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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 December 2023, Volume 66 Issue 12
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Circadian variation in the metabolic activities of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Dictyoptera: Blaatidae) found#br# in Abeokuta, Nigeria (In English)
    Concilia Ifesinachi IYEH, Kehinde Olutoyin ADEMOLU, Adebola Adedoyin OSIPITAN, Adewumi Babatunde IDOWU, Abiodun Oladipupo JODA
    2023, 66(12):  1543-1551.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2023.12.001
    Abstract ( 67 )   PDF (767KB) ( 165 )   PDF(mobile) (767KB) ( 28 )     
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     【Aim】 Periplaneta americana commonly known as the American cockroach carries out a wide range of activities with the help of locomotor abilities using its femoral and thoracic muscles, reflecting ease of movement in various habitats and that it is able to utilize food substances by the help of metabolic activities for effective daily activities. Little is known about variations in the daily pattern of metabolic activities in P. americana. This study was conducted to investigate the circadian variation in metabolite contents and enzyme activities in the thoracic and femoral muscles of adult P. americana. 【Methods】 The study was carried out by collecting the femoral and thoracic muscles of the 8-day-old aduts of P. americana at 6:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00 local time [6:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00 Greenwich mean time (GMT)]. The activities of four enzymes (amylase, lipase, proteinase and α-glucosidase) which are responsible for metabolizing or converting the food substances to utilizable substances during transport to the muscles and hydrolysis of the food substances necessary for fueling locomotion in insects, and the contents of the organic (glucose, protein and lipids) and inorganic [sodium (Na+), potasium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), chlorine (Cl-), iron (Fe2+), magnesium (Mg2+) and phosphate ion (PO3-4)] substances in these tissues were determined using standard biochemical analytical methods.【Results】 The activities of the four enzymes amylase, lipase, proteinase and α-glucosidase were detected in both femoral and thoracic muscles of P. americana adults throughout the 24 h but at varying activity levels at different time. The activities of amylase, lipase, proteinase and α-glucosidase tested in the femoral muscle followed this pattern: 12:00>6:00>24:00>18:00, and were higher in females than in males. In the thoracic muscle, the activities of amylase, lipase and proteinase at 6:00 and 12:00 were significantly higher than those at 18:00 and 24:00, and females had higher enzyme activities than males. In the thoracic muscles of adult males, the glucose content was significantly higher at 18:00 than at the other time points, and the protein contents at 18:00 and 24:00 were significantly higher than those at 6:00 and 12:00, and the lipid content was significantly higher at 24:00 than at the other time points, while in the thoracic muscles of adult females, the lipid content was significantly higher at 12:00 than at the other time points, the protein contents at 12:00 and 24:00 were significantly higher than those at 6:00 and 18:00, while the glucose content was significantly higher at 24:00 than at the other time points. In the femoral muscle, the lipid content was significantly higher at 18:00 than at the other time points. In the femoral muscle of adult males, the glucose content was significantly higher at 24:00 than at the other time points, and the protein content was significantly higher at 6:00 than at the other time points, while in the femoral muscle of adult females, the contents of glucose and protein were significantly higher at 24:00 than at the other time points. In the thoracic muscle of adult males, the Na+ content was significantly higher at 18:00 than at the other time points, the contents of K+ and Ca2+ in males at 6:00 and 12:00 were significantly higher than those at 18:00 and 24:00, the Cl- content was significantly higher at 24:00 than at the other time points, the PO3-4 contents at 6:00, 18:00 and 24:00 showed no significant difference, but were significantly higher than that at 12:00, while in the thoracic muscle of adult females, the Na+ content was significantly higher at 6:00 than at the other time points, while the contents of K+, Ca2+ and Cl- were significantly higher at 12:00 than at the other time points, and the PO3-4 contents at various time points were not significantly different. In the femoral muscle of the adult males, the contents of Na+ and Ca2+ were significantly higher at 12:00 than at the other time points, the K+ content was significantly higher at 6:00 than at 18:00 and 24:00, while the contents of Cl-  and PO3-4 were significantly higher at 6:00 than at the other time points, while in the femoral muscle of adult females, the contents of Na+ and Cl- were significantly higher at 6:00 than at the other time points, the contents of K+ and Ca2+ at 6:00, 12:00 and 18:00 exhibited no significant difference, while were significantly higher than that at 24:00, and the PO3-4 content exhibited no significant difference among various time points. 【Conclusion】 The results of this study suggest that P. americana adults possess the ability to metabolize their organic and inorganic substrates with the help of the enzymes amylase, lipase, proteinase and α-glucosidase for movement, during the peak time of activities.
