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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 March 2024, Volume 67 Issue 3
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Effects of the gustatory receptor gene EscrGR8 on the fecundity of female adults of Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus (Coleptera:Curculioniclae)
    GUO Xiao-Li, WEN Chao, WEN Jun-Bao, WEN Xiao-Jian
    2024, 67(3):  307-317.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.03.001
    Abstract ( 225 )   PDF (1773KB) ( 266 )     
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    【Aim】 To analyze and elucidate the molecular characteristics and function of the gustatory receptor gene EscrGR8 in Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus, and to reveal its role in the regulation of the fecundity of female adult. 【Methods】 Based on the antennal transcriptome database of E. scrobiculatus, the cDNA full-length sequence of EscrGR8 was cloned using RACE. The expression levels of EscrGR8 in different developmental stages (egg, 1st-6th instar larvae, pupa, female adult, and male adult), and female and male adult tissues (head without antennae and proboscis, antennae, mouthparts, midgut, forefoot, testicles, ovaries, male copulatory organ and female ovipositor) of E. scrobiculatus were detected by qRT-PCR. The expression levels of EscrGR8 at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h after RNAi through microinjection of dsRNA into female adults were detected by qRT-PCR. The oviposition selection rates, total numbers of eggs laid and hatching rates of eggs laid by female adults under different soil moisture conditions (0-10%, 11%-20%, 21%-40%, 41%-60%, 61%-80%, and 81%-100%) at 1-5 d and 6-11 d after dsEscrGR8 microinjection were determined, and the effects of inhibition of the EscrGR8 expression on the oviposition preference and fecundity of female adults were studied. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequence of EscrGR8 (GenBank accession no.: OR836580) of E. scrobiculatus was successfully cloned with the open reading frame (ORF) of 1 251 bp in length, encoding 416 amino acids. EscrGR8 has six transmembrane domains. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis results showed that EscrGR8 has a low homology to the GRs of other insects, and the amino acid sequence identity with AgraGR64f of Anthonomus grandis is 30.96%. qRT-PCR result showed that there were significant differences in the expression levels of EscrGR8 in different developmental stages and adult tissues of E. scrobiculatus. EscrGR8 had the highest expression level in female adults, and the lowest expression level in eggs. EscrGR8 was highly expressed specifically in the female ovaries. Microinjection of dsEscrGR8 not only significantly reduced the expression level of EscrGR8 within a certain period of time, but also had a significant impact on the oviposition preference of female adults. At 1-5 d after microinjection of dsEscrGR8, the oviposition selection rate and hatching rate of eggs laid by female adults under soil condition with the moisture content of 21%-40% were significantly reduced by 2466% and 1583%, respectively, compared with those of the dsGFP-microinjected control group. The oviposition selection rate increased significantly by 28.39% under soil condition with the moisture content of 81%-100%, and almost all of the eggs laid by female adults failed to hatch. 【Conclusion】 This study has confirmed the effect of gustatory receptor gene EscrGR8 on the oviposition preference and fecundity of female adults of E. scrobiculatus, which is helpful for understanding the diversity and functional specificity of gustatory receptor genes in insects.
