank accession no. OK322362) was cloned from S. yasumatsui. It contains an open reading frame of 366 bp in length, encoding 121 amino acids with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids at the N-terminus. The mature protein of PyasCSP4 possesses four conserved cysteines. The RT-qPCR analysis result showed that PyasCSP4 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues of S. yasumatsui adults. The expression levels of PyasCSP4 in adult antennae and wings were significantly higher than those in other tissues. The recombinant PyasCSP4 had binding activities to 25 ligands, and particularly had the strongest binding affinity to α-pinene, α-phellandrene and ocimene, with the dissociation constant (Ki) values of 6.29, 6.58 and 6.69 μmol/L, respectively. 【Conclusion】 PyasCSP4 has the capability to bind a variety of jujube volatiles, indicating that it may play an important role in locating host plants for S. yasumatsui. The results have great significance for elucidating the olfactory mechanism of S. yasumatsui and implementing green prevention and control measures.
    Inhibition of glucose oxidase gene decreases the resistance of Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis infection (In English)
    YANG Hang, YANG Hong-Jia, ZHANG Ya-Nan, WANG Xiao-Xi, FAN Dong
    2022, 65(7):  843-851.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.07.006
    Abstract ( 115 )   PDF (1228KB) ( 34 )   PDF(mobile) (1228KB) ( 8 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this study is to explore the roles of glucose oxidase (GOX) in the development, digestion, and immune defense of Mythimna separata.【Methods】 The cDNA sequence of GOX gene from M. separata was cloned by transcriptome sequencing technology. The specific expression patterns of this GOX gene in different developmental stages (1st-6th instar larvae, pupae and 1-day-old adults) and tissues (foregut, midgut, hindgut, labial gland, Malpighian tubules, fat body, and integument) of the day-1 4th instar larvae, and the day-1 4th instar larvae of M. separata fed with maize leaves soaked in different concentrations (0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, and 10%) of glucose solution for 10 s and under starvation and refeeding conditions were detected by qRT.PCR. The role of this GOX gene in the resistance of M. separata to Bacillus thuringiensis was explored by RNAi and bioassay.【Results】 A 2 187 bp cDNA sequence of a novel GOX gene named MsGOX (GenBank accession no.: KY348779) was obtained from M. separata. It has the open reading frame of 1 821 bp in length, encoding a 606-amino acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 66.4 kD. Developmental expression profile revealed that MsGOX showed different expression levels in M. separata at different developmental stages, with the highest expression level at the 4th instar larval stage, and tissue expression profile showed that MsGOX was expressed in various tissues of the day-1 4th instar larvae,with the highest expression level in labial glands. MsGOX transcription could be induced differently by feeding larvae with different concentrations of glucose. The expression level of MsGOX reached the highest when the glucose concentration was 10%. The expression level of MsGOX in the day-1 4th instar larvae increased gradually with the starvation time increasing, and reached the peak at 24 h after starvation. When the larvae were refed with maize leaves after starvation, the expression level of MsGOX gradually increased. At 48 h after injection of dsMsGOX, the expression level of MsGOX was inhibited by 88.3% as compared to the control (injected with dsEGFP). The larval body weight, body length, and digestibility coefficient at 48 and 72 h after injection of dsMsGOX were significantly reduced, and the corrected mortality rates of larvae infected by B. thuringiensis at 48 and 72 h were enhanced, as compared to those in the control groups at the same time points. 【Conclusion】 MsGOX might participate in digestion and antibacterial processes in the midgut of M. separata. The results provide a basis for further studying the function of MsGOX and exploring novel strategy to control M. separata.