    Regulation of the symbiont Rickettsia on the expression of the immune genes in response to adult day-old ages of the host whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
    ZHAO Dong-Xiao, ZHANG Zhi-Chun, NIU Hong-Tao, GUO Hui-Fang
    2023, 66(12):  1552-1559.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2023.12.002
    Abstract ( 70 )   PDF (1484KB) ( 179 )   PDF(mobile) (1484KB) ( 30 )     
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    【Aim】 The effective coordination between symbiont and host insect innate immunity is an important physiological basis for maintaining their reciprocal relationship. Rickettsia is a dominant symbiont in the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. The aim of this study is to investigate the regulation of Rickettsia on the expression of the immune genes of B. tabaci adults at different day-old ages. 【Methods】 The expression levels of immune key factor lysozyme gene BtLyz1 and defensin gene Btdef in adult B. tabaci lines with 100% infection, 45.83% infection and no infection by the symbiont Rickettsia were detected and compared, respectively, using qRT-PCR. The expression levels of BtLyz1 and Btdef, apoptosis gene BtCaspase and Rickettsia 16S rRNA gene in 100% Rickettsia-infected adults newly emerged within 24 h and adults at the 3-7-day-old and over 15-day-old were detected, respectively, using qRT-PCR. The correlations between the expression level of 16S rRNA gene of Rickettsia and the expression levels of BtLyz1 and Btdef in B. tabaci adults at different day-old ages were analyzed. 【Results】 The expression levels of BtLyz1 and Btdef in B. tabaci adults infected with the symbiont Rickettsia were significantly increased as compared to those in B. tabaci adults non-infected with Rickettsia. The highest expression level of BtCaspase was observed in B. tabaci adults at over 15-day-old infected with Rickettsia. The expression levels of Rickettsia 16S rRNA gene, BtLyz1 and Btdef  in the 3-7-day-old adults of B. tabaci were significantly higher than those in adults newly emerged within 24 h and at over 15-day-old. The expression level of Rickettsia 16S rRNA gene was significantly positively correlated with the expression levels of BtLyz1 and Btdef in B. tabaci adults newly emerged within 24 h and at the 3-7-day-old, while there was no correlation between the expression level of Rickettsia 16S rRNA gene and the expression levels of BtLyz1 and Btdef in adults at over 15-day-old. 【Conclusion】 The symbiont Rickettsia can upregulate the expression levels of immune-related genes in the host B. tabaci. However, this regulatory effect decreases significantly when the host becomes aging.
    Transcriptome and immune-related gene function analyses of Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) eggs infected by Nosema pernyi
    XU Xin, WU Yu-Jiao, YU Bin, MENG Xian-Zhi, CHEN Jie, LIU Zhong-Wen, ZHANG Yong-Jun, PAN Guo-Qing
    2023, 66(12):  1560-1569.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2023.12.003
    Abstract ( 58 )   PDF (3549KB) ( 153 )   PDF(mobile) (3549KB) ( 26 )     
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    【Aim】 Nosema pernyi can cause the tussah microparticle disease of Antheraea pernyi, threatening the conservation and production safety of A. pernyi germplasm resources, and be vertically transmitted through eggs. Therefore, it is necessary to search for immune genes in A. pernyi to deal with the N. pernyi infection, so as to provide assistance for the subsequent search and cultivation of new varieties resistant to tussah microparticle disease. 【Methods】 The transcriptome of A. pernyi eggs infected with N. pernyi was constructed, and the immune-related genes were identified through GO functional annotation and KEGG analysis. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene of A. pernyi ApGSTo1 was cloned by PCR and bioinformatically analyzed. RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression level of ApGSTo1 in the 0-10-day-old eggs of A. pernyi infected by N. pernyi.【Results】 The number of expressed genes detected in the transcriptome of A. pernyi eggs infected and uninfected with N. pernyi was 17 453, and we found 89 significantly differentially expressed genes. In GO functional annotation, the numbers of genes involved in cellular anatomical entity and catalytic activity were the highest, while in KEGG analysis, the numbers of genes involved in the three pathways of transportation and catabolism, signal transduction, and digestive system were the highest. Based on transcriptome data analysis of A. pernyi eggs infected by N. pernyi, ApGSTo1 was used as the target gene. Results of PCR cloning and phylogenetic analysis proved that ApGSTo1 belongs to the omega-class GST. The expression level of ApGSTo1 in the A. pernyi eggs infected by N. pernyi was higher than that of the normal control group, and the expression level of ApGSTo1 in the 2-day-old eggs of A. pernyi infected by N. pernyi was extremely significantly higher than that of the normal control group. 【Conclusion】 Transcriptome data of A. pernyi eggs infected by N. pernyi were obtained, and an immune-related gene ApGSTo1 was identified. It was preliminarily demonstrated from molecular biology and transcriptional levels that ApGSTo1 participates in the stress resistance to N. pernyi infection in A. pernyi eggs. It was also found that the key time for the stress resistance to N. pernyi infection in A. pernyi eggs is at 2 d after egg laying. These results provide a research foundation for future research on the functions of ApGSTo1 in stress resistance and redox.