    Analysis of expression patterns of CCE family genes in Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae)
    GU Xin-Yao, SI Feng-Ling, CHEN Bin
    2024, 67(3):  318-326.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.03.002
    Abstract ( 140 )   PDF (6318KB) ( 156 )     
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    【Aim】 Carboxylesterases (CCEs) are an important hydrolase superfamily and have a role in the metabolism of various exogenous substances in insects. This study aims to lay a foundation for further research on the potential functions of CCEs in different physiological processes by analyzing the expression patterns of CCE genes from transcriptome datasets of Anopheles sinensis at different developmental stages, in different tissues, and before and after blood meal. 【Methods】 Based on 50 CCE genes collected from the obtained transcriptome data of the An. sinensis laboratory strain, the expression patterns of CCE genes in An. sinensis at different developmental stages (egg, 1st-4th instar larvae, male pupa, female pupa, male adult and female adult), in different adult tissues (antennae, salivary gland, midgut, Malpighian tubules, testis, ovary, cuticle and fat body), and female adults before and after blood meal (at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h) were analyzed by bioinformatics. 【Results】 CCE genes were mainly highly or specifically expressed in the larval or adult stages. AsAe12, AsAe4 and AsBe4 were highly expressed during all developmental stages. The expression patterns of CCE genes were also tissue specific and mainly expressed in antennae, cuticle and testis of adults. Moreover, five CCE genes (AsAe13, AsAe12, AsAe6, AsAe4 and AsBe4) were highly expressed in the midgut, Malpighian tubules and fat body of adults, suggesting their potential involvement in xenobiotic metabolism within these detoxification organs. After feeding female adults with blood meal, the expression levels of most CCE genes changed, and their expression patterns were different, suggesting that the blood digestion is a complex process. 【Conclusion】 The results of this study have enriched the knowledge of CCE genes in An. sinensis, providing a valuable reference for further research on the potential function of CCE family genes in the growth and development of An. sinensis.
    Structure characteristics and transcriptome analysis of the integument of Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) pupae after cultivation with melanin precursors dopa and dopamine
    XIANG Kai, QIU Pin-Pin, HONG Jun-Feng, LING Xia, ZHOU Cao, HE Shu-Lin, XIE Xin-Yuan, JIANG Yan-Ping, WANG Si-Yi, CHEN Bin, QIAO Liang
    2024, 67(3):  327-338.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.03.003
    Abstract ( 121 )   PDF (4717KB) ( 115 )     
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    【Aim】To identify gene groups with the most significant changes in the expression in integuments of Anopheles sinensis pupae under melanization-inducing conditions, and explore their correlations with melanin precursor accumulation and cuticular structural features. 【Methods】Grace’s insect cell medium was supplemented with the melanin precursors dopa and dopamine. An. sinensis pupal integuments were subjected to in vitro cultivation within the first 20 min of pupation, and a control group (CK) was not treated with melanin precursors. At 16 h after cultivation, pupal integuments from the melanin precursor-treated groups and control group were observed to assess their coloration and cuticular cross-sectional features using a stereomicroscope. The integument transcriptome sequencing of the melanin precursor-treated and control groups was performed using the Illumina platform. GO functional classification and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The gene annotations and chromosome distributions of significantly enriched DEGs were analyzed. qRT-PCR was conducted to validate the transcriptome data. 【Results】The integuments and cuticular cross-sections of pupae of An. sinensis treated with dopa and dopamine exhibited noticeable melanization compared with those of CK, and dopa treatment resulted in the deepest pigmentation. The cuticle exhibited significant thickening in the dopa and dopamine treatment groups compared with that of CK, and the degree of thickness was correlated with the degree of melanization. There were 2 952 and 697 DEGs were identified from dopa treatment group vs CK and dopamine treatment group vs CK comparison groups, respectively, and the down-regulated genes predominated. The numbers of the shared up-regulated DEGs and down-regulated DEGs between these two comparison groups were 223 and 347, respectively. GO functional classification result showed that the shared up-regulated DEGs in the above comparison groups and the shared up-regulated DEGs in both comparison groups were significantly enriched to structural constituent of cuticle (GO: 0042302). KEGG pathway enrichment analysis result indicated that the up-regulated DEGs in the dopa treatment group vs CK comparison group were significantly enriched to spliceosome pathway, and the down-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched to Toll-Imd and Hippo signaling pathways. The down-regulated DEGs in the dopamine treatment group vs CK comparison group were significantly enriched to autophagy pathway. No DEGs shared between these two comparison groups were significantly enriched to any pathways. In addition, 65 significantly enriched up-regulated cuticular protein genes belonged to the CPR, CPF, TWDL, CPLC, and CPAP five families and distributed on three chromosomes, and some members were clustered. The expression levels detected by qPCR-PCR for 12 selected shared up-regulated cuticular protein genes in both comparison groups were consistent with the transcriptome data. 【Conclusion】This omics-level study showed that the excessive accumulation of melanin in mosquito pupal integuments led to the significant up-regulation of a large number of cuticular protein genes and changes in cuticular structural features. These findings facilitate subsequent studies of the mechanisms that allow melanin precursors to regulate cuticular structural genes, and to understand the impacts of interactions between important components of the cuticle on the adaptive traits in insects, supplying a new perspective on the impact of insect adaptive traits.
