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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 May 1994, Volume 37 Issue 2
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    LABORATORY SELECTION FOR FENVALERATE RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE STRAINS IN COTTON BOLLWORM, HELIOTHIS ARMIGERA (HUBNER)
    WU YI-DONG SI-IEN JIN-LIANG YOU ZI-PING
    1994, 37(2):  129-136. 
    Abstract ( 2876 )   PDF (473KB) ( 1124 )     
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    A fenvalerate resistant strain (Fen-R) of cotton bollworm, Heliothis armigera (Hiibner), was obtained by laboratory selection of a strain (YG) collected from Yanggu County, Shandong Province in 1990 after nine selections with fenvalerate during fifteen generations, and exhibited about 2463-fold resistance to this insecticide as compared with a susceptible strain collected from Dongtai County, Jiangsu Province in 1983. The LD50 value (24.1412μg/larva) in F15 generation after selection increased to l19.5-fold as compared with the LD50 value (0.2020 [μg/larva) of F1.A fenvalerate susceptible strain (Fen-S) was developed by selection of progenies that resulted from single-pair matings of cotton bollworm collected from Yanshi County,Henan Province, under conditions free of insecticides, and its LD50 was 0.0116 μg/larva, close to that of Dongtai susceptible strain in 1983. Dose-mortality regressions were estimated for seven insecticides applied to Ygstrain before selection treatments and to Fen-R strain, respectively. A spectrum of cross-resistance was detected to deltamethrin [LD50(Fen-R)/LD50(YG).= 5.2X] andcypermethrin (2.5X), but no cross-resistance to cyhalothrin (0.66x), permethrin (0.87X), methomyl (0.74X), and monocrotophos (1.5x). The studies on synergism of fenvalerate+Pb in Fen-R strain showed that resistance was due principally to the metabolic (multiple function oxidase) mechanism. Toxicological data suggested that more than one factors (genes) were responsible for resistance to fenvalerate in Helio.Shis arrnigera (Hiibner).
    SOME BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COTTON APHID STRAIN RESISTANT TO FENVALERATE
    WU KONG-MING LIU QIN-XUAN
    1994, 37(2):  137-144. 
    Abstract ( 2949 )   PDF (451KB) ( 1326 )     
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    The resistance level of cotton aphid Aphis gossypii to fenvalerate, omethoate and monocrotophos in Henan cotton growing areas was investigated during 1988 to 1990 and the result showed that there was a rapid increase of resistance to these three pesticides, especially to fenvalerate. A susceptible strain of the aphid wastreated for eight times with fenvalerate in the laboratory, the selection resuked in the increase of resistance level to 1393 fold and there was cross resistance of 2 to 4 fold to monocrotophos and omethoate. The life tables of experimental populations of four strains of different resistance levels were analyzed and the result indicated that there was no disadvantageous influence for resistance level of fenvalerate to the fitness of cotton aphids. Bioassays were carried out on the aphids resistant to fenvalerate with pyrethroids, organophosphates and amidines. The result showed that DDVP had a high toxicity, the mixtures of amidines and pyrethroids could have sig.Nificant synergism, but antogonism was found with the mixture containing DDVP.
    INFLUENCE OF MULTIPARASITISM OF EGG PARASITOIDS OF PINE LASIOCAMPIDS ON EFFICACY OF BIOLOGICAL CONTRO
    NI LE-XIAGN TONO XIN-WANG LAO XIAN-MIN
    1994, 37(2):  145-152. 