    Effects of broflanilide on the fitness and detoxification enzyme activities of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    JI Xue-Jiao, CUI Li, WANG Wen-Jie, YANG Qing-Jie, ZHAI Yan-Hui, RUI Chang-Hui
    2023, 66(12):  1570-1580.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2023.12.004
    Abstract ( 69 )   PDF (1977KB) ( 147 )   PDF(mobile) (1977KB) ( 10 )     
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     【Aim】 To clarify the effects of broflanilide on the fitness and detoxification enzyme activities of Spodoptera frugiperda after multiple generations of selection and to provide a theoretical basis for the scientific and rational use of this insecticide. 【Methods】 The changes in the toxicity of broflaniliole to the 3rd instar larvae, the activities of detoxification enzyms (cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase) in the 3rd instar larvae and the population fitness of S. frugiperda were determined after the newly hatched larvae were continuously exposed to 0.25 mg/L of broflanilide for 10 generations by the diet-overlay method. And the synergistic effects of three synergists (PBO, TPP and DEM) on broflanilide were determined in bioassay against the 3rd instar larvae of S. frugiperda. 【Results】 After 10 generations of selection by broflanilide, the exposed S. frugiperda population Bro-SEL developed 2.71-fold resistance to broflanilide, compared to the unexposed population UNSEL. At the same time, the fecundity and larval survival rate of the exposed population Bro-SEL were significantly decreased and the population parameters (intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase and net reproductive rate) were also significantly decreased, as compared to those in UNSEL. The Bro-SEL population had the relative fitness of 0.35. The carboxylesterase activities in the 3rd instar larvae of Bro-SEL were significantly increased by 1.62- and 1.61-fold, respectively, when using α-NA and β-NA as the substrates, but the activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and glutathione S-transferase in the 3rd instar larvae of Bro-SEL had no significant change as compared with those in the unexposed population UNSEL. Bioassay against the 3rd instar larvae of S. frugiperda revealed that both PBO and TPP had significant synergistic effects on broflanilide, with the synergistic ratios of 1.31 and 1.42, respectively.【Conclusion】 These results showed that there was little change in the toxicity of broflanilide to S. frugiperda population after 10 generations of selection by the insecticide broflanilide, indicating that S. frugiperda has a low risk of metabolic resistance to broflanilide, but the population development and reproduction of S. frugiperda have high fitness cost, and broflanilide is a good alternative agent for controlling S. frugiperda.
    Effects of medium lethal concentration of avermectin on the development of short-term resistance of Psylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to avermectin
    ZHANG Rui, ZHANG Bo-Chen, XU Shuang-Ye, WU Zi-Qing, MA Rui-Yan, LI Ya, ZHANG Dong-Xia, YU Qin
    2023, 66(12):  1581-1589.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2023.12.005
    Abstract ( 54 )   PDF (2931KB) ( 124 )   PDF(mobile) (2931KB) ( 12 )     
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    【Aim】 To clarify the effects of the medium lethal concentration (LC50) of avermectin on the development of short-term resistance of Psylla chinensis to avermectin. 【Methods】 The LC50 value of avermectin to the 3rd instar nymphs of the field population (F) of P. chinensis was determined at 24 h after treatment by leaf-dipping method. Based on the F population, the relative avermectin-sensitive strain (SS), the field resistant strain from the F population after exposure to LC50 of avermectin for six consecutive generations (FR) and the field control strain from the F population without exposure to avermectin for six consecutive generations (FS) of P. chinensis were established under indoor conditions. The resistance ratios of the 3rd instar nymphs of the F population and various strains of P. chinensis to avermectin were measured, and the developmental duration and survival rate of each developmental stage, and adult longevity and numbers of eggs laid per female of various strains were measured to construct a two-sex life table. 【Results】 The LC50 values of avermectin to the 3rd instar nymphs of the F population and the SS strain of P. chinensis at 24 h after treatment were 2.458 and 0.706 mg/L, respectively. The resistance ratios of the 3rd instar nymphs of the F population, FR strain and FS strain to avermectin were 3.458, 11.965 and 1.782-fold, respectively. The developmental duration and survival rate of each developmental stage, and adult longevity and number of eggs laid per female of the FR strain changed as compared with those of the FS strain and SS strain. The egg duration and nymphal duration of the FR strain were significantly longer than those of the FS strain and SS strain. The adult longevity of the FR strain was shorter than that of the FS strain and SS strain. The number of eggs laid per female of the FR strain was decreased by 57.000 and 74.300 grains, respectively, as compared with those of the FS strain and SS strain. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ) and net reproductive rate (R0) of the FR strain were also decreased as compared with those of the FS strain and SS strain. The relative fitness of the FR strain was 0.743, which was 0.807-fold as high as that of the FS strain. 【Conclusion】 The resistance level of P. chinensis to avermectin increased and the fitness decreased by continuous treatment with LC50 of avermectin for six generations. Therefore, avermectin should not be continuously used in pear orchards in order to delay the increase of the resistance of P. chinensis to avermectin.
