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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 January 2008, Volume 51 Issue 1
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Comparison of alkaline phosphatase in Bemisia tabaci B-biotype (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) at different developmental stages
    2008, 51(1):  1-8. 
    Abstract ( 3722 )   PDF (280KB) ( 1339 )     
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    For understanding the role of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) from Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) in their competition and substitute, the kinetic properties of the enzyme from the two whiteflies in different developmental stages were studied and compared by the individual assay and mass assay using pNPP as the substrate. The results showed that the alkaline phosphatase activity was increasing in both whiteflies during the whole growth period and reached the highest level at the adult stage. Comparatively, the alkaline phosphatase activity in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th (pseudopupa) instar of T. vaporariorum were 2.58, 2.68 and 3.14 times that in the corresponding instar of B. tabaci B-biotype, respectively. However, at the adult stage, the enzyme activities in female and male of B. tabaci B-biotype were 1.24 and 1.26 times that in T. vaporariorum, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme activities in females of both whiteflies were significantly higher than those in males. However, the enzyme activity of the alkaline phosphatase in the 1st instar of both whiteflies was not detected. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme activity in both whiteflies were 7.8 and 47℃, respectively. By testing the kinetic parameters of alkaline phosphatase from both whiteflies, we found that the affinity of the enzyme from the 3rd and 4th instar of T. vaporariorum was significantly higher than that from B. tabaci B-biotype of the corresponding instar, and also the protein concentrations of the enzyme from 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar of T. vaporariorum were significantly higher than those from B. tabaci B-biotype of the corresponding instars. But at the adult stage there was no significant difference between the two whiteflies in both the affinity of the enzyme and the protein concentration of the enzyme. Besides, the energy of activation (Ea) of the enzyme from T. vaporariorum adult was significantly higher than that from B. tabaci B-biotype adult. The results suggest that although the ability of B. tabaci B-biotype to utilize the alkaline phosphatase to promote the sclerotization and development during the larval stages may not as high as that of T. vaporariorum, its ability to utilize the enzyme to metabolize and detoxify the secondary (plant) substances and insecticides in the adult stage, however, is significantly higher than that of T. vaporariorum adult.
    Change of trehalose, glycogen and polyol contents of the diapausing larvae of Mylabris phalerata (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Meloidae) at different diapausing stages.
    2008, 51(1):  9-13. 
    Abstract ( 3414 )   PDF (176KB) ( 1375 )     
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    Blister beetle, Mylabris phalerata (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Meloidae), natural enemy of Chondracris rosea rosea (De Geer) (Orthoptera: Acridiidae) and important Chinese medicine material, has important economic significance. In this research, influence of diapause duration on trehalose, glycogen and polyol metabolism of the diapausing larvae of M. phalerata was examined. The results indicated that trehalose content in diapause larvae haemolymph, higher than non-diapausing larvae, was increased with the extension of the diapause duration: the maximal was 5.61 μmol/mL, which appeared in haemolymph of larvae diapaused for 5 months. During the diapause, glycogen content showed linear decrease: glycogen content was 0.72 mg/mL early in 0.5 month of diapause, but only 0.1 mg/mL at the end of diapause (5 months). Trehalose content in fat body in diapausing larvae was higher than in non-diapausing larvae, which was three times as high as that in non-diapausing larvae in one month of diapause, and five times as high asthat in non-diapausing larvae in 5 months of diapause (2.5 μmol/g fat body). Glycogen content were decreasing during the diapause: in the early and middle period of diapause, glycogen content in fat body of the diapausing larvae was higher than in non-diapause larvae. Polyol in the haemolymph of the diapausing larvae was mainly glycerol, next was sorbitol; but in fat body was mainly glycerol, next sorbitol and a little mannitol. These suggested that diapausing larvae accumulated trehalose and some polyol, but not glycogen. The content of glycogen decreased with the development of diapause. Thus glycogen may offer carbon source for producing trehalose, sorbitol, or glycerol.
    Characteristics of Wolbachia infection in natural populations of Bemisia tabaci in Fujian province.
    2008, 51(1):  14-19. 