    Abstract ( 3242 )   PDF (886KB) ( 1234 )     
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    Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura, Pseudanastatus albitarsis Ashmead, Pachyneuron nawai Ashmead, Telenomus dendrolimusi Chu and Ooencyrtus kuwanae (Howard) are the main egg parasitoids of the pine lasiocampids. A research has been conducted on the habits of parasitism of these parasitoids and the results are summarized as follows. There existed reciprocal parasitism between Trichogramraadendrolimi and Pseudanastatus albitarsis. They usually attacked the fresh host eggs, but they also parasitized the eggs that had been parasitized by the other species. In the latter case, the non-cogeneric embryo could develop for 1 to 3 days but the rate of adult emergence was very low. On the other hand, Pachyneuronnawai did not parasitize fresh host egg; it only parasitized eggs that had been parasitized by Trichogramma spp. Whose embryo developed for I to 7 da s. The parasitization rate and adult emergence of this species were the highest when the non-cogeneric embryo had developed for 3 to 5 days. Telenomus dendrolimusiand Ooencyrtus kuwanae, however, only parasitized fresh host eggs. During biological control of pine lasiocampids, only Trichogramma dendrolimi and Pseudanastatusalbitarsis could be released at the same time; the mixed release of other parasitoidswould result in antagonism. If the host egg masses were first arasitized by Fseudanastatus albitarsis and later by Trichogramma dendrolimi or first parasitized by Trichogramma dendrolimi and later by Telenomus dendrolimusi or Ooencyrtus kuoanae, the rate of parasitization would become higher and thus would result in better effect in controlling the pest.
    MORPHOLOGY AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A CYTOPLASMIC POLYHEDROSIS VIRUS FROMTOBACO BUDWORM HELIOTHIS ASSULTA
    CHEN ZHI-RONG CAI XIU-YU
    1994, 37(2):  153-158. 
    Abstract ( 2899 )   PDF (3502KB) ( 942 )     
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    A cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) isolated recently from the tobacco budworm Heliothis assulta was observed with EM and characterized biochemically. The polyhedral bodies of the CPV were pentagonal dodecahedron measured 0.8 to 4.6μm, and the virioas after release from the polyhedra were found with a hexagonal or spherical outline and a size of 62nm. The polyhedrin had a molecular weight of23,000 dalton and was not a glycoprotein because it was stained negatively by periodic acid-Schiff's reagent. Genes of the CPV were double-stranded with Dnase I resistance and considerable Rnase I resistance. The CPV genome consisted of ten segments of RNA. Their molecular weights range from 0.3-2.68 ×106 dalton, with a total of 15.85×106 dalton.
    GENOVARIATION IN THREE RACES OF APISMELLIFERA LIGUSTICA
    GUAN YING-HUI LI SHAO-WIEN LI JU-HUAI CHEN SHENG-LU
    1994, 37(2):  159-164. 
    Abstract ( 2919 )   PDF (1254KB) ( 1050 )     
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    The malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isozymes in three races of Apis rnelliferaligustica——Zheiiang Agricultural University A (A), Hubei A. m. ligustica (B) and A. m. ligustica introduced from Italy ? were analyzed with polyacrylamide gel isoelectrofocusing (IEF). There were three zones (MDH I, MDH II and MDH Iil) in these electromorphs. MDH II was coded by three alleles: a, b and c. About 120 worker bees of each racewere analyzed. Theoretically, there should be six genotypesin MDH Il (a/a, b/b, c/c, a/b, b/c and a/c), but b/b type was not found in the experirncnt. The other five genotypes appeared in A, and only three (a/c, b/c and c/c) were found in B and C. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in the genotype frequency, the allele frequency and the heterozygous degree between A and the other two races. This result provided a genetical and biochemical evidence for the establishment of race A.
    A STUDY ON THE PHOTOTAXIS OF THE PEACH FRUIT MOTH
    HOU WU-WEI MA YOU-FEI GAO WEI-ZENG LI SHI-WEN YAN ZI-JUN
    1994, 37(2):  165-170. 
    Abstract ( 4552 )   PDF (330KB) ( 1165 )     
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    The peach fruit moth Carposina niponensis Walsingham, is a small moth of Carposinidae in Lepidoptera. According to literature this moth is active at night buthas no phototatic reaction toward light. Five different wavelengths of monochromaticlight (350, 375, 405, 333, 383nm) were tlsed to test its reaction in behavior testapparatus in the laboratory. The result indicated that these five wavelengths of monochromatic light could attract moth, especially the 350nm was more ffective. Field experiments were conducted in the jujube forests Four light traps were placed 50m apart. A 20W black green double light (λ=353, 530nm), a 20W black blue light (λ=355,435-460), a 20W black orange light (λ=355, 560.600nm) togather with the usual 20W blacklight used to make comparison. The results of two years of field experiments indicated that the black green light was most effective in moth trapping. Besides, comparative experiments in moths trapping between light resource and pheromone lure indicated the black green light being most effective.