    Effects of physical and chemical characteristics of the leaves of different tomato varieties on the host selectivity of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
    XUE Zeng-Sheng, WANG Han, ZHANG Sheng-Cun, MA Li, QIE Xing-Tao, LÜ Zhi-Shen, ZHANG Dong-Xia, ZHENG Wei-Feng, YAN Xi-Zhong, HAO Chi
    2023, 66(12):  1590-1601.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2023.12.006
    Abstract ( 69 )   PDF (5666KB) ( 77 )   PDF(mobile) (5666KB) ( 6 )     
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    【Aim】 To clarify the host selectivity of Tuta absoluta to different tomato varieties, and analyze the correlations between the host selectivity of T. absoluta and the physical and chemical characteristics of the leaves of different tomato varieties, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the green precise control of T. absoluta and the breeding of insect-resistant tomato varieties.【Methods】 The feeding selection rates and consumed area of the 3rd instar larvae of T. absoluta to the leaves of five tomato varieties (Qianxi, Dafen, Dahei, Xiaolv and Huang′aisheng) were measured by leaf disc method, the numbers of eggs laid by T. absoluta adults on per leaf of the five tomato varieties were detected by caging method, the physical and chemical characteristics of the leaves of five tomato varieties were measured by grid method and colorimetric method, and the correlations between the feeding selection rate of the 3rd instar larvae of T. absoluta or the number of eggs laid by female adults on per leaf and the physical and chemical characteristics of the leaves of different tomato varieties were analyzed by Pearson’s method.【Results】 The results of host selectivity showed that when T. absoluta larvae fed on the leaves of the five tomato varieties for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, their feeding selection rates were ranked in a descending order as follows: Dafen>Qianxi>Dahei>Xiaolv>Huang′aisheng. When T. absoluta adults laid eggs on the leaves of the five tomato varieties for 24, 48 and 72 h, their numbers of eggs laid on per leaf were ranked in a descending order as follows: Dahei>Qianxi>Dafen>Huang′aisheng>Xiaolv, Dahei>Huang′aisheng>Qianxi>Dafen>Xiaolv, and Dahei>Huang′aisheng>Dafen>Qianxi>Xiaolv, respectively. The results of Pearson correlation analysis showed that the feeding selection rate of the 3rd instar larvae of T. absoluta was significantly negatively correlated with the protein content in the leaves of different tomato varieties when fed for 12 h. When T. absoluta adults laid eggs for 48 and 72 h, their numbers of eggs laid on per leaf were significantly positively correlated with the chlorophyll b content and total chlorophyll content in the leaves of different tomato varieties.【Conclusion】 The physical and chemical characteristics of the leaves of five tomato varieties (Qianxi, Dafen, Dahei, Xiaolv and Huang′aisheng) have significant effects on the host selection of T. absoluta. Based on the correlation analysis, T. absoluta larvae prefer to feed on the leaves of tomato varieties with low protein content, and adults prefer to lay eggs on the leaves of tomato varieties with high chlorophyll content.