    Abstract ( 3549 )   PDF (295KB) ( 1199 )     
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    Wolbachia are obligate intracellular symbionts that infect reproductive tissues of a wide range of arthropod species. Previous reports showed that arthropods carried Wolbachia belonging to supergroup A and B, but Bemisia tabaci mainly harbored Wolbachia of supergroup B. In this study, 17 natural populations of B. tabaci collected from Fujian province were firstly molecularly identified based on rDNA-ITS1 sequences, and then specific primers of Wolbachia 16S rDNA were used to amplify a target region through polymerase chain reaction, which was used for restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The results demonstrated that whitefly populations from areas including Minghou, Pintan, Nanping, Laizhou, Zhangping and Shaxian of Fujian province belonged to non-B biotypes, while the other populations belonged to B biotype. Wolbachia superinfection was commonly detected in non-B biotypes of B. tabaci based on PCR-RFLP analysis, while in B biotype of B. tabaci only supergroup A Wolbachi a infection was found. These data, based on dense sampling, further verified that Wolbachia infection was closely related to the biotypes of B. tabaci, suggesting that Wolbachia might play a role in population differentiation of B. tabaci.
    Queen mating frequency and maternity of drones in honeybee colonies detected with VNTR molecular markers
    2008, 51(1):  20-25. 
    Abstract ( 4352 )   PDF (231KB) ( 1423 )     
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    The determination on the mating frequency of queens and maternity of drones is exactly among the key factors to understand the behavioral and biological characters of honeybee sub-family. In this study, the mating frequency of queens and maternity of drones were detected based on major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) various number tandem repeat (VNTR) in Apis cerana cerana colonies, of which the queens were instrumentally inseminated with 1 or 2 drones, or mated naturally, respectively. The results showed that the mating frequencies of queens were 1 and 2 in colonies whose queens were instrumentally inseminated with 1 and 2 drones, respectively; in other two colonies whose queens mated naturally, the mating frequencies of queens were 8 and 5, respectively. In addition, all the drones originated from the unfertilized eggs laid by queens in all of these colonies, that is to say, the queens not workers, were the maternities of drones. Thus the MRJPs VNTR can be used as molecular markers to detect the mating frequency of queens and maternity of drones simply and effectively.
    Synergistic effects of Pseudaletia unipuncta granulosis virus (PuGV-Ps) on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and the involved degradation of Bt toxins
    2008, 51(1):  26-32. 
    Abstract ( 3757 )   PDF (285KB) ( 1247 )     
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    The synergistic effects of Pseudaletia unipuncta granulosis virus (PuGV-Ps) on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were tested by bio-assays employing larvae of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella. The results indicated that the co-toxicity coefficients (CTC) of Bt combined with PuGV-Ps in different ratios were diverse from 105.3 to 195.0, showing a positive synergistic effect of PuGV-Ps on Bt. Among the mixtures, the most significant effect was in the 4∶1 ratio of Bt and PuGV-Ps, in which the LC50 was 0.039 mg/mL. When environmental temperature was low (16℃ and 20℃), the synergistic effects were statistically significant, while there were no differences under temperatures of 28℃ and 32℃ compared with the treatment of feeding the insects with Bt alone. pH value influenced the synergistic effect gravely, which was elevated along with increase of pH value. In higher pH value of 8 and 9, PuGV-Ps elevated mortalities of P. xylostella larvae by Bt up to 16.67% and 23.33%, respectively. The co-effects of Bt and PuGV-Ps were also varied along with the larval age. Mortalities of the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae increased by 50% and 30.31%, respectively, in the treatment of Bt+PuGV-Ps compared with that of Bt only, but no significant synergistic effects were found in tests with the 1st and 4th instar larvae. Much higher synergistic effect was observed in treatments with oral inoculation of PuGV-Ps 2 h prior to Bt treatment, and the mortality 48 h after treatment increased 66.67% compared with the treatment of oral inoculation with Bt and PuGV-Ps simultaneously. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that in vitro the δ-endotoxin with molecular weight about 130 kD could be degradated by PuGV-Ps into 47 kD, 60 kD and 61 kD activated toxins that resisted further degradation.
    Evaluation on grape phylloxera resistance in several grape varieties and rootstocks
    2008, 51(1):  33-39. 
