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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 September 2022, Volume 65 Issue 9
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    Comparative transcriptome analysis and screening of diapause-associated genes during the egg development of Gomphocerus sibiricus(Orthoptera: Acrididae)
    ZHAO Na, LÜ Xue-Feng, HU Hong-Xia, SONG Yu, JIANG Si-Han, JI Rong, YE Xiao-Fang
    2022, 65(9):  1075-1089.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.001
    Abstract ( 271 )   PDF (14904KB) ( 474 )     
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    【Aim】This study aims to preliminarily clarify the molecular mechanism of diapause in Gomphocerus sibiricus eggs through screening diapause genes and metabolic pathways of the eggs.【Methods】 Transcriptome sequencing was performed on G. sibiricus eggs at different developmental stages [early developmental stage (ES), diapause stage (DS), and post-diapause developmental stage (PS)], with the Illumina NovaSeq 6000 sequencing platform. The diapause-associated pathways of G. sibiricus eggs were predicted 
    by GO and KEGG enrichment analysis, and analyzed by cluster heat map analysis combined with literature reports to screen diapause-associated genes. qRT-PCR was used to verify six important genes of the screened diapause-associated genes. 【Results】 In the DS vs ES and PS vs DS comparative groups, 12 419 and 4 789 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched, respectively, and most of them were up-regulated. A total of 2 206 DEGs of the two comparative groups were mainly related to glucose metabolism, environmental stress and growth and development. The most significant enrichment of GO items in the DS vs ES group was protein binding. The GO items in the PS vs DS group mainly included enzymatic activity, cytoskeleton construction and protein binding. Diapause-associated genes were mainly involved in Wnt signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, cell cycle pathway and insect hormone biosynthesis pathway. The expression trends of the six important diapause-associated genes were consistent with the transcriptome data. 【Conclusion】 In this study, important metabolic pathways that regulate diapause of G. sibiricus eggs were preliminarily identified, and a total of 20 diapause-associated genes were screened out, laying a foundation for further study on the adaptation mechanism of this species.
    Effects of exogenous juvenile hormone on the ovarian development and transcription levels of the reprodution-related genes in Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) 
    HAN Hui, FENG Zhao-Yang, ZHANG Shuo, HE Yun-Zhuan
    2022, 65(9):  1090-1097.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.002
    Abstract ( 191 )   PDF (7691KB) ( 128 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the effects of exogenous juvenile hormone (JH) on the ovarian development and transcriptional levels of the key genes in the reproduction-related signaling pathways of Harmonia axyridis. 【Methods】 The 2-day-old female adults of H. axyridis fed with artificial diet were exposed to different doses (80, 120 and 160 ng/individual) of JHⅢ by topical application method for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 d (the female adults fed with the turnip aphid, Lipaphis erysimi, were used as the blank control group, and those treated with acetone solution of the same volume by topical application method as the vehicle control group), the ovaries were dissected, and the ovarian length and the length and width of their first egg chamber were photographed and measured. qPCR was used to analyze the expression levels of the key genes including JH receptor methoprene-tolerant (Met) gene, krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) gene, vitellogenin genes (Vgand Vg2) and vitellogenin receptor (VgR) gene in the reproduction-related signal pathways of the female adults of H. axyridis exposed to the optimum dose (120 ng/individual) of JHⅢ for 1, 5, and 9 d. 【Results】 Compared with the vehicle control group, treatments with 80 and 120 ng/individual of JHⅢ by topical application method could promote the ovarian 
    development of H. axyridis adults. After the 2-day-old female adults were exposed to 120 ng/individual of JHⅢ for 7 d, a large amount of yolk deposition appeared in the ovary, which was consistent with the ovarian developmental state in the blank control group fed 
    with the turnip aphid, and the ovarian length and the length and width of the first egg chamber were significantly higher than those in the vehicle control group. However, the treatment with 160 ng/individual of JHⅢ inhibited the ovarian development of H. axyridis adults. The qPCR results showed that the expression levels of HaMet, HaKr-h1, HaVg1, HaVgand HaVgR in female adults at 5 and 9 d after treatment with 120 ng/individual of JHⅢ increased as compared to the those in the control group (acetone treatment group): those of HaMet, HaVg1 and HaVgR in female adults at 5 d after treatment were 2.78, 13.14 and 8.28 times, respectively, and those in female adults at 9 d after treatment were 2.36, 1.85, and 2.01 times, respectively, as high as those in the control group, showing extremely significant difference. 【Conclusion】 JHⅢ at the dose of 120 ng/individual can promote the ovarian development of H. axyridis adults and upregulate the expression levels of HaMet, HaKr-h1, HaVg and HaVgR in female adults at 5 and 9 d after treatment. It is speculated that these key genes play important roles in the regulation of JH on the ovarian development and yolk formation of H. axyridis.