    Observation of the circadian rhythm of calling behavior and identification of the sex pheromone of female moths of Brithys crini (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    HU Ke-Yan, YUAN Peng-Yu, QIAN Chen-Yu, JIA Cai-Juan, YANG Wen-Juan, LIU Chun-Yan, WEN Xiu-Jun, MA Tao,
    2023, 66(12):  1602-1611.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2023.12.007
    Abstract ( 92 )   PDF (4848KB) ( 119 )   PDF(mobile) (4848KB) ( 9 )     
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    【Aim】 Brithys crini mainly damage Lycoris plants. The aim of this study is to understand the circadian rhythm of calling behavior of B. crini and identify the sex pheromone components of its female moths, so as to provide the theoretical basis and technical guidance for the application of sex pheromones in green control of B. crini. 【Methods】 The virgin female moths of B. crini were placed individually in a plastic cup and their calling behavior was observed every 0.5 h. The start and end time of calling, and courtship duration of each female moth at different day-old were recorded. The sex pheromone gland of virgin female moth was extracted using distilled hexane extraction. The active component of sex pheromone gland extracts was screened by gas chromatography-electroantennagram detection (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and its titer (content) was further determined by GC-MS. The electrophysiological activities of sex pheromone components to the antennae of male moths were measured by electroatennogram (EAG) apparatus. 【Results】 The peak calling period of the female moths of B. crini was between the 3.5 and 9.0 h into scotophase, and the 1-day-old female moths displayed the highest calling rate. The calling rates of the 1-2-day-old female moths were significantly higher than that of the 3-day-old female adults. GC-EAD results showed that a component of the sex pheromone gland extracts could induce EAG response of male moths. The active component was identified as (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16∶Ald) by GC-EAD analysis and Kováts retention index. And the average titer of Z11-16∶Ald in the sex pheromone glands of the 1- and 2-day-old female moths was (3.11±0.01) ng by external standard method. EAG test data showed that different doses of Z11-16∶Ald could evoke different EAG responses in male moths of B. crini, and when the dose of Z11-16∶Ald was 100 ng, the EAG response was the strongest. 【Conclusion】 The 1-day-old female moths of B. crini show the most active calling behavior, and the peak calling period of female moths is between the 3.5 and 9.0 h into scotophase, and the major sex pheromone component of female moths was identified as Z11-16∶Ald.
    Olfactory and behavioral responses of Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilioidae) adults to volatiles from the branches and leaves of citrus
    LUO Yu-Jie, WANG Yang, ZHOU Qiong, HE Jie, LI Xing
    2023, 66(12):  1612-1625.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2023.12.008
    Abstract ( 64 )   PDF (4394KB) ( 85 )   PDF(mobile) (4394KB) ( 4 )     
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    【Aim】 Papilio polytes is an important pest of citrus plants with its larvae feeding on citrus leaves. This study aims to identify the volatile components from the branches and leaves of citrus that have the electrophysiological activity to the antennae of P. polytes adults, and to investigate the effects of these volatile compounds on the behavioral selection of P. polytes, so as to provide the basic data for further revealing the mechanism of oviposition selection of P. polytes, and the control and utilization of this insect. 【Methods】 The volatiles were collected from the branches and leaves of citrus by dynamic headspace adsorption. The electrophysiologically active compounds to the antennae of P. polytes adults were identified from the volatiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) techniques. Electroantennogram (EAG) apparatus was further used to test the EAG responses of P. polytes to 12 volatile compounds from the branches and leaves of citrus, including linalool, citral, guaiacol, leaf alcohol, furfuryl alcohol, nonanal, (+)-limonene, (-)-limonene, n-butyl butyrate, 1-nonanol, L-carvone and R-carvone. T-type olfactometer was used to determine the olfactory behavioral responses of P. polytes adults to five volatile compounds eliciting high EAG responses. Oviposition preference test was carried out to study the influence of four volatile compounds with attractive effect on the oviposition preference of female adults of P. polytes. 【Results】 The female and male adults of P. polytes showed concentration-dependent EAG responses to the tested volatile compounds from the branches and leaves of citrus. Thereinto, the EAG response values of the 1- and 5-day-old female adults to leaf alcohol, linalool, citral and nonanal were significantly higher than those of the 1- and 5-day-old male adults, respectively, and the EAG response values of the 1-day-old female and male adults to leaf alcohol, linalool, nonanal, guaiacol, 1-nonanol, L-carvone and R-carvone were higher than those of the 5-day-old female and male adults, respectively. The results of olfactory behavior test showed that at the dose of 100 μg, linalool had a significant attractive effect on both female and male adults of P. polytes, meanwhile, citral only significantly attracted male adults but had no significantly attractive effect on female adults, and guaiacol significantly attracted male adults but significantly repelled female adults. Results of oviposition preference test showed that linalool, citral, nonanal and leaf alcohol had attractiveness on the oviposition behavior of the female adults of P. polytes, among them leaf alcohol and linalool showed significant oviposition attractiveness. 【Conclusion】 The olfactory behavior response and oviposition preference of P. polytes adults are significantly affected by the different volatile components from the branches and leaves of the host citrus, and linalool has the strongest attractive effect and oviposition attractiveness to P. polytes adults, suggesting that linalool may play an important role in the location and host selection of P. polytes adults.