    Abstract ( 3784 )   PDF (221KB) ( 1349 )     
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    In this study, laboratory bioassays were carried out for rapid initial evaluation on the resistance of 10 grape rootstocks and 18 cultivars to Chinese biotypes of grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira viticola (Fitch). The survival ratio, developmental duration, egg number and index for population age constitution were evaluated. The results showed that rootstocks including SO4, 5BB, 1103P, 420A, Lot, 101-14MG, 3309C, 140Ru and 110R were resistant to phylloxera. On highly resistant rootstocks SO4, 5BB, 1103P and 420A, the development of phylloxera arrested at the very early stage. Beta frequently used as rootstock in China was susceptible to phylloxera. Phylloxera survived at 38.82%~47.5% and produced 9.01 eggs per day on Beta, while the corresponding values were 25%~30% on concord and compbell and 6.00~6.85 eggs per day on concord, campbell and catawba. Both Hei Huxiang and White Banana of Vitis vinifera-V. amerancain were susceptible to phylloxera, on which phylloxera yielded more than 190 eggs totally despite their survival was down\|regulated and development arrested to some extent. All V. vinifera and cross cultivars of V. vinifera -V. amerancain tested were highly susceptible, on which phylloxera survival rate  remained 40%~60% in 29 days after inoculation, and relatively stable thereafter. In parallel, phylloxera produced 7~12.35 eggs per day and summed up to the total of 190 eggs. It was concluded that all cultivars tested were susceptible to grape phylloxera, and thus resistant rootstocks were necessary in the phylloxera epidemic region.
    Differentiation of cotton and cucumber specialized aphids of Aphis gossypii Glover in capacity to produce sexuales
    2008, 51(1):  40-45. 
    Abstract ( 3753 )   PDF (189KB) ( 1369 )     
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    In order to illustrate whether host specialized aphids differentiated in their life-history tactics, inducement of sexual aphids in cotton and cucumber specialized aphids of Aphis gossypii Glover was conducted under low temperature (18℃) and short photoperiod (L: D=8: 16) conditions in the laboratory. The number of alate, apterous parthenogenesis aphids, and sexuparae produced by the cotton and cucumber specialized aphids were compared. The results showed that the capacity to produce sexuparae by the cucumber and cotton specialized aphids differed significantly. The rates of alate aphids and sexuparae produced by the cotton specialized aphids were significantly higher than those by the cucumber specialized aphids. The producing time of sexuparae aphids by the cotton specialized aphids was earlier than that by the cucumber specialized aphids, whereas the apterous aphids produced by cucumber specialized aphids were significantly more than those by cotton specialized aphids. Moreover, the obligative parthenogenesis individuals had been found in the cucumber specialized aphids, but not in the cotton specialized aphids. All the two specialized aphids which produced sexuparae still kept the capacity to produce parthenogenesis offspring. There was significant interaction between host specialization and the inducement duration for producing sexual morphs. The similar results were exhibited for the wild aphids on cotton and cucumber in producing sexuparae. In the second induced generation, the rate of sexuparae produced by the aphids living on cotton was much higher than that on cucumber. Meanwhile, the rate of sexuparae was significantly higher in the third induced generation than in the second generation for the aphids on cucumber, but there was no difference for the aphids on cotton. It is inferred that there exists relationship between the formation of host specialization and differentiation of life cycle in A. gossypii.
    Biology and mass rearing of Sclerodermus pupariae Yang et Yao (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), an important ectoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in China
    2008, 51(1):  46-54. 
    Abstract ( 3981 )   PDF (347KB) ( 1411 )     
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    The biology and mass rearing technique of a newly discovered ectoparasitoid Sclerodermus pupariae Yang et Yao were studied by laboratory determination combined with field investigation. The results indicated that S. pupariae is an important ecto-parasitoid of prepupa, pupa and larva of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with the natural parasitic rate as high as about 10%. The wasp has five generations per year in Tianjin, with generations overlapping heavily. The life spane of the wasp adults was about a month with high fecundity, and could oviposit several times. The experiment showed that the development threshold temperature for its egg, larva, pupa and the whole generation were 16.89℃±0.79℃, 17.03℃±1.42℃, 16.90℃±1.68℃ and 15.31℃±0.47℃, respectively. The effective accumulated temperatures for those stages were (33.82±4.13) degree-day, (49.11±7.93) degree-day, (128.88±27.87) degree-day and (277.00±14.15) degree-day, respectively. The female wasps could be stored under low temperature safely without influence on their host-searching and host-attacking abilities. The substitute hosts for mass rearing of the parasitoid can be obtained easily. Thus, it could be used as an important natural enemy for the biological control of the buprestid pest.
    Molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of some species of Oedipodidae (Orthoptera: Caelifera) in China based on complete mitochondrial ND2 gene
    2008, 51(1):  55-60. 