    Effects of residues of pesticides commonly used in corn fields on Trichogramma ostriniae  (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) at different time after application
    WANG Yu, DAI Xiao-Yan, WANG Rui-Juan, LIU Yan, CHEN Hao, ZHENG Li, DONG Xiao-Lin, ZHAI Yi-Fan
    2022, 65(7):  852-865.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.07.007
    Abstract ( 147 )   PDF (3087KB) ( 65 )   PDF(mobile) (3087KB) ( 13 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to evaluate the safety of fungicides and insecticides commonly used in corn fields to Trichogramma ostriniae. 【Methods】 Corn leaves were applied with four fungicides (thiophanate-methyl, tebuconazole, bismerthiazol, and pyraclostrobin) and four insecticides (avermectins, chlorantraniliprole, beta-cypermethrin, and imidacloprid) at the field recommended dosages in the laboratory. At 1, 3, 5 and 7 d after pesticide application, the mortality rates, parasitic abilities (numbers of Sitotroga cerealella eggs parasitized) and offspring emergence rates of T. ostriniae adults exposed to corn leaves containing pesticide residues for 24 h were investigated. 【Results】 Different fungicides and insecticides at different time after application had significant effects on the mortality rate, parasitic ability and emergence rate of T. ostrinia adults. Among the four fungicides, the effects of bismerthiazol and pyraclostrobin on the parasitic ability of T. ostrinia lasted for a long time. After 7 d of application, the number of S. cerealella eggs parasitized by T. ostrinia adults exposed to corn leaves containing bismerthiazol and pyraclostrobin residues for 24 h were 20.25 and 20.80, respectively. Tebuconazole had the greatest effect on T. ostrinia. After T. ostrinia adults were exposed to corn leaves containing tebuconazole residue for 24 h, their emergence rate was 18.48% at 7 d after pesticide application and their mortality was 37.03% at 3 d after pesticide application. Among the four insecticides, avermectins and imidacloprid had a more long-lasting effect on the parasitic ability of T. ostrinia and showed greater toxicity. After T. ostrinia adults were exposed to corn leaves containing avermectins and imidacloprid residues for 24 h, the numbers of S. cerealella eggs parasitized were 3.43 and 9.19, respectively, at 7 d after pesticide application, and their mortality rates were 96.21% and 74.00%, respectively, at 1-3 d after pesticide application. The emergence of T. ostrinia offspring was damaged for a longer time after application of beta-cypermethrin, and the offspring emergence rate was 27.92% at 7 d after application. In general, the four insecticides had a greater impact on T. ostriniae than the four fungicides. 【Conclusion】 It is not recommended to use the three fungicides, tebuconazole, bismerthiazol and pyraclostrobin, and the two insecticides, avermectins and imidacloprid, in the field in 7 d before T. ostriniae are released to control Ostrinia nubilalis, and to use thiophanate-methyl and beta-cypermethrin in 5 d before T. ostriniae release. Chlorantraniliprole should be reasonably used depending on the recommended field dosages.
    Barrier effect of brochosomes with superhydrophobicity on the resistance of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii (Hemiptera: Cicadellidea), to the permeability of insecticide droplets
    LIN Mei-Zhen, QU Zheng, HU Shang-Mi, SUMANG Reziya, YANG Guang
    2022, 65(7):  866-876.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.07.008
    Abstract ( 104 )   PDF (17081KB) ( 57 )   PDF(mobile) (17081KB) ( 10 )     
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    【Aim】 Brochosomes, covering on the body surface of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii, actively make their integument superhydrophobic. It is unclear whether the dynamic of insecticide droplets is influenced by brochosomes after droplets fall on insect body. This study aims to clarify the barrier effect of brochosomes on the resistance of E. onukii adults to the permeability of insecticide droplets. 【Methods】 Rhodamine B (RhB) was added into the test insecticides (bifenthrin and indoxacarb) as the indicator, and the dynamics of behaviors of E. onukii adults including rolling off, drying out, or swept away insecticide drops in 24 h after spraying of bifenthrin (1.25 and 0.05 mg/L) and indoxacarb (0.006 and 0.0009 mg/L) were observed and recorded by using photographic microscope. The relationship between the size of insecticide droplets and the deposition shapes after drying out on the leafhopper wings was analyzed. The contact angles between the insecticide droplet and the leafhopper forewing with brochosomes or brochosomes removed were measured. The brochosome densities on different hydrophobic wings were calculated. Both the insecticide droplets and granules of droplet deposition swept off from the leafhopper body were collected and observed under scanning electron microscope to verify the attachment of brochosomes. And the contact micromorphology of the dried solute of insecticide droplets with brochosomes on the leafhopper wings was observed. 【Results】 Spherical insecticide droplets could not autonomously roll off from the wings of E. onukii adults, and 72% of leafhoppers stood still until insecticide droplets on the wings dried out. Insecticide droplets were changed into granules or spots in irregular shape after evaporation, and the drying types of the droplets depended on the hydrophobicity of wing surface, but were unrelated to the droplet size. All the insecticide granules on the wings of E. onukii adults were swept away by grooming in 24 h after evaporation of droplets. On the hydrophobic leafhopper wings, the contact angle of droplet was 141.63±8.06°, and the drying droplets turned into granules, with the brochosome density of 6.1±1.2 particles/μm2, while the drying droplets turned into spots on the wings with low hydrophobicity, and the brochosome density of 2.2±0.9 particles/μm2. The SEM images showed that there were numerous brochosomes accumulated on the surface of insecticidal droplets and granules which were groomed away by E. onukii adults. Some brochosome agglomerates were found on insecticide spots and granules, and some were integrated with the dried solute residue. 【Conclusion】 The spherical shape of insecticide droplets on the wings of E. onukii adults are generated under the uniform distribution of superhydrophobic brochosomes. That insecticide droplets turn into granules after evaporation is related to the superoleophilicity and agglomeration of brochosomes. In addition, the detachment of brochosomes contributes to the removal of insecticide granules by grooming of E. onukii adults.