    Phylogenetic relationships of termites inferred from the genome-scale data
    SONG Nan, WANG Miao-Miao, LIU Xiao-Long, LIN Xing-Yu, XI Yu-Qiang, YIN Xin-Ming
    2023, 66(12):  1626-1637.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2023.12.009
    Abstract ( 51 )   PDF (2836KB) ( 108 )   PDF(mobile) (2836KB) ( 8 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the higher-level taxa (families and subfamilies) of Termitoidae using transcriptome and low-coverage whole-genome sequencing data, providing a phylogenomic approach for studing the systematic evolution of termites. 【Methods】 By downloading the existing transcriptome (70) and low-coverage whole-genome (5) sequencing data of 67 species of termites and 8 related species of Blattodea, we used BUSCO to evaluate these sequence data and screen the singlecopy nuclear genes. MAFFT was used to align the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the obtained single-copy nuclear genes, and trimAl was used to trim the alignments. Phykit was used to generate nucleotide and amino acid sequence data supermatrices with different completeness (including 50% and 25% missing data, respectively) to investigate the effect of missing data on the phylogenetic reconstruction. IQ-TREE was used to construct the maximum likelihood (ML) trees based on each matrix. In addition, ASTRAL was utilized to summarize the ML trees constructed on each marker included in the amino acid dataset faa_all, and obtain the species tree. Finally, FcLM analysis implemented in IQ-TREE was used to test the topology structure of different trees and obtain support for possible phylogenetic relationships inferred from different datasets. 【Results】 A total of 1 325 single-copy nuclear genes from the existing transcriptome and low-coverage whole-genome sequencing data of termites were obtained. Based on these single-copy nuclear genes, we constructed genomescale supermatrices of nucleotide and amino acid sequence data, with nucleotide sequence datasets ranging from 144 294 to 1 839 525 sites and amino acid datasets ranging from 48 098 to 613 175 sites. Different types of data matrices generated similar phylogenetic relationships in Termitoidae and three nucleotide data matrices produced the same inter-family phylogenetic relationships. For the amino acid data, two out of the three concatenated gene datasets produced inter-family phylogenetic relationships that were largely consistent with the nucleotide sequence datasets. This study supports the monophyly of Termitoidae and suggests that Mastotermitidae is the sister group to all other termite families. In most analyses, Archotermopsidae and Stolotermitidae were sister groups, forming the 2nd diverging branch within Termitoidae. The family Kalotermitidae is also a relatively ancient lineage within the termites, positioned after the Archotermopsidae and Stolotermitidae. The family Kalotermitidae forms a sister group relationship with the Neoisoptera. All analyses strongly support the monophyly of Neoisoptera. Within Neoisoptera, the family Stylotermitidae is the sister group to the remaining termite lineages. The family Serritermitidae is also a relatively basal lineage within Neoisoptera. The family Rhinotermitidae is a non-monophyletic group. The family Termitidae is a monophyletic group, with four out of the six concatenated gene datasets and species trees supporting the subfamily Macrotermitinae as the sister group to all other subfamilies within Termitidae. Most analyses support the subfamily Apicotermitinae as the 2nd branch within Termitidae. The concatenated gene data matrix supports the non-monophyly of Termitinae, but the species tree recovered Termitinae as a monophyletic group. 【Conclusion】 This study demonstrates the utility of transcriptome and low-coverage whole-genome sequencing data in reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships within Termitoidae, yielding results consistent with the previous studies. However, further data sampling, including specimens and molecular markers, is needed to elucidate the inter-subfamily relationships within this insect group.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Sensory structures and electrophysiology of termite antennae and the roles in its social behaviors
    FU Bing-Xian, YU Yu-Ting, WEI Yi-Jian, PAN Cheng-Yuan, ZHANG Da-Yu, ZHU Zeng-Rong
    2023, 66(12):  1638-1648.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2023.12.010
    Abstract ( 42 )   PDF (7893KB) ( 118 )   PDF(mobile) (7893KB) ( 3 )     
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    Termites occurred hundreds of millions of years ago and were widely distributed, causing huge economic losses in China and all over the world. It is difficult to control termites because most of them live in hidden habitats. Additionally, long-term chemical control has caused many social and environmental problems. Antennae are important sensory appendages of insects, and are especially crucial for the eusocial, non-reproductive termites whose monocular and compound eyes are mostly degenerated or disappeared to recognize various intra-/inter-specific communication signals and the environmental information. In this article, we reviewed series of research progresses on the sensory structures and electrophysiology of termite antennae and the roles in its social behaviors, to provide a reference for the research and development of environmentally friendly termite control strategies. The anatomical study on antennal sensilla in termites has gone through several stages, including the external apparent morphology of sensilla, internal ultrastructure and dendritic innervations of sensilla, the distribution and abundance of sensilla produced by the morphological field effects, and inferring the differences among various castes through the morphological field performance of antennae. The comparative morphological studies suggest that the olfactory morphology of antennal sensilla is related to the division of reproduction. Compared with workers and soldiers, female and male termites have longer antennae and more sensory organs. The quantitative composition of sensory organs is different between reproductive and non-reproductive termites, but shows little difference between female and male termites or between workers and soldiers. The electroantennographic test in termites involves many aspects, such as termite repellents, attractants, pheromones, fungi, humidity change, etc., which expands people’s understanding of the antennal perception of termites. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was used to detect and identify a series of chemical components that could elicit antennal reactions of termites, including cuticular hydrocarbons, trail pheromones, sex pheromones, alarm pheromones, queen pheromones, plant volatiles, etc. In addition, single sensillum recording also confirmed the presence of olfactory receptors on the antennae of termites. In view of more understanding of antennal perception of termites by electrophysiological techniques, behavioral and molecular biological researches have further confirmed the various roles of termite antennae, such as the roles of antennae in foraging, feeding, grooming, recognition between nestmates and inter-colonial individuals, royal recognition, corpses discrimination, detection of variations in environmental humidity, etc., and further studies on the mechanism of action were carried out.