    Cloning of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 and α7 subunit genes in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their response to spinetoram stress
    GAO Zu-Peng, JING Da-Peng, HUANG Xiao-DAN, WANG Zhen-Ying
    2022, 65(9):  1098-1105.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.003
    Abstract ( 194 )   PDF (6443KB) ( 124 )     
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    【Aim】 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchRs), as the most crucial neurotransmitter receptors in the central nervous system of insects, are the important targets of spinetoram. This study aims to clone the nAchR genes of Spodoptera frugiperda and investigate their response to spinetoram stress. 【Methods】 Genes of nAchR α6 and α7 subunits of S. frugiperda were cloned via RTPCR and RACE based on the previous transcriptome database of S. frugiperda. After the 3rd instar larvae of S. frugiperda were exposed to spinetoram (0.400 mg/L) for 48 h, the changes of expression levels of nAchR α6 and α7 subunit genes were assayed by RT-qPCR. 【Results】 The full-length ORF of nAchR α6 subunit gene (GenBank accession no.: MT951400) is 1 506 bp in length, encoding 502 amino acids with transmembrane region and signal peptide. The full-length ORF of nAchR α7 subunit gene (GenBank accession no.: MW557608) is 1 524 bp in length, encoding 508 amino acids with transmembrane region and signal peptide. nAchR α6 and α7 subunits of S. fruiperda have the typical characteristic of nAchR α family according to amino acid sequence multiple alignment analysis. After the 3rd instar larvae of S. frugiperda were exposed to 0.400 mg/L spinetoram for 48 h, the expression level of their nAchR α6 subunit gene increased significantly, while that of nAchR α7 subunit gene did not change significantly. 【Conclusion】 Spinetoram may have an impact on the nAchR α6 subunit of S. fruiperda. This study lays a preliminary foundation for future in-depth research on the underlying target resistance mechanisms of S. frugiperda in response to spinetoram.
    Screening and identification of actinomycetes with antimicrobial activity from the gut of the medicinal insect Blaps rynchopetera(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
    WANG Ming-Ming, YIN Peng-Kai, LI Ming-Hui, YANG Zi-Zhong, YANG Da-Song, YANG Yin-He
    2022, 65(9):  1106-1114.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.004
    Abstract ( 289 )   PDF (18899KB) ( 67 )     
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    【Aim】 In order to provide new actinomycete resources for the development of antimicrobial drugs, actinomycetes with antimicrobial activity from the gut of Blaps rynchopetera were explored. 【Methods】 Actinomycetes were isolated from the gut of B. rynchopetera adults by using dilution coating method and selective culture method. With six pathogenic bacteria methieillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus, S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and three pathomycetes Aspergillus niger, Penicillium expansum and Canidia albicans as the indicator strains,the antimicrobial activities of secondary metabolites of actinomycetes were tested by Oxford cup method. Subsequently, 16S rRNA sequence analysis was performed to identify the 18 strains of actinomycetes with significant activity through molecular biological method and construct a phylogenetic tree. 【Results】 A total of 176 strains of symbiotic actinomycetes were isolated from the gut of B. rynchopetera adults. Preliminary antimicrobial screening showed that among them 46 actinomycete strains had different degrees of antimicrobial activities. Some actinomycetes exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, with their inhibition zone diameters larger than those of the positive control drugs. Eighteen actinomycete strains with the inhibition zone diameter larger than 15 mm were selected for molecular identification, and the results showed that they were Streptomyces spp. 【Conclusion】 There are abundant actinomycete resources with antimicrobial activity in the gut of B. rynchopetera
    Effects of four pesticides on the body temperature of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
    TIAN Su-Fen, LI Zhi-Hua, LI Yuan-Tao, LIN Shuo, CHEN Yi-Xin, TIAN Hou-Jun, HU Xiao-Han, WANG Xi-Ying, HUANG Jing-Fei, WEI Hui, GU Xiao-Jun
    2022, 65(9):  1115-1126.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.005