    Analysis of the function and upstream regulatory sequence activity of the male determining factor gene MoY in Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    FU Jun-Kai, WEN Jian, CAO Feng-Qin, YAN Ri-Hui, LIN Xian-Wu
    2024, 67(3):  339-345.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.03.004
    Abstract ( 134 )   PDF (14407KB) ( 148 )     
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    【Aim】The aim of this study is to identify the upstream regulatory sequence of the male determining factor gene MoY of the melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae, and to explore the impact of this sequence on the sex determination of Z. cucurbitae by directing the expression of MoY in the early embryonic stages, so as to provide a reference basis and available elements for the construction of the subsequent Z. cucurbitae transgenic strains.【Methods】We amplified and sequenced the upstream sequence of MoY linked to the Y chromosome of Z. cucurbitae using the genome-walking, and connected the obtained upstream sequence to the CDS region of MoY to construct a plasmid that drives the expression of MoY. We injected the plasmid expressing MoY into the fresh embryos of Z. cucurbitae, and after hatching, extracted the genomic DNA based on the observed adult phenotype and sex ratio to amplify MoY so as to determine whether the upstream regulatory sequence of MoY had the activity of directing MoY expression and analyze the impact of MoY expression in embryos on the gender determination. 【Results】The upstream sequence of 1 660 bp of MoY of Z. cucurbitae was cloned and obtained, and the plasmid p1660 that drives the MoY expression was constructed. Eighteen male and 13 female adults developed from the injected embryos of Z. cucurbitae, and three adults were found to have abnormal genitalia, with negative amplification results for MoY, confirming them as intersex individuals. 【Conclusion】In this study, we found that the upstream regulatory sequence of MoY of Z. cucurbitae obtained by genome-walking amplification has the activity of directing the expression of MoY. When MoY is expressed in the early stages of Z. cucurbitae embryos, the gender reversal in the previously developed female individuals can be happened.
    Improvement of the sequences and functional annotations of the Apis cerana reference genome with the nanopore long-read data of the gut transcriptome of larval A. cerana cerana workers
    LI Kun-Ze, SONG Yu-Xuan , ZANG He , JING Xin, FAN Xiao-Xue, CHEN Ying, NA Zhi-Hao, CHEN Da-Fu, FU Zhong-Min, GUO Rui
    2024, 67(3):  346-357.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.03.005
    Abstract ( 103 )   PDF (2704KB) ( 76 )     
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     【Aim】 The obtained nanopore long-read data of Apis cerana cerana transcriptome were compared with the reference genome of A.cerana, and the structures of the annotated genes were optimized. The unannotated new genes and new transcripts were identified and functionally annotated, and their SSR loci, complete ORFs and transcription factor (TF) families and members were predicted and verified, so as to improve the sequence and functional annotations of the reference genome of A. cerana. 【Methods】 Based on the high-quality transcriptome nanopore sequencing data of the 4-, 5- and 6-day-old larvae of A. cerana cerana workers infected with Ascosphaera apis, the identified full-length transcripts were mapped to the reference genome of A. cerana with gffcompare software to optimize the structures of the annotated genes. The unannotated novel genes and transcripts in the reference genome were identified utilizing the gffcompare software and mapped to the Nr, KOG, eggNOG, GO and KEGG databases for functional annotation. MISA, TransDecoder v3.0.0 and animalTFDB 2.0 software were employed to respectively predict the SSR loci, complete ORFs as well as TF families and members. 