    Research advances in male lures of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their metabolism
    LIU Xu-Xiang, JI Qing-E
    2023, 66(12):  1649-1666.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2023.12.011
    Abstract ( 37 )   PDF (1849KB) ( 140 )   PDF(mobile) (1849KB) ( 0 )     
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    Lures can stimulate the behavioral responses of fruit flies to a certain extent and play an important role in the green prevention and control of fruit flies. As one of the most important lures, and coming from some plant volatiles or parapheromones, male lures of fruit flies have a significant attractive effect on male fruit flies. Male fruit flies will not only be attracted by the smell of male lures but also feed on the lures, which will be metabolized into different substances in male adults, and then play the corresponding function. In this review, combined with the studies on the feeding effects, we reviewed the research progress of six male lures of fruit flies, namely methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, zingerone, cuelure, 3-hydroxy-α-ionone and β-caryophyllene, and their metabolism, mainly including the feeding behavior and metabolic changes of male fruit flies, the influence of feeding effect on the behavioral responses of fruit flies, the attractive effect of male fruit flies fed on lures on female and male fruit flies, and the change of mating success rate. In the exploration of the feeding effect, rectal gland is the focus of pheromone isolation and storage, and the waxy, water-resistant film composed of hydrocarbons covering insect body surface is also a potential focus of research. At the same time, exploring the role of antennae and maxillary palp in the lure perception process of fruit flies will help to reveal the complex mechanism behind feeding phenomenon more comprehensively and profoundly. It is expected to provide new ideas and guidelines for the development of fruit fly lures and add more diversified means and approaches for the green ecological prevention and control of fruit flies.

    SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
    Toxicity and field control efficacy of bioinsecticides and neonicotinoid insecticides against Amrasca biguttula (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in North Hunan cotton area
    LIU Bing-Lei, GUO Li-Li, WANG Jian-Wu, ZHAO Rui-Yuan, DING Shi-Yong, YANG Bin, LONG Xi-Ping, LI Cai-Hong
    2023, 66(12):  1667-1674.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2023.12.012
    Abstract ( 46 )   PDF (1196KB) ( 67 )   PDF(mobile) (1196KB) ( 5 )     
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    【Aim】 To ascertain the toxicity levels and field control efficacy of bioinsecticides and neonicotinoid insecticides against Amrasca biguttula nymphs, so as to provide a scientific basis for its control. 【Methods】 The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of three bioinsecticides (veratramine, avermectin and matrine), and five neonicotinoid insecticides (nitenpyram, imidaclothiz, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam and acetamiprid) against the 3rd instar nymphs of A. biguttula in North Hunan cotton area were determined at 24 h after treatment using leaf-dipping method in laboratory. Based on the recommended field application rate of each insecticide, the field control efficacy of 0.5% veratramine soluble concentrate (SL) (5.625 g a.i./hm2), 5% avermectin emulsifiable concentrate (EC)(10.5 g a.i./hm2), 2% matrine aqueous solution (AS) (10.5 g a.i./hm2), 10% nitenpyram AS (30 g a.i./hm2), 40% imidaclothiz water dispersible granule (WG) (30 g a.i./hm2), 20% dinotefuran suspension concentrate (SC) (75 g a.i./hm2), 30% thiamethoxam SC (33.75 g a.i./hm2) and 5% acetamiprid EC (18 g a.i./hm2)  against A. biguttula was evaluated by using artificial spraying in Taoyuan County, Hunan during the occurrence peak of A. biguttula in August, 2021. 【Results】 The laboratory toxicity assessment result revealed that at 24 h after treatment, the toxicity of the eight insecticides to A. biguttula nymphs was ranked in a descending order as follows: 0.5% veratramine SL>5% avermectin ES>10% nitenpyram AS>40% imidaclothiz WG>20% dinotefuran SC>2% matrine AS>30% thiamethoxam SC>5% acetamiprid EC. The bioinsecticides 0.5% veratramine SC and 5% avermectin EC had the LC50 values of 1.79 and 4.00 mg/L against the 3rd instar nymphs of A. biguttula, respectively, exhibiting higher toxicity than the five tested neonicotinoid insecticides. Field control efficacy experiment results showed that 0.5% veratramine SL had the best field control efficacy against A. biguttula, with the corrected control efficacy of 91.36% at 1 d after application, significanly higher than that of the other insecticides. At 7 and 14 d after application, the field corrected control efficacy of 0.5% veratramine SL against A. biguttula was 86.14% and 80.09%, respectively, only lower than that of 20% dinotefuran SC (92.02% and 86.99%, respectively), showing no significant difference from that of 10% nitenpyram AS and 40% imidaclothiz WG, and significantly higher than that of the other insecticides. 【Conclusion】 These results suggest that veratramine and nitenpyram show good indoor insecticidal activities and field control efficacy against A. biguttula populations in North Hunan cotton area. To reduce the improper use of insecticides and promote the synergistic application of chemical and biopesticides, we recommend that veratramine and nitenpyram should be used alternately to control A. biguttula in cotton fields.