    Abstract ( 212 )   PDF (27407KB) ( 141 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to provide data for elucidating the application value of the body temperature of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, in its management. 【Methods】 At different temperatures in the artificial climate incubators (ambient temperatures), the body temperature of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella was measured, and the relation equations between the body temperature of various instar larvae (y) and the ambient temperature (x) were established. Meanwhile, the body temperatures of the 3rd instar larvae of P. xylostella at different time after treatment with different concentrations of avermectin, chlorpyrifos, fipronil and cypermethrin, respectively, at different ambient temperatures were measured. 【Results】 The relation equations between the ambient temperature (x) and the body temperature (y) of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella were y=0.95x+1.19 (r=0.9463), y=0.95x+1.18 (r=0.9988), and y=0.93x+1.45 (r=0.9989) with the corresponding isothermal points of 22.16℃, 21.40℃ and 21.41℃, respectively. When the ambient temperature was set at 15℃ or 40℃, none of the four pesticides changed the body temperature of the 3rd instar larvae of P. xylostella. However, at the other ambient temperatures, the body temperature of the 3rd instar larvae of P. xylostella could be changed by pesticide treatment. For avermectin, at 25℃, the body temperatures of the 3rd instar larvae in the 2, 4 and 8 mg/L treatment groups at 12 h, 2 and 4 mg/L treatment groups at 24 h, 0.5, 2, 4 and 8 mg/L treatment groups at 36 h and 0.5, 1, 2 and 8 mg/L treatment groups at 48 h were significantly increased, while that in the 8 mg/L treatment group at 24 h was significantly decreased; at 30℃, those in the 0.5 mg/L treatment group at 24 h and 1 mg/L treatment group at 36 h were significantly decreased and those in the 1 mg/L treatment group at 48 h and the treatment groups at various concentrations at 60 h were significantly increased; and at 35℃, only those in the 1 and 8 mg/L treatment groups at 48 h were significantly decreased as compared to that in the control. For chlorpyrifos, at 20℃, the body temperatures of the 3rd instar larvae in the 50, 200 and 800 mg/L treatment groups at 24 h and 100, 400 and 800 mg/L treatment groups at 36 h were significantly decreased; at 25℃, those in the 100 and 200 mg/L treatment groups at 12 h, 800 mg/L treatment group at 24 h and 100, 200 and 800 mg/L treatment groups at 60 h were significantly decreased, but those in the 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/L treatment groups at 24 h, 100 and 200 mg/L treatment groups at 36 h and 100 and 400 mg/L treatment groups at 48 h were significantly increased; and at 30℃, only that in the 800 mg/L treatment group at 24 h was significantly decreased and those in the 50, 100, 200 and 800 mg/L treatment groups at 60 h were significantly increased as compared to that in the control. For fipronil, at 20℃, only the body temperature of the 3rd instar larvae in the 0.5 mg/L treatment group at 36 h was significantly decreased; at 25℃, that in the 4 
    mg/L treatment group at 12 h and those in the treatment groups at various concentrations at 60 h were significantly decreased, and that in the 0.5 mg/L treatment group at 24 h and those in the 0.25, 1 and 2 mg/L treatment groups at 48 h were significantly increased; at 30℃, those in the 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L treatment groups at 12 h, 0.25 and 2 mg/L treatment groups at 24 h, 4 mg/L treatment group at 48 h and 2 mg/L treatment group at 60 h were significantly decreased; and at 35℃, only those in the 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L treatment groups at 60 h were significantly increased as compared to that in the control. For cypermethrin, at 20℃, the body temperatures of the 3rd instar larvae in the 2 and 8 g/L treatment groups at 36 h and 4 and 8 g/L treatment groups at 48 h were significantly increased; at 25℃, those in the 2, 4 and 8 g/L treatment groups at 12 h were significantly decreased and those in the 0.5, 4, and 8 g/L treatment groups at 24 h, 1, 4 and 8 g/L treatment groups at 36 h, and 1, 2 and 4 g/L treatment groups at 60 h were significantly increased; and at 30℃, those in the 0.5 and 1 g/L treatment groups at 12 h, 0.5, 1, 4 and 8 g/L treatment groups at 24 h and 1, 2 and 8 g/L treatment groups at 60 h were significantly decreased as compared to that in the control. 【Conclusion】 The autonomic thermoregulation ability of P. xylostella larvae is comparatively low. Avermectin, chlorpyrifos, fipronil or cypermethrin treatment can affect the body temperature of the 3rd instar larvae of P. xylostella, but the effect varies with the pesticide type and concentration, ambient temperature and treatment time. The results expand the studies on pesticide toxicology and pest control.