【Results】 A total of 4 648 annotated genes in the reference genome of A. cerana were structurally optimized, the 5′UTR and 3′UTR of 1 336 genes were simultaneously extended, while the 5′UTR of 1 688 genes and the 3′UTR of 1 624 genes were respectively extended. A total of 2 148 novel genes were identified, among which 818, 298, 587, 359 and 333 genes could be annotated to Nr, KOG, eggNOG, GO and KEGG databases, respectively. A total of 35 432 novel transcripts were identified, among which 30 974, 21 222, 29 025, 19 852, and 9 214 could be respectively annotated to the aforementioned five databases. A total of 22 541 SSR loci were detected, of which the numbers of SSRs with single, double, three and six base repeat were 12 078, 7 140, 2 825 and 43, respectively. The number of mixed SSRs was 2 964, and the type with the highest distribution frequency was single base repeat (153.37/Mb), and 58 TF families and 1 611 members were predicted. A total of 28 775 complete ORFs were predicted, of which the ORFs with the coding lengths ranging from 100 to 200 aa (38.99 %) were the most abundant. 【Conclusion】 These results optimize the structures of the annotated genes in the A. cerana reference genome and supplement novel genes, novel transcripts, SSR, complete ORFs, and TFs that were unannotated in the reference genome.
    Effects of lysophosphatidic acid on the feeding of the Italian honey bee, Apis mellifera ligustica
    ZHU Jia-Qi, DU Kai-Shu, YANG Meng, ZHANG Zhao-Nan
    2024, 67(3):  358-365.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.03.006
    Abstract ( 104 )   PDF (1851KB) ( 103 )     
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    【Aim】To explore the impact of the gut bacterial metabolite, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) on food intake behavior in honey bees. 【Methods】 Fed with normal sucrose solution in the control group and sucrose solution containing LPA in the treatment group, a honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica) model supplemented with LPA was established. The food intake of the 6-day-old adults of A. mellifera ligustica was measured using both group-level feeding assay and individual-level feeding assay. The sensitivity of A. mellifera ligustica adults to food was evaluated using a food sensitivity test. Additionally, the weight of the head, thorax, abdomen and whole individual of A. mellifera ligustica adults was measured.【Results】 LPA reduced the food intake of A. mellifera ligustica adults at the group level. The group-level average daily food intake was 4.23 mL for the control group and 2.38 mL for the treatment group. LPA did not affect the food sensitivity of A. mellifera ligustica adults at the individual level or the intake of unpalatable food. The analysis of food intake at different hunger levels revealed that LPA blunted the hunger sensation in A. mellifera ligustica adults at the individual level. Even in a hungry state, the food intake of A. mellifera ligustica adults in the treatment group failed to reach the normal food intake level observed in the control group. Comparison of the weight of the head, thorax, abdomen, and whole individual of A. mellifera ligustica adults showed a significant decrease in weight due to reduced food intake caused by LPA. 【Conclusion】 LPA, the gut bacterial metabolite, inhibits food intake in the host A. mellifera ligustica adults, leading to a decrease in their body weight.