    Circadian rhythms of the sex pheromone biosynthesis and release and the calling and mating behaviors of adult Sesamia inferens(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    GUO Qian-Shuang, ZHUO Fu-Yan, ZHU Jing-Quan, CHEN Qing-Hua, ZHU Feng, HUANG De-Chao, DU Yong-Jun
    2022, 65(7):  877-885.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.07.009
    Abstract ( 108 )   PDF (2051KB) ( 87 )   PDF(mobile) (2051KB) ( 8 )     
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    【Aim】 To explore the circadian rhythms of the synthesis and release of sex heromones Z11-16∶Ac and Z11-16∶OH and the calling and mating behaviors of adult Sesamia inferens, and their relationships with sex pheromone trapping in the field. 【Methods】 The sex pheromone titers of Z11-16∶Ac and Z11-16∶OH of female moths of S. inferens were analyzed by solvent extraction and solid phase microextraction (SPME), and the circadian rhythms of sex pheromone biosynthesis and release and the calling and mating behaviours of moths were investigated by behavioral observation and real-time counting of moth catches by sex pheromone trapping in the field in multiple localities. 【Results】 The detectable time of sex pheromone Z11-16∶Ac and Z11-16∶OH in the pheromone glands of female moths of S. inferens started at 1 h before scotophase, and increased rapidly at 4 h into scotophase, reaching the first peak at 8 h into scotophase and the 2nd peak at 1 h into photophase. The sex pheromone compounds were significantly detected at 5 h into photophase. The detectable time for sex pheromone compounds emitted outside of the glands started at 6 h into scotophase and peaked at 10 h into scotophase, and the sex pheromone Z11-16∶Ac titer still remained 96.9±20.9 ng/female even at 1 h into photophase. The ratios of Z11-16∶Ac and Z11-16∶OH obtained by solvent extraction were not significantly different in scotophase and photophase, with averages of 2.8±1.9 and 2.5±0.9, respectively, while the difference in the ratios of Z11-16∶Ac and Z11-16∶OH obtained by SPME was statistically significant in scotophase and photophase, with averages of 8.5±1.2 and 5.7±0.6, respectively. The full extrusion of ovipositor occurred at 6-8 h after scotophase, and lasted 80.8±4.4 min on average. The mating of S. inferens occurred at 4-10 h into scotophase, and lasted 83.4±5.0 min on average. The real-time hourly and daily counting of moth catches in the field by automatic counting of pheromone trapping in the four provinces of Guangdong, Sichuan, Zhejiang and Jiangsu showed that the number of moths trapped was relatively concentrated in time in the overwintering generation, but was relatively scattered in the following generations. The circadian rhythms of male moth trapping in the field were affected by such factors as geographical environment, season and generation. 【Conclusion】 This study reveals that the circadian rhythms of mating and sex pheromone release of S. inferens are inconsistent and the mating time is in the earlier period after scotophase. The range of effective release time of sex pheromone of female moths is shorter than that of response time of male moths to sex pheromone. The extrusion of the ovipositor is associated with the elevated release rate and the disperse range of the sex pheromones released by female moths.