    Analysis of the midgut transcriptome and ABC gene expression in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) after feeding Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa proteins 
    HUANG Xiao-Dan, JING Da-Peng, ZHANG Tian-Tao, WANG Zhen-Ying
    2022, 65(9):  1127-1135.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.006
    Abstract ( 181 )   PDF (1935KB) ( 139 )     
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    【Aim】 To reveal the relationship between the feeding of Bt proteins by Spodoptera frugiperda larvae and the changes in the expression levels of related ABC (ATP-binding cassette transporter) genes in the midgut. 【Methods】 Artificial diets containing Cry1Ab (LC70=240.2 μg/g) or Cry1Fa (LC70=270.0 μg/g) activated crystal protein were used to feed the 4th instar larvae of S. frugiperda for 48 h, respectively. Transcriptome sequencing of midgut and bioinformatics analysis were used to screen differentially expressed genes in the midgut after treatment. RT-qPCR was used to verify the expression levels of the differentially expressed ABC genes. 【Results】 A total of 1 305 and 1 202 differentially expressed genes were detected in the midgut transcriptome of the 4th instar larvae of S. frugiperda fed with the artificial diet containing 240.2 μg/g Cry1Ab and 270.0 μg/g Cry1Fa, respectively, compared with those fed with the normal artificial diet (the control group). There were 994 and 912 differentially expressed genes between the Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa treatment groups and the control group, respectively, and were annotated by GO function into three categories biological process, molecular function and cell component. Among the nine differentially expressed ABC family genes screened, there were four differentially expressed ABC genes (three up-regulated and one down-regulated) between the Cry1Ab treatment group and the control group and five differentially expressed ABC genes (two up-regulated and three down-regulated) between the Cry1Fa treatment group 
    and the control group. The expression levels of two ABC genes (LOC118267200 and LOC118267201) in the Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa treatment groups were significantly up-regulated as compared to those in the control grpup. RT-qPCR validation results showed that the expression levels of three and two ABC genes in the Cry1Ab treatment group were extremely significantly up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, and those of five ABC genes and one ABC gene in the Cry1Fa treatment group were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, as compared to those in the control grpup. 【Conclusion】 The intake of Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa proteins could affect the expression levels of certain ABC family genes in the midgut of S. frugiperda larvae, and the expression level changes of these genes are related to pest resistance. After comparison, we found that the expression levels of ABCC family and ABCG8 genes changed significantly. This study provides a theoretical basis for further clarifying the role of ABC transporter proteins in the insecticidal mechanism of Bt proteins in S. frugiperda and the rational use of Bt proteins for controlling S. frugiperda and delaying resistance.