    THE EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OFSPHAERODEMA RUSTICUS
    LI SHUN-ZHEN
    1994, 37(2):  171-177. 
    Abstract ( 2890 )   PDF (4861KB) ( 964 )     
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    A microscopic investigation on the embryonic development of Spherodema rustieus was conducted and the result indicates that the germ band occupies a large areaon the surface of the yolk in the egg and is polylobed in shape. It is divided into the cephalic, gnathal, thoracic and abdomenal lobes. In additionto anatrepsis, which caused the germ band partly immersing into the yolk, and katatrepsis, the germband from the head to the end of the abdomen had on arched movement just after anatrepsis, which resulted in the rising back of germ band to the dorsal surface of yolk and segmentation of the abdomen lobe. In the formation of the midgut, the post-rudiment was formed prior to the fore-rudiment, and they showed some difference in mode of extension, so that the midgut was differentiated into two parts morphologically-the tubular posterior portion and the elongated ovoid anterior portion.During the development of the nervous system, the ganglia tended to fuse and the abdominal ganglia finally fused into a compound ganglion and so did the thoracic ganglia. The relationship between the developmental stage of the embryo and the size of the egg was noticed and 'the function of the disintegrating dorsal organ discussed.
    TROPHIC NICHE OF GRASSHOPPERS WITHIN STEPPE ECOSYSTEM IN INNER MONGOLIA
    KANG LE CHEN YONG-LIN
    1994, 37(2):  178-189. 
    Abstract ( 3380 )   PDF (698KB) ( 1371 )     
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    Microscopic examination of crop contents was used to determine the food prefefence of grasshoppers on typical steppe in Inner Mongolia. Results from the dietary analysis of 11 grasshopper species (Table 1) showed that 31 species of vascular plants, a species of fungus and mites were served as food sources (Table 3). The overlaps and breadths of trophic niches among these grasshopper species were studied by methods of popular indices (Table 2 & 4). On the basis of partition in utilization of food resources, the 11 grasshopper species were divided into 5 groups by thePrincipal Gomponent Analysis: graminivorous, mixed graminivorous, mixed forbivo rous, forbivorous and phytocarnivorous species (Fig. 1). The authors proposed a new concept and methods for measurement of potential and realized serious values of grasshopper species by combining average biomass of individual and realized bio mass of population of grasshopper with their plant value indices. The concept and methods are very useful for the evaluation of economic importance of the grasshopper species in this region. The coexisted relationships among these grasshopper species within the ecosystem of typical steppe are discussed.
    STUDIES ON PHRAGMATAECIA CASTANEAE, THE GIANT BORER OF REED IN DONGTING LAKE REGION
    YOU LAN-SHAO XIONG SHU-LIN HUANG AN-KUN HUAG YA-KUN CHEN HONG
    1994, 37(2):  190-195. 
    Abstract ( 3139 )   PDF (308KB) ( 1000 )     
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    Phragmataeeia eastaneae is the dominant species of stem borers of Dongting Lake region. Observations on its biology and control experiments were carried out in the Yuaniiang County. The results showed that it has one generation per year, and overwinters as larva in the soil. It has eight larval instars and the data of measurements of head widths showed that the growth increment between adiacent instars was approximately 1.3. Observation was made on the durations of egg and pupa, and the weight of pupa can be used to predict fecundity. The average number of eggs laid per female was 358. The rates of respiration and supercooling points of the overwintering larvae were determined. Some measures of its control are suggested.
    TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS BACULUM FROM CHINA(PHASMIDA: PHASMATIDAE)
    SHU-CHUN HE YUN -HENG
    1994, 37(2):  196-198. 
    Abstract ( 2220 )   PDF (155KB) ( 890 )     
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    THREE NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS PODISMOPSIS ZUB.FROM HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE, CHINA (ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDOIDEA)
    REN BING-ZHONG ZHANG FENG-LING ZHENG Yx-PXNG
    1994, 37(2):  199-204. 