    Insecticidal activity of Coriandrum sativum essential oil against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the effects on the aphid’s protective and detoxification enzyme activities
    WANG Ze-Hua, YANG Fan, GAO Tian-Tian, ZHANG Dao-Feng, YU Qiu-Yue, GAO Meng-Yao, WANG Shan-Ning
    2024, 67(3):  366-373.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.03.007
    Abstract ( 93 )   PDF (1167KB) ( 110 )     
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    【Aim】The aim is to explore the bioactivity of Coriandrum sativum essential oils against Myzus persicae, and its synergistic effects on imidacloprid, as well as the response mechanism of M. persicae to C. sativum essential oil stress. 【Methods】 The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 24 h fumigation activity (essential oil concentrations of 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25 μL/mL) and 24 h contact activity (essential oil concentrations of 12.5, 6.25, 3.125, 1.563, and 0.781 μL/mL) of seed essential oil and leaf essential oil of C. sativum against M. persicae adults were evaluated, respectively. M. persicae adults were treated with imidacloprid solutions at the concentrations of 40, 20, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 mg/L containing 0.05% volume fraction of leaf essential oil and seed essential oil of C. sativum, respectively, by leaf-dipping method to determine the synergistic effects of leaf essential oil and seed essential oil of C. sativum on imidacloprid at 48 h after treatment. The activities of the protective enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), detoxification enzymes carboxylesterase(CarE) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in M. persicae adults at 48 h after contact treatment with LC50 concentration of leaf essential oil and seed essential oil of C. sativum were determined. 【Results】 The 24 h contact LC50 values of seed essential oil and leaf essential oil of C. sativum against M. persicae adults were 1.63 and 3.72 μL/mL, respectively. The 24 h fumigation LC50 values of seed essential oil and leaf essential oil of C. sativum against M. persicae adults were 1469 and 3415 μL/mL, respectively. The synergistic experiment results showed that the LC50 values of imidacloprid against M. persicae adults were 0.99 and 1.51 mg/L after adding 0.05% volume fraction of seed and leaf essential oil of C. sativum and the synergistic ratios were 478 and 313, respectively. The activities of the protective enzymes SOD and CAT in M. persicae adults at 48 h after the contact treatment with seed essential oil and leaf essential oil of C. sativum at the LC50 concentration were significantly increased, however, those of POD had no significant change as compared with those of the blank control group. The activities of the detoxification enzymes CarE and GST, and AChE in M. persicae adults at 48 h after the contact treatment with seed essential oil and leaf essential oil of C. sativum at LC50 concentration were significantly increased as compared with that of the blank control group. The activities of SOD, GST, and AChE in M. persicae adults treated with the C. sativum seed essential oil were 1.58-, 1.20-, and 134-fold as high as those of the treatment group of the C. sativum leaf essential oil, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Seed essential oil and leaf essential oil of C. sativum have contact activity and fumigation activity against M. persicae, and also show synergistic effects on imidacloprid, with seed essential oil displaying stronger effect. M. persicae can respond to the stress of insecticidal components in C. sativum essential oil by increasing the activities of the protective enzymes SOD and CAT, as well as the detoxification enzymes CarE and GST, and AChE.
    Allicin E modulates oviposition preference and fitness in Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)
    LI Yi-Xuan, LI Long-Qi, ZHANG Sheng, BAO Yue-Yue, LIU An-Qi, ZHUANG Jing-Jing, JIANG Biao, LIU Wei
    2024, 67(3):  374-383.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.03.008
    Abstract ( 116 )   PDF (4045KB) ( 146 )     
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    【Aim】To study the effects of allicin E (ALE) on the oviposition behavior of Drosophila suzukii, and to provide a reference for the biological control of D. suzukii by ALE. 【Methods】The avoidance effects of 0.01%, 0.015% and 0.02% ALE on the oviposition of D. suzukii female adults were detected with oviposition two-choice device. The effects of sensory systems of vision, gustation and olfaction on the oviposition preference of female adults of D. suzukii were investigated by means of darkness, surgically removing the forelegs and antennae, respectively. The avoidance effects of 0.015% ALE on the oviposition behavior of female adults of D. suzukii were tested by Y-maze experiment. The effects of ALE on the fitness of D. suzukii were tested by determining the survival rate and developmental duration. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the intestines of D. suzukii adults treated with ALE was detected by fluorescent staining. 【Results】ALE had avoidance effects on the oviposition of female adults of D. suzukii, and the oviposition indexes to 0.01%, 0.015% and 0.02% ALE were -0.30, -0.44 and -0.51, respectively. In darkness and forelegless groups, the female adults of D. suzukii still showed significant oviposition avoidance to ALE. However, the female adults of D. suzukii with antennae removed had significantly decreased oviposition avoidance to ALE, and the oviposition indexes to 001%, 0.015% and 0.02% ALE were decreased to -0.10, -0.11 and -0.12, respectively. After the eggs laid by female adults of D. suzukii were exposed to 0.02% ALE, the offspring pupal and adult survival rates were decreased by 69.23% and 69.70%, respectively, and the time to puparium formation and time to adult eclosion of offspring were prolonged by 5.88 and 4.75 d, respectively. ALE shortened the adult life span of D. suzukii, and the LT50 values of females and males under 0.02% ALE treatment decreased from 39 d to 18 and 15 d, respectively. The running and climbing speeds of D. suzukii adults were significantly decreased at 72 h after treatment with 0.02% ALE. The ROS levels in the intestine of D. suzukii adults were increased at 3 d after treatment with 0.02% and 0.05% ALE. 【Conclusion】ALE induces oviposition avoidance in female adults of D. suzukii, which is mediated mainly by olfaction. ALE prolongs the growth and development of the offspring of D. suzukii, decreases the locomotion performance and the survival rate of adults, and causes intestine damage in adults, thereby having potential biological control value against D. suzukii.