    Involvement of CYP6AE76 gene in detoxifying the Cry1Ab protein in Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
    JING Da-Peng, HUANG Xiao-Dan, ZHANG Tian-Tao, WANG Zhen-Ying
    2022, 65(9):  1136-1143.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.007
    Abstract ( 131 )   PDF (5355KB) ( 54 )     
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    【Aim】 To clarify the overexpression and detoxification effect of CYP6AE76 in vivo on Cry1Ab protein in Conogethes punctiferalis larvae after fed with Cry1Ab protein. 【Methods】 The CYP6AE76 sequence of C. punctiferalis was characterized. The expression level 
    of CYP6AE76 in different developmental stages (1st-5th instar larvae) and tissues (head, midgut, hemolymph and fat body) of the 4th instar larvae as well as in the midgut and hemolymph of the 4th instar larvae of C. punctiferalis fed with Cry1Ab protein (LC50=1.08 ng/cm2) for 3 d were detected by RT-qPCR. The expression level of CYP6AE76 in the midgut of the 4th instar larvae was detected and the larval weight and larval survival rate at 120 h after silencing the expression of CYP6AE76 in the 4th instar larvae of C. punctiferalis by RNAi through feeding were counted. The larval weight and the larval survival rate of C. punctiferalis at 7 d after silencing the expression of CYP6AE76 by RNAi through feeding in the newly hatched larvae followed by feeding on the Cry1Ab-containing (1.08 ng/cm2) diet were calculated. 【Results】 The open reading frame of the CYP6AE76 of C. punctiferalis is 1 572 bp in length. It encodes 524 amino acids, with a molecular weight of about 60.34 kD, and belongs to the CYP6 family gene. Developmental expression profiling showed that CYP6AE76 is expressed throughout the larval stage of C. punctiferalis, with the highest expression level in the 1st instar larval stage and its expression level gradually decreasing with increasing larval instar. Tissue expression profiling revealed that the expression level of CYP6AE76 in the midgut of the 4th instar larvae was the highest. After the 4th instar larvae were fed with the Cry1Ab-containing (1.08 ng/cm2) artificial diet, the expression levels of CYP6AE76 in the midgut and hemeolymph were significantly up-regulated as compared to those in the control group. After silencing CYP6AE76 by RNAi, the body weight of the newly hatched larvae fed on the artificial diet containing Cry1Ab protein significantly decreased. 【Conclusion】 CYP6AE76 may participate in detoxifying the Cry1Ab protein ingested by C. punctiferalis larvae.
    Rapid detection technology for the resistance to five insecticides in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    WU Shuai, GU Xi, XIAO Cai-Yun, LI Ming, LI Rong-Yu, LIAO Xun
    2022, 65(9):  1144-1152.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.008
    Abstract ( 148 )   PDF (1683KB) ( 122 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to develop a rapid detection technology for the resistance of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, to commonly used insecticides, and to master the resistance level of its field populations in real time, so as to guide the selection and use of pesticides for control of N. lugens. 【Methods】 Based on the glass vial bioassay, a rapid detection kit for the resistance of the 3rd instar nymphs of N. lugens to five insecticides, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, ethofenprox, chlorpyrifos and isoprocarb, was developed. Correlation analysis between the mortality rate measured by the rapid detection kit and the resistance ratio measured by the rice seedling dipping method was conducted. Additionally, the accuracy of the resistance levels of the field populations of N. lugens to the five insecticides using the detection kit was verified. 【Results】 The LD90 values of imidacloprid, acetamiprid, etofenprox, chlorpyrifos and isoprocarb to the 3rd instar nymphs of the laboratory susceptible strain of N. lugens at 1 h after treatment were 30.96, 92.05, 117.24, 514.21 and 1.24 ng/cm2, respectively. Exposure to imidacloprid, acetamiprid, etofenprox, chlorpyrifos and isoprocarb at the diagnostic doses, the corrected mortality rates of the 3rd instar nymphs of the field populations of N. lugens in Guizhou province were 23.75%-78.75%, 25.00%-78.75%, 43.75%-88.75%, 36.25%-85.00% and 18.75%-67.50%, respectively. The correlation analysis showed that the mortality rate of the 3rd instar nymphs of the above field populations of N. lugens was negatively correlated with the resistance ratio determined by the rice seedling dipping method, and the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.8751 to 0.9754. Meanwhile, the inferred resistance ratios of N. lugens populations from Anlong (AL) region of Guizhou Province to imidacloprid, acetamiprid, etofenprox, chlorpyrifos and isoprocarb calculated by the correlation equations using the detection kit were 7.23, 3.68, 4.14, 4.12 and 31.18, respectively, and the actual resistance ratios of the above five insecticides detected by the rice seedling dip method were 6.33, 5.24, 3.71, 4.50 and 26.56, respectively, indicating that the inferred resistance ratios are consistent with the actual resistance ratios. 【Conclusion】 This rapid detection kit can quickly assess the insecticide resistance level 
    of the field population of N. lugens by measuring the mortality rate of the field population.