    Life table parameters and predation ability of Amblyseius herbicolus (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) reared continuously on Oulenziella bakeri(Acarina: Winterschmidtiidae)
    HOU Fei, NI Zhao-Hong, ZOU Meng-Ting, ZHU Rui, YI Tian-Ci, GUO Jian-Jun, JIN Dao-Chao
    2022, 65(7):  886-894.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.07.010
    Abstract ( 89 )   PDF (1442KB) ( 54 )   PDF(mobile) (1442KB) ( 23 )     
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    【Aim】 Alternative food is a critical component for the mass-rearing of biological control agents, but the impacts of continuous single diet may affect the survival, reproduction and predation ability of natural enemies. This study aims to clarify the growth and development, fecundity and predation ability of Amblyseius herbicolus reared on Oulenziella bakeri. 【Methods】 Life table parameters of A. herbicolus in the F2, F4 and F6 generations reared on O. bakeri were analyzed using the age-stage, two-sex life table, and their predation abilities on Tetranychus urticae were determined by predation functional response. 【Results】 Among F2, F4 and F6, the larval duration of A. herbicolus lengthened gradually and the longevity of female and male adults gradually shortened with the increase of the generations, but no significant differences were found in the duration of the egg, protonymph and deutonymph of these three generations. No significant effect was found in the survival rate and population parameters among the three generations of A. herbicolus. In population parameters, the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) of the three generations were 0.19-0.20 and 1.21-1.22 d-1, respectively. The female adults of A. herbicolus of F2, F4 and F6 generations had no significant difference in the consumed amount of nymphs and female adults of T. urticae, and the predation functional response was fitted to HollingⅡmodel. 【Conclusion】 A. herbicolus can develop and reproduce normally when continuously reared on the alternative prey O. bakeri, and its population quantity has an increasing tendency. The study suggests that O. bakeri could be the potential alternative prey for mass-rearing of A. herbicolus
    Morphological and biological characteristics of Drepanococcus chiton (Hemiptera: Coccidae), a new pest of Phyllanthus emblica in China
    JIANG Hua, HUANG Jia-Cong, YANG Yan-Ping, LI Gui-Lin
    2022, 65(7):  895-904.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.07.011
    Abstract ( 100 )   PDF (51797KB) ( 59 )   PDF(mobile) (51797KB) ( 20 )     
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    【Aim】 Drepanococcus chiton is a newly recorded Coccidae pest in China in recent years. It can pose a great threat to the agricultural production and ecological environment, and its harm to Phyllanthus emblica was first found and described in western 
    Yunnan. It is of great significance to study its spatial distribution, and morphological and biological characteristics for its monitoring and control. 【Methods】 From May to September 2019, we investigated the occurrence and population densityof D. chiton on three test plantations of P. emblica in Baoshan, Yunnan Province by sample-plot survey and analyzed its spatial distribution pattern by clump intensity index. From January to December 2020, we bred D. chiton indoors and in the experimental field, respectively, by fresh branches of P. emblica without the pest and P. emblica plants grafted with D. chiton female adults, and observed the reproductive mode, postembryonic development, morphological characteristics, developmental duration and life history. 【Results】 In western Yunnan, D. chiton was distributed in groves of P. emblica aggregately, its damage rate was 32%-56% and its population density was 10.95-94.26 individuals per plant. It has two generations a year. The fertilized female adults overwinter on the host branches and their oviposition periods are during January-February, June-July and October-November. The growing periods of the 1st-2nd instar nymphs are during January-March and June-September, and the peak periods of eclosion of male adults and copulation of adults were in mid-late March and during late July-middle August, respectively. The reproductive mode is bisexual reproduction and the postembryonic development is oviparous type. The oval and orange yellow eggs are accumulated outside the matrix and protected in wax shell, and their average developmental duration is 8-13 d. The 1st instar nymphs are flat, smooth, orange yellow, active and diffused with the wind and molted in 12-18 d. The 2nd instar nymphs are slightly arched on the back, secrete dentate waxy bulges and differentiate into female and male in 7-10 d. The 3rd instar female nymphs have large arched backs, transparent thin wax shells and yellow green or brown bodies, and their average duration is 13-18 d. The longest average duration of female adults is 50-62 d, their abdomens press back before laying eggs, the number of eggs laid per female is 847.03±13.72, and the egg hatching rate was 97.68%. The male 
    has three developmental stages: prepupa, pupa and adult. The prepupal duration is 5-7 d and the pupal duration 7-10 d. The male adults have developed front wings, degenerated rear wings and developed external genital process, and their shortest life span is only 1-3 d, so they are difficultly seen in the forest. 【Conclusion】 D. chiton is distributed in groves of P. emblica in western Yunnan aggregately and the female adults have proper reproductivity. The dispersal stage of the 1st instar nymphs is from January to March and the developmental stage of piercing-sucking mouthparts of the 2nd instar nymphs is from June to September when they are asthenic. Therefore, it is suggested to carry out comprehensive control at these periods of a year.