    Ovarian developmental process of Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) adults and the developmental status of its females trapped by attractants
    ZHU Hao-Cheng, GU Yu-Tong, ZHENG Kai-Wen, DONG Yi-Fan, FAN Jian-Ting
    2024, 67(3):  384-392.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.03.009
    Abstract ( 92 )   PDF (14460KB) ( 96 )     
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    【Aim】 To investigate the ovarian developmental process of female adults of Monochamus alternatus, categorize the ovarian development of M. alternatus from the perspective of age, and judge the developmental status of female adults trapped by attractants in the field, so as to provide a reference for effective prevention and control of M. alternatus. 【Methods】 The mated and unmated female adults of M. alternatus at the 0-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 30-, 40- and 15-day-old, and the female adults trapped by attractants were dissected to observe the ovarian development. 【Results】 The ovarian developmental process of female adults of M. alternatus can be divided into five stages: prophase (0-5-day-old): the ovariole is transparent and slender, and there is no egg yolk deposition; egg yolk precipitation stage (5-15-day-old): there are a few milky white and yellowish immature eggs in the ovariole; ovarian maturity stage (15-20-day-old): ovariole contains a large number of fully mature eggs, which are long spindle-shaped, yellow and full of luster; oviposition peak stage (20-40-day-old): mature eggs are piled up in the egg calyx, and there are eggs to be laid in the median oviduct and lateral oviduct; and aging stage (≥40-day-old): ovariole, egg calyx and oviduct gradually atrophy. After mating, the female adults can produce fertilized eggs, and the egg calyx is enlarged and visible. The unmated females can’t produce fertilized eggs, and the eggs can’t be produced when they are accumulated in the oviduct, and the egg calyx is not fully differentiated and the shape is invisible. The results of field trapping showed that there were significant differences in the number of trapped female adults at different day-old ages, and the proportion of the female adults in the oviposition peak stage was the most, accounting for 5490%±550% of the total. The female adults at the ovarian maturity stage, aging stage and egg yolk precipitation stage were relatively few, accounting for 31.37%±5.52%, 11.76%±1.54% and 1.96%±0.51% of the total, respectively. No female adults at the prophase were lured. 【Conclusion】 Female adults of M. alternatus develop to sexual maturity at the 15-20-day-old age, and mating behavior can promote the ovarian development of female adults of M. alternatus. Attractants can trap a large number of rigid mature M. alternatus, which is of positive significance for reducing the oviposition of M. alternatus, the occurrence base of the next generation and the transmission probability of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.