    Effects of arena shape and exit location on the escaping behavior of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermesformosanus (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) (In English)
    ZHANG Jian-Long, JIN Zheng-Ya, WEN Xiu-Jun, CHEN Xuan, CAI Jia-Cheng, WANG Cai
    2022, 65(9):  1153-1165.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.009
    Abstract ( 126 )   PDF (5846KB) ( 42 )     
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     【Aim】 Escaping from danger is a great challenge for group-living animals. Termites are eusocial insects that live in high densities. Therefore, they may have evolved some unique strategies to collectively escape from dangers. 【Methods】 The escaping behaviors of Coptotermes formosanus workers in arenas with different shapes (round- and square-shaped arenas without an exit) were compared under laboratory conditions, and the evacuation efficiencies of C. formosanus workers escaped from round-shaped arenas (with an exit) and square-shaped arenas (with an exit on the corner or middle of the sidewall) were investigated. 【Results】 The disturbed workers of C. formosanus rapidly moved to the edge of round- and square-shaped arenas (without an exit) and ran along the wall. However, this wall-following behavior of C. formosanus workers caused jamming on the corners of square-shaped arenas, where significantly higher density but lower moving speed of worker termites were observed compared with non-corner areas. When an exit was provided, no jamming was observed around exits because escaping C. formosanus workers were dispersed along the wall. Interestingly, the evacuation time of C. formosanus workers was similar when compared between round-shaped arenas with an exit and square-shaped arenas with an exit on the corner. However, C. formosanus workers spent significantly more time in evacuating from square-shaped arenas with an exit located in the middle of the sidewall. 【Conclusion】 These results suggest that both arena shape and exit location affect the escaping behavior and evacuation efficiency of C. formosanus workers. In addition, termites adopt unique escaping strategies to avoid the “faster-is-slower” effects usually exhibit in other group-living animals (e.g., humans, and mice). Because worker termites are blind, understanding the escaping behaviors of termites may bring insight to improving evacuation efficiency for humans under poor-visibility conditions.
    Effects of cyromazine on the growth of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in chicken manure and the detoxification of cyromazine by added activated carbon
    ZHANG Hai-Xu, PEI Ya-Xin, ZHANG Ji-Ran, SUO Jiang-Hua, DENG Xin, CHEN Hong-Ge, LIN Hui, YANG Sen
    2022, 65(9):  1166-1176.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.010
    Abstract ( 132 )   PDF (1904KB) ( 64 )   PDF(mobile) (1904KB) ( 12 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to study the effects of cyromazine on the growth and development of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae in chicken manure and the detoxification of cyromazine by the added activated carbon. 【Methods】 The 3rd, 4th and 
    5th instar larvae of H. illucens were reared in the chicken manure containing different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) of cyromazine, and the changes in the growth and development (body weight and mortality) of the larvae were measured. Reared in the chicken manure added with activated carbon at different concentrations (0, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 150 g/kg), the effects of activated carbon on the growth and development of the 3rd instar larvae of H. illucens and its detoxification 
    effect on cyromazine were assayed. 【Results】 Reared in the chicken manure containing certain concentration of cyromazine, the 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of H. illucens showed such symptoms as elongation of somites, cessation of feeding and even death. The medium lethal concentration (LC50) values of cyromazine to the 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of H. illucens were 0.18, 1.39 and 6.45 mg/kg, respectively. Activated carbon at the concentrations of 30-100 g/kg in chicken manure significantly promoted the growth and development of the 3rd instar larvae of H. illucens and detoxified the toxicity of cyromazine to the 3rd instar larvae with the 95% effective dose (ED95) value of 51.83 g/kg. 【Conclusion】 The sensitivity of H. illucens larvae to cyromazine in chicken manure gradually decreases with larval instar. Activated carbon can be used to detoxify the toxicity of cyromazine in chicken manure to H. illucens larvae, providing a solution for application of H. illucens to process chicken manure containing cyromazine.
    Preference and adaptability of the generalist parasitoid Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to novel hosts
    LI Lei, HAN Dong-Yin, ZHANG Fang-Ping, CHEN Jun-Yu, WANG Jian-Yun, YE Zheng-Pei, FU Yue-Guan
    2022, 65(9):  1177-1184.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.011
    Abstract ( 169 )   PDF (1475KB) ( 59 )     
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     【Aim】 The objective of this research is to clarify the preference and adaptability of the generalist parasitoid Spalangia endius to different types of novel hosts. 【Methods】 We selected S. endius adults reared on the pupae of Zeugodacus cucurbitae, Z. tau and Musca domestica, respectively, and compared their selective behavior, parasitization preference and adaptability to the other two non-rearing hosts from the above three hosts. 【Results】 S. endius adults reared on Z. cucurbitae pupae preferred to select and parasitize Z. tau pupae over M. domestica pupae, producing more offspring on Z. tau pupae. Similarly, S. endius adults reared on Z. tau pupae tended to select and parasitize Z. cucurbitae pupae, producing more offspring as well. However, no significant difference was found in the number of the selected hosts, parasitism rate and number of offspring in choice and no-choice experiments when S. endius adults reared on M. domestica pupae were transferred to Z. cucurbitae and Z. tau pupae. In addition, S. endius adults reared on the pupae of Z. cucurbitae and Z. tau more easily adapted to the pupae of Z. tau and Z. cucurbitae, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Based on the niche relationship of the three fly species, it is inferred that S. endius has higher fitness to a new host that has an overlapping niche with its rearing host.