    Embryonic and postembryonic development of Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)
    GUAN Yue-Shan, ZHU Fang-Li, YANG Yi-Han, CAO Hui-Yi, YAN Yu-Ning, WANG Xing-Min
    2022, 65(7):  905-911.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.07.012
    Abstract ( 97 )   PDF (9335KB) ( 41 )   PDF(mobile) (9335KB) ( 15 )     
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    【Aim】 Leptocybe invasa is an important pest of eucalyptus trees. This study ims to investigate the embryonic and postembryonic development of L. invasa so as to understand its biological characteristics and occurrence and infestation rules. 【Methods】 The female reproductive system, eggs and galls of L. invasa were dissected, its embryonic and postembryonic development were observed, and the volumes of the galls, chambers and larvae as well as the thickness of the parenchyma cell layer were measured at each developmental stage. 【Results】 The embryonic development of L. invasa is completed in 138 h, including three stages: the period of nutrition accumulation after egg laying (0-24 h), the embryonic stage (36-84 h), and the hatching stage (96-138 h). The developmental process of L. invasa in galls is consistent with that of the galls. The gall structure is composed of three basic layers including epidermal layer, mesenchymal layer and parenchyma cell layer from the outer side to the inner side. The increase rate of the larval volume of L. invasa showed a unimodal change trend with the time of development, and reached the maximum at 30 d. The increase rate of the gall showed a parabola-shaped change trend and the thickness of the parenchyma cell layer of the galls also showed a parabola-shaped change trend (increased rapidly in the early stage and decreased slowly in the later stage) with the time of development. 【Conclusion】 At the age of 25 d, L. invasa larva is still at the early instar with low food intake, but the thickness of the parenchyma cell layer (food) in the gall reached the maximum, which is prepared for the rapid growth of larva.
    Morphological differentiation in the Asian honey bees (Apis cerana) in China (In English)
    HU Xiang-Jie, ZHOU Shu-Jing, XU Xin-Jian, YU Ying-Long, HU Jun-Jun, ZHANG Zhong-Yin, QI Wen-Zhong, WANG Biao, YUAN Chun-Ying, XI Fang-Gui, ZHOU Bing-Feng
    2022, 65(7):  912-926.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.07.013
    Abstract ( 148 )   PDF (1424KB) ( 87 )   PDF(mobile) (1424KB) ( 42 )     
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    【Aim】 The genetic differentiation research is an important link to understand the morphological diversity and adaptive evolution of honey bees. It is a prerequisite for the determination of the bioresource management unit and the protection unit and helps to protect the genetic resources of honey bees. This study aims to study the genetic differentiation and genetic resource distribution of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana across the geographical environment in China by analyzing morphological differentiation. 【Methods】 A total of 6 147 worker bees of A. cerana were collected from 102 sampling sites across the complete distribution area of A. cerana in China. Sixty worker bees of each sampling site from 10-20 colonies were dissected and 33 morphological characteristics associated with the wings, individual size, hind leg, and body color were measured. A multivariate morphometric analysis was conducted and clusters with their morphological traits and distribution patterns were identified. 【Results】 According to the cluster results of discriminant analysis and principal component analysis, A. cerana in China can be divided into 14 morphological clusters. Five clusters with smaller body size were identified. Hainan cluster had the smallest body size, followed by South Yunnan cluster, Taiwan cluster, Southern cluster, and Northern cluster. These five clusters were significantly different in proboscis length, forewing length, the structure of the 3rd submarginal cell in the forewing, body color, and the length of the wax plate. Changbai cluster had the largest cubital index, wax plate size, and width of the stripe of tomentum on tergite 5. However, Bomi cluster of Tibet had the smallest width of the stripe of tomentum on tergite 5 in China. Northwest cluster had the longest hind legs. Five clusters in the West Sichuan Plateau were characterized by larger individuals and black body color. Batang cluster had the smallest cubital index (3.0169) and the largest individual size in China. The cubital index of the Aba cluster was inferior only to that of the Changbai cluster, and the wing lengths and the sizes of sternite 7 were the largest. Derong cluster was the darkest. Yajiang cluster was unique in wing vein angles (A4, N23, E9 and J10 were the smallest and B4 the largest). Chuandian cluster had the smallest body size on the Western Sichuan Plateau. 【Conclusion】 In this study, the morphometric analysis of A. cerana was conducted based on collection of samples across the complete distribution area of A. cerana in China, especially those from Bomi of Tibet, Taiwan Province, and the Western Sichuan Plateau. Fourteen clusters of A. cerana were obtained in China, including Hainan cluster, southern Yunnan cluster, Changbai cluster, Taiwan cluster, Bomi cluster, Aba cluster, Batang cluster, Derong cluster, Yajiang cluster, Chuandian cluster, Chuangui cluster, Northwest cluster, Southern cluster, and Northern cluster. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the protection and exploitation of genetic resources of A. cerana in China.
    CONTENTS
     Contents of Vol. 65 Issue 7
    2022, 65(7):  927-927. 
    Abstract ( 43 )   PDF (516KB) ( 20 )   PDF(mobile) (516KB) ( 3 )     
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