    Circadian rhythms of movement, calling and mating behavior of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
    SHI Qian-Rui, DONG Yi-Xia, NIE Zhen, GU Xing-Feng, LIU Zhen-Dong, GUO Qian-Shuang, DU Yong-Jun,
    2024, 67(3):  393-403.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.03.010
    Abstract ( 142 )   PDF (9931KB) ( 183 )     
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    【Aim】To make better use of sex pheromones in the monitoring and control of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta, and to further study the circadian rhythms of its movement, calling and mating behavior. 【Methods】For T. absoluta adults, video recording and two-dimensional trajectories were used to analyze their movements. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) adsorption extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the sex pheromone titer in female adults. In tomato greenhouses in Xichang City, Sichuan Province from August to September 2022, field trapping experiments were carried out to analyze the relationship between the sex pheromone titers of T. absoluta adults and their day-old age and circadian rhythm based on the trapping results. The mating behavior was observed in indoor insect cages, and the reproductive system of the male adult was observed by dissection, and the relationship between development and day-old age was analyzed. 【Results】The results showed that in the indoor natural environment, the movement of female and male adults occurred from the 5th hour of the scotophase to the 2nd hour of the photophase, with the peak at the 5th to 7th hour of the scotophase, and there was no significant difference in the time and distance of movement between females and males, and between the 1-7-day-old assayed. The sex pheromones of T. absoluta can be detected in adults at the 1-11-day-old, but there was no significant difference in the sex pheromone titer between day-old ages. The sex pheromones released by female adults were detected during the entire 24 h period, and the difference in the sex pheromone titer between different periods was not significant. Mating did not significantly affect the sex pheromone titer in female adults. However, the male adults in the field were trapped from the 7th hour of the scotophase to the 2nd hour of the photophase. T. absoluta adults were able to mate on the same day of emergence, and the mating rate was the highest when the male adults were at the 3-day-old, and then decreased, but there was no significant difference in the mating duration between day-old ages. The peak time of mating occurred at the 7th and 10th hour of the scotophase, and there was no new mating after the photophase. The testicular volume of male adults decreased as the day-old age increased, and based on the testicular volume of male adults caught by sex pheromone trapping, it was calculated that the age of those trapped males was 3-7-day-old. 【Conclusion】The calling and mating time of T. absoluta adults occurred at the end period of the scotophase. The sex pheromone titer of female adults remained at a consistently high level at different day-old ages and circadian rhythms, and mating did not significantly affect sex pheromone titer, resulting in older male adults being caught by pheromone trapping, and their testes were the same size as those of the 7-day-old male adults, and most of them may have already mated. The data here give a more clear description of the calling and mating behavior of T. absoluta adults, thus, they can provide technical bases and parameters for the development and application of mass trapping and mating disruption by sex pheromones.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Research and applications of genetic pest management techniques
    SUN Hao, GAO Cong-Fen, WU Shun-Fan
    2024, 67(3):  404-421.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.03.011
    Abstract ( 501 )   PDF (2737KB) ( 258 )     
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    Insect vectors cause significant economic losses and human casualties worldwide each year by transmitting parasites and viruses such as malaria, Zika virus, and dengue. Agricultural pests cause huge losses of crop yield every year and seriously threaten global food security. However, the current control methods based on chemical agents are insufficient to completely control the occurrence and damage of pests. At the same time, the use of chemical pesticides will induce resistance and result in environmental pollution and pesticide residues, etc. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new pest control strategies in production. In recent years, with the development of genome sequencing and gene editing techniques, the genetic control technology for the target pest population and their specific target genes has been rapidly developed. Compared with traditional pest control methods such as chemical control, genetic control strategies for pests have the advantages of species specificity, environmental friendliness, and efficient control. In this article, we reviewed several widely studied genetic control techniques for pests, including sterile insect technique (SIT), release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), and gene drive (GD) technology. Finally, we presented several prospects for the research of genetic control technology for pests and its application in agricultural pest control: (1) to establish stable and efficient genetic manipulation systems; (2) to identify efficient promoters in germ cells or other tissues to improve the efficiency of gene editing or gene transformation; and (3) to elucidate the sex determination pathway of pests and excavate the key genes involved in the reproductive development of pests.