    Oviposition behavior of the solitary wasp Anterhynchium flavomarginatum (Hymenoptera: Eumeninae) in relation to parasitism pressure
    LIN Mu-Qing, LIU Yi-Fan, WU Chen-Fan, SHU Zu-Fei, ZHU Chao-Dong, XIAO Zhi-Shu
    2022, 65(9):  1185-1195.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.012
    Abstract ( 173 )   PDF (3948KB) ( 94 )     
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    【Aim】 The solitary wasp, Anterhynchium flavomarginatum is one of the most important natural enemies for the control of agricultural and forestry pests. This study aims to investigate the oviposition strategy and behavioral responses of A. flavomarginatum to parasitism pressure, so as to provide a basis for the biological control of agricultural and forestry pests. 【Methods】 During the three years (2018-2020), the oviposition strategy of A. flavomarginatum and its relationships with parasite pressures were investigated by using artificial trap-nests set according to kilometer-grid protocol (N=100 1-km2 grids) in the Chebaling National Nature Reserve and its surrounding areas, Guangdong Province. The number of brood cells, sex ratio and parasitism in each trap-nest were recorded, and the length, innerdiameter, and architecture of each trap-nest were measured as well. 【Results】 During 2018-2020, we obtained 3 733 trap-nests and 9 269 brood cells with up to 1 420 brood cells parasitized. A. flavomarginatum laid an average of 2.50±1.25 eggs and constructed 1.84±1.14 non-brood cells per trap-nest with a male-biased sex ratio (male∶female=1.98∶1). For each nest-trap, offspring females tend to be laid in inner brood cells, while offspring males tend to be laid in outer brood cells. Structural equation model showed that both the inner diameter and the length of trap-nest positively affected the number of brood cells per trap-nest. The length of trap-nest also significantly positively affected the number of non-brood cells per trap-nest. However, both the number of brood cells and non-brood cells had a significantly negative influence on the parasitism rate. Meta-analysis of the sex arrangement pattern of offspring showed that number of offspring females in the innermost part of trap-nest was significantly higher than that in the outermost part, while the parasitism rate in the innermost part of trap-nest was significantly lower than that in the outermost part. 【Conclusion】 Our results provide sound evidence that oviposition strategy by A. flavomarginatum can help to improve its reproductive fitness, since this species tends to lay more eggs in trap-nests to reduce the parasitism risk and to improve the survival of offspring females by adjusting the sex allocation pattern of offspring within each trap-nest.
    Microstructure and defense function of the acoustic organ of Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) pupae (In English)
    YANG Shuai, LIU Fu, ZHAO Yu-Fei, SUN Qi, HAO Xiang-Yu, YUAN Xiang-Qun
    2022, 65(9):  1196-1203.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.013
    Abstract ( 145 )   PDF (20884KB) ( 69 )     
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    【Aim】 There are a variety of defense mechanisms used against predators in the animal kingdom. Some lepidopteran pupae can make a wriggling sound when they are mechanically stimulated. 【Methods】 We observed the morphology characteristics of acoustic 
    organs of Papilio xuthus pupae under scanning electron microscope and analyzed the acoustic characteristics of captured sounds using Audacity software. 【Results】The pupae of P. xuthus produce a regular hissing sound by their acoustic organs located in the intersegmental membranes between their 4th-5th and 5th-6th abdominal segments. The sound-producing organs are composed of scrapers and plates, both of which are composed of multiple layers of chitin. There are totally 50-90 protuberances on scrapers and plates. When the abdomen of the pupae is stimulated by the antennae of the parasitoids for more than 30 s, the scrapers and plates will quickly rub against each other repeatedly wiggling from one side to another side of the pupal abdomen to make sounds. The sounds are detected to be composed of a series of short pulses that occur three times every 2 000-3 000 ms. The frequency band is very wide, mainly distributed in the 5-20 kHz range. The activity of fresh pupae is different from that of overwintering ones, resulting in different sound intensities. 【Conclusion】 We firstly described the structure of sound-producing organs of P. xuthus pupae with mechanical stimulation and the results support the hypothesis that the pupae of some butterflies have evolved a special defense mechanism (acoustic defense) against parasitoids. In addition, the sound-producing organs of the same species at different geological areas can generate dialectal phenomena by comparing the characteristics of the acoustic waves of P. xuthus pupae from two different habitats.