    Abstract ( 2362 )   PDF (314KB) ( 952 )     
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    A NEW GENUS AND TWO NEW SPECIES OF LEDRIDAE FROM CHINA (HOMOPTERA: CICADELLOIDEA)
    CAI PING
    1994, 37(2):  205-208. 
    Abstract ( 2026 )   PDF (236KB) ( 1037 )     
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    DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF SCYMNUS KUGELANN FROM CHINA (COLEOPTERA: COCCINELLIDAE)
    YU GUO-YUE PANG ZIONG-FEI
    1994, 37(2):  209-212. 
    Abstract ( 2157 )   PDF (165KB) ( 818 )     
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    FOUR NEW SPECIES OF NOCTUIDAE FROM CHINA (LEPIDOPTERA)
    CHEN YI-XIN
    1994, 37(2):  215-217. 
    Abstract ( 2009 )   PDF (127KB) ( 978 )     
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    A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS HYDROTAEA FROMXINJIANG, CHINA (DIPTERA: MUSCIDAE)
    XUE WAN-QI LIU LI-XIANG CHAO-QUN
    1994, 37(2):  218-219. 
    Abstract ( 2263 )   PDF (97KB) ( 843 )     
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    FOUR NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS PHAONIA FROM GUIZHOU, CHINA (DIPTERA: MUSCIDAE)
    WEI LIAN-MENG
    1994, 37(2):  220-224. 
    Abstract ( 2240 )   PDF (316KB) ( 800 )     
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    TWO NEW SPECIES AND A NEW SUBGENUS OF THE FAMILY HYSTRICHOPSYLLIDAE TIRABOSCHI,1904FROM QINGHAI PROVINCE,CHINA
    CAI LI-YUN WU WEN-ZHEN LI ZHI-LUN
    1994, 37(2):  225-228. 
    Abstract ( 2157 )   PDF (237KB) ( 1002 )     
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    A NEW GENUS AND TWO NEW SPECIES OF ERIOPHYIDAE FROM CHINA (ACARI: ERIOPHYOIDEA)
    KUANO HAI-YUAN HUANG LIANG-WEI
    1994, 37(2):  229-232. 
    Abstract ( 2329 )   PDF (173KB) ( 939 )     
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    THE ROLE OF PLANT VOLATILES IN TRITROPHICINTERACTIONS AMONG PHYTOPHAGOUSINSECTS, THEIR HOST PLANTS AND NATURAL ENEMIES
    DU YONG-JUN YAN FU-SHUN
    1994, 37(2):  233-250. 
    Abstract ( 2888 )   PDF (1392KB) ( 1878 )     
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    is paper is a review on recent progress in the researches on the role played by plant volatiles in tritrophic interactions among phytophagous insects, their host plants and natural enemies. It summarizes information in the following areas: 1. The physical and chemical characteristics of plant volatiles, 2. The role of plant volatiles in host selection of phytophagous insects and their natural enemies, their reception by olfactory receptors, and the olfactory code and information processing of stimulating signals, 3. Synergism of plant volatiles with insect pheromones, 4. Production ofplant volatiles induced by herbivore-feeding and their ignificance in the indirect defence of host plants, and 5. Odor learning of phytophagous insects and their natural enemies. Presumably to understand the plant volatiles and their role in the interactions can provide the basis in the design of some types of program for insect pest control. Possible application in future pest control is discussed.
    A MICROSPORiDIUM OF TUNG OIL TREEGEOMETRID, BUZURA SUPPRESSARIA(LEPIDOPTERA: GEMETRIDAE)
    DING TSUEY TSAI SIU-YU DENG TA
    1994, 37(2):  251-252. 
    Abstract ( 2205 )   PDF (2916KB) ( 896 )     
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    SEM STUDIES ON WING MICROSCULPTURING OF FOURSPECIES OF FAMILY TERMITIDAE (ISOPTERA)
    ZHANG FANG-YAO GAO QI-KANG LI SHEN
    1994, 37(2):  253-256. 
    Abstract ( 2405 )   PDF (2732KB) ( 722 )     
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