    Abstract ( 3422 )   PDF (212KB) ( 1230 )     
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    The aim of the present study was to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Oedipodidae and to explore the differences of the results between the phylogenetic relationships and the tradition taxonomy. The ND2 gene complete sequences (1 023 bp) of 10 genera 16 species of Oedipodidae were amplified and sequenced. Nucleotides composition, transition and transversion of this gene were analyzed. By using Neighbor Joining (NJ), Maximum Parsimony (MP), Most Likehood (ML) and MrBayes (BI) methods, we reconstructed the molecular phylogeny of Oedipodidae based on ND2 gene sequence. The results indicated that average A+T content of ND2 gene in Oedipodidae was 74.6%, showing a strong A+T bias; Bryodema and Bryodemella were not separated in this study, so we considered it was appropriate to merge them as one subfamily; the status of Oedipodidae and Locustinae was still problematic.
    The gene chip detection technique for the Mediterranean fly, Ceratitis capitata, and its related species (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    2008, 51(1):  61-67. 
    Abstract ( 3148 )   PDF (9808KB) ( 1681 )     
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    The present study eatablished genechip technique for Ceratitis capitata, C. rosa and C. cosyra, in which the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase Ⅰ (COⅠ) gene was used as molecular marker, and the DNA sequences of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) were used as target sequence. The genechip detection system for fruit flies was composed of detecting probes and quality-control probes for C. capitata. The detecting probes included one family probe, one genus probe, three related species probes and four species specific-probes, and the quality-control probes included anchor probe, positive probe, negative probe and blank probe, with one for each. The results of gene chip showed that the specificity of detecting probes was specific to distinguish the three Ceratitis fruit flies. The detection method showed good repeatability and stability. The results of different stages (egg, pupa, larva, adult) and different geographical provenances of C. capitata were completely consistent. The genechip technique for Ceratitis fruit flies provided rapid detection and species identification method to quarantine fruit flies from imported fresh fruits and vegetables in China. Meanwhile, the technique also could be used in detecting other tephritid and related pests in plant quarantine.
    Two new species of the genus Rubrocuneocoris of China,and five new record species of tribe Phylini from China (Hemiptera: Miridae: Phylinae)
    2008, 51(1):  68-74. 
    Abstract ( 2953 )   PDF (10425KB) ( 1192 )     
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    The genus Rubrocuneocoris Schuh is recorded from China for the first time. Rubrocuneocoris lanceus sp. nov. and Rubrocuneocoris wudingensis sp. nov. are described as new to science. Five species of tribe Phylini are newly recorded from China: Decomia tytthos Schuh, 1984, Moissonia importunitas (Distant, 1910), Moissonia novoguinensis (Schuh,1984), Opuna ryandi Schuh, 1984,and Sacculifer rufinervis (Jakovlev, 1880). The digital habitus photographs and illustrations of the male genitalia are given. All type specimens are deposited in Institute of Entomology, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.
    Research advances in odorant receptors in insects
    2008, 51(1):  75-80. 
    Abstract ( 3648 )   PDF (245KB) ( 2327 )     
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    Olfaction plays a critical role in many insect behaviors. The initial steps in odor detection involve the binding of an odor to the odorant receptor displayed on dendrites of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Insect OSNs express two types of odorant receptor (OR): conventional Ors, highly divergent family of receptors that are expressed in small subpopulations of OSNs; one member of Or83b family receptors,a receptor without odor sensitivity,which is expressed in the majority of OSNs and remarkably conserved across insect species. Until recently,little was known about the ligand specificity of individual conventional ORs in insect species. Or83b family proteins may facilitate trafficking of conventional ORs to the dendritic membrane of OSNs and contribute to signal transduction. Besides, there are several challenging evidences against the assumption that insect ORs belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
    Impacts of roadway traffic pollutions on insects
    2008, 51(1):  81-90. 
    Abstract ( 3231 )   PDF (315KB) ( 1839 )     
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    The effects of roadway traffic pollutions and atmospheric pollutants on insects were reviewed based on the recently domestic and international studies. An introduction was presented about the status of roadway traffic pollutions and the impacts of the pollutants of automobile exhausted gas, e.g., sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx, including NO and NO2), carbon oxide (COx, including CO and CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), acid rain, ozone (O3) and particulate matters (PM), on the occurrence, performance and population fitness of insects, and the function mechanisms of the above pollutants were also elucidated. Moreover, some topics about the impacts of roadway traffic pollutions on insects were also provided to advise the future research in China. Furthermore, some ecological effects on peripheral environment of road-region ecosystems were also caused by roadway traffic pollutions. In the future, the constructions of ecological roadways should be reinforced in order to alleviate the adverse impacts of traffic pollutions on road region ecosystems.