    Molecular species definition of common blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) from northern China 
    CHENG Hai-Yun, DUAN Jia-Chong, ZHANG Chao, PAN Zhao
    2022, 65(9):  1204-1221.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.014
    Abstract ( 221 )   PDF (10512KB) ( 110 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to test the applicability of four analytical methods, including automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD), generalized mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC), Bayesian Poisson tree processes (bPTP), and Bayesian phylogenetics and phylogeography (BPP) with fragments of two genes, mitochondrial COI and nuclear CAD, in the molecular species definition of Meloidae insects. 【Methods】 Eighteen meloid morphologic species widely distributed in northern China and belonging to six genera (Hycleus, Mylabris, Epicauta, Lytta, Megatrachelus, and Meloe) were sampled. The molecular species definition was carried out based on COI, CAD, and concatenated COI+CAD sequence data sets by using ABGD, GMYC, bPTP, and BPP. The molecular species definition results by using different methods were compared with that by the morphological identification, respectively. 【Results】 The molecular species definitions based on the COI+CAD concatenated sequence data sets were consistent with the morphological identification results, those based on COI sequences with the ABGD and GMYC methods were also consistent with the morphological identification results, while the number of species identified by using bPTP was more than that by morphological identification. The definition results based on CAD sequences by using all three single-gene species definition methods except GMYC were partially different from the morphological identification results. 【Conclusion】 The molecular species definitions of Meloidae based on multi-gene concatenated sequences and multiple methods are better than those based on single gene fragment or single definition method. The results of this study provide data support and reference for molecular species definition and integrative taxonomy of the family Meloidae.
    Behavioral manipulation of the plant secondary metabolites to thrips and their application in thrips management
    LI Xiao-Wei, CHENG Jiang-Hui, HAN Hai-Bin, LÜ Yao-Bin
    2022, 65(9):  1222-1246.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.09.015
    Abstract ( 213 )   PDF (2409KB) ( 162 )     
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    Thrips are important pests of agricultural and horticultural crops, causing enormous economic losses by direct feeding and indirect transmission of the plant-pathogenic virus. Plant secondary metabolites play a pivotal role in plant-insect interactions. The manipulation of insect behavior using plant secondary metabolites to protect crop plants from pest infestation is a promising eco-friendly control tactic. In this article, plants, plant extracts, essential oils and chemical compounds that have attractive, repellent, oviposition and feeding deterrent effects, fumigation toxicity and toxic activities to thrips were reviewed, and the potential of plant secondary metabolites for thrips management was discussed. Volatiles or essential oils from 54 plant species in 27 families, 29 benzenoids, 17 pyridines and 13 terpenes are attractive to thrips and could be used as trap plants and attractants. Volatiles or essential oils from 40 plant species in 17 families, 20 terpenes and 6 benzenoids show repellency against thrips and could be used as repellent plants and repellents. Extracts or essential oils from 42 plant species in 20 families, 6 alkaloids, 15 terpenes and 5 benzenoids have oviposition and feeding deterrent effects, fumigation toxicity and toxic activities to thrips, and could be developed into botanical pesticides and fumigants. Finally, current problems of plant secondary metabolites in thrips management, such as unstable effects, lack of field application technology and unclear muchamisms, were discussed, and potential research directions were prospected, which are of great significance to thrips management based on plant secondary metabolites.
    Contents of Vol. 65 Issue 9
    2022, 65(9):  1247-1247. 
    Abstract ( 88 )   PDF (498KB) ( 29 )     
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