    Research progress in phosphine toxicology and resistance mechanisms in insect pests
    WANG Zheng-Yan, ZHANG Shan, LIU Zhi-Yuan, CHANG Zhen-Zhen
    2024, 67(3):  422-430.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.03.012
    Abstract ( 80 )   PDF (1329KB) ( 158 )     
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    The fumigant phosphine has been widely used in protecting stored products against insect pests for over 60 years. However, the long-term and improper application of phosphine has led to extensive phosphine resistance among stored product pests. Knowledge of the mechanisms of phosphine toxicology can provide ideas for the study of the mechanisms of phosphine resistance. Although it has been accepted that phosphine causes death of insect pests by disruption of the nerve conduction, suppression of energy metabolism, and destruction of the redox system, recent studies have revealed that the main lethal mechanisms involve inhibiting the energy production, and disturbing redox system to increase oxidative damage. Earlier studies demonstrated that the mechanisms of phosphine resistance mainly included active exclusion of phosphine, protective narcosis, and upregulation of detoxification enzyme activities. In recent years, with the application of genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, some novel resistance mechanisms, such as penetration resistance, decreased sensitivity of the target of phosphine, and reprogrammed energy metabolism, have been proposed. Increasing researches supported that strong phosphine resistance should be mainly attributed to mutations of the target dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and upregulation of antioxidase and detoxification enzyme activities, while reprogrammed energy metabolism is a possible strategy adopted to counteract the negative influence of phosphine during the early stage of resistance formation. Application of gene introgression in the study of fitness costs associated with phosphine resistance mutations facilitates precisely predicting the evolution direction of resistance mutations. Knowledge of the mechanisms of phosphine resistance and the evolutionary potential of resistance mutations not only helps understand pesticide resistance development and biological evolution, but also provides insights into the monitoring and management of phosphine resistance.
    SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
    Expression profiles and potential functions of circRNAs in Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) analyzed by high-throughput sequencing
    YU Xin-Ying, ZHAO Zhe-Qi, ZHA Wen-Jun
    2024, 67(3):  431-442.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.03.013
    Abstract ( 74 )   PDF (3584KB) ( 145 )     
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    【Aim】 To explore how the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) adapts to the resistant rice variety YHY15 and lay a foundation for studying the role of circular RNA (circRNA) in the adaptation mechanism of N. lugens to resistant rice. 【Methods】 The circRNAs of biotype 1 and biotype Y (biotype that can cause damage to resistant rice YHY15) of N. lugens were identified by high-throughput sequencing technology, and the type and distribution of circRNAs were counted. The expression differences of circRNAs between biotype 1 and biotype Y of N. lugens were analyzed, and GO functional annotation and KEGG enrichment analysis of the circRNA source genes were performed. 【Results】 A total of 19 circRNAs were identified in biotype 1 and biotype Y of N. lugens, and distributed on nine chromosomes. Among them, 17 circRNAs were composed of exons between splicing sites, two circRNAs were composed of all bases between splicing sites, and 17 circRNAs were 200-800 bp in length. The expression abundance and expression level of circRNAs in biotype Y of N. lugens were higher than those in biotype 1 of N. lugens. The analysis results showed that in the process of biotype 1 of N. lugens overcoming the resistance of rice YHY15 to form a new biotype Y of N. lugens, under the pressure of natural selection, the expression of circRNA changed resulting in the effects on the formation of a new biotype of N. lugens. The KEGG analysis results indicated that the identified circRNA source genes of biotype 1 and biotype Y of N. lugens were mainly enriched in autophagy-related pathways. 【Conclusion】 Long-term feeding of resistant rice by N. lugens leads to the evolution of the digestion, detoxification, and metabolic abilities of N. lugens, which can degrade the secondary metabolites produced by resistant rice to resist N. lugens. The circRNA source genes of biotype 1 and biotype Y of N. lugens are enriched in autophagy-related pathways, indicating that N. lugens respond to insect-resistant rice through the process of autophagy. This response promotes the adaptation of N. lugens to insect-resistant rice, enhances pathogenicity, and forms biotypes.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 67 Issue 3
    2024, 67(3):  443-443. 
    Abstract ( 43 )   PDF (498KB) ( 77 )     
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