    Biological characteristics of Aiolocaria hexaspilota (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and its predatory capacity against Gastrolina depressa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae
    WEN Xue-Da, LIU Yu-Sheng
    2023, 66(12):  1675-1684.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2023.12.013
    Abstract ( 49 )   PDF (12477KB) ( 69 )   PDF(mobile) (12477KB) ( 4 )     
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    【Aim】 To explore the biological characteristics of Aiolocaria hexaspilota fed on Gastrolina depressa larvae, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the control of G. depressa using A. hexaspilota. 【Methods】 The life history, morphological characteristics, life habits, duration and survival rates of different developmental stages of A. hexaspilota were observed and recorded in the field and laboratory, and the predatory capacities of the 2nd-4th instar larvae and adults of A. hexaspilota on the 2nd instar larvae of G. depressa at different densities were assayed. The Holling type Ⅱ model was used to fit the functional response and searching efficiency of A. hexaspilota on the 2nd instar larvae of G. depressa. 【Results】 One generation of A. hexaspilota occurred in a year in Tai′an City, Shandong Province, East China. It overwintered as adults. The peak period of female adult oviposition was during late April-middle May, that of incubation was during early May-early June, that of pupation was during late May-late June, and that of adult eclosion was during early June-middle July. Under the condition of (25±0.5) ℃, RH 80%±3% and photoperiod of 14L∶10D, the egg, 1st-4th instar larval and pupal duration of A. hexaspilota was (3.84±0.13), (2.24±0.25), (1.90±0.21), (2.85±0.46), (4.42±0.42) and (5.68±0.30) d, respectively, the egg, 1st-4th instar larval and pupal survival rates were 93.18%, 93.33%, 96.43%, 96.67%, 94.00% and 96.00%, respectively, the average fecundity in its whole life was 800 eggs laid per female and the oviposition period was 40-60 d. The predation of the 2nd-4th instar larvae and adults of A. hexaspilota on the 2nd instar larvae of G. depressa followed a Holling type Ⅱ functional response. The 4th instar larvae of A. hexaspilota preying on the 2nd instar larvae of G. depressa had the strongest predation capacity, with the a′/Th value of 78.67, the largest daily maximal theoretical predation amount, with the 1/Th value of 53.76 individuals, and the shortest handling time (0.0186 d). The 2nd instar larvae of A. hexaspilota preying on the 2nd instar larvae of G. depressa had the lowest predation capacity, with the a′/Th value of 31.20. The predation amount of A. hexaspilota on the 2nd instar larvae of G. depressa was positively correlated with the prey density, while its searching efficiency was negatively correlated with the prey density. χ2 test showed that the theoretically expected χ2 values fit the observed values. 【Conclusion】 These results indicate that A. hexaspilota has a good control potential on G. depressa larvae. This study provides a theoretical basis for more efficient utilization of A. hexaspilota resources and evaluating the potential of A. hexaspilota as a biological control for G. depressa.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 66 Issue 12
    2023, 66(12):  1685-1685. 
    Abstract ( 27 )   PDF (538KB) ( 123 )   PDF(mobile) (538KB) ( 0 )     
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    GENERAL CONTENTS
    General Contents of Volume 66(1-12)
    2023, 66(12):  1686-1686. 
    Abstract ( 33 )   PDF (1819KB) ( 119 )   PDF(mobile) (1819KB) ( 1 )     
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