    EAG response of the male black cutworm moth,Agrotis ypsilon (Rottemberg) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) to the female's sex pheromone
    2008, 51(1):  91-95. 
    Abstract ( 4088 )   PDF (161KB) ( 1358 )     
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    The EAG responses of the male black cutworm moth, Agrotis ypsilon (Rottemberg) to standard chemicals of sex pheromone, i.e, Z7-12:Ac (A), Z9-14:Ac (B), Z11-16:Ac (C), Z5-10:Ac (D) and Z8-12:Ac (E), were measured. The results showed that all the standard chemicals tested could elicit the EAG responses. Among the five components, component A (Z7-12:Ac) elicited the highest EAG response (5.65 mV), B (Z9-14:Ac) and C (Z11-16:Ac) elicited the second highest EAG, while D (Z5-10:Ac) elicited the lowest EAG (2.50 mV). The binary compounds, trinary compounds, four components compounds and full components compounds were also able to elicit higher EAG response, which were significantly higher than that of single component. The trinary compound ABC could elicit the highest EAG response, equal to that by the extracts of 5 female sex pheromone glands. The dose-response test of male antenna to each component and the compounds of sex pheromone took on the “S" type approximately with the increase of dose from 0.01 ng to 100 μg. From the response of male moths of different age to standard chemicals, we found that the response value reached the peak on the third day, and then reduced with the increase of age.
    Effect of mating behavior on the total carbohydrate and protein content of Apriona germari Hope adults
    2008, 51(1):  96-101. 
    Abstract ( 3193 )   PDF (183KB) ( 1266 )     
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    The mating behavior between the female and male of Apriona germari Hope with the similar physiological status was observed. The reproductive systems of both sexes, including male reproductive system, male accessory gland and ovary, were isolated and described. The contents of the total carbohydrate and protein in reproductive systems and the hemolymph from both virgin and mated male and female were also tested by anthrone colorimetry and Folin-phenol methods. The results showed that in males one hour after mating, the contents of the total carbohydrate and protein in the reproductive system both increased, the content of protein in the hemolymph decreased by 21.38%, and the contents of the total carbohydrate and protein decreased by 81.76% and 63.76%, respectively, in the male accessory glands which secreted some special proteins used as the mating factors. As for females, the total carbohydrate and protein in haemolymph and ovary both increased during the whole mating process. The company behavior of the male, which would be an important part of its reproductive strategies, would last over 4 h.
    Virulence of a strain of Metarhizium anisopliae, MaYTTR-04, against adults of Monochamus alternatus
    2008, 51(1):  102-107. 
    Abstract ( 3355 )   PDF (295KB) ( 1259 )     
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    Monochamus alternatus Hope is the major insect vector transmitting pinewood nematode disease, an important quarantine disease of pine forest. The virulence of a strain of Metarhizium anisopliae, MaYTTR-04, to adult M. alternatus was assayed by using the adult-conidial attaching method (attaching all tarsi of adult with dry conidial). The results showed that M. alternatus began to die at 6 days post inoculation (dpi) day at constant temperature (25℃±1℃, RH 70%±10%, light period 10L∶14D). The peak of death was between 18-21 dpi. The mortality of this beetle was 85% at 18 dpi when applied with the amount of inoculum at 2.3×106±0.2×106 spores/adult, and the LT50 was 14.7 d. At room temperature (24℃-33℃, RH 40%-60%, natural light from north), the adult of M. alternatus began to die at 3 dpi. The peak of death was between 15-21 dpi. The mortality was 85% at 15 dpi and 100% at 21 dpi when applied with the amount of inoculum at 2.3×106±0.2×106 spores/adult, and the LT50 was 12.9 d. When the adults of M. alternatus were kept in the cage in natural pine forest for 21 days, the average mortality of the adults dealt with conidia suspension was 60%, and the cadaver rate was 48.9%, while the average mortality of the adult deal with non-woven fabric strips of M. anisopliae was 86.7%, and the cadaver rate was 75.6%. It was concluded that this strain of M. anisopliae is high virulent to M. alternatus, and more virulent at higher temperature, which may serve as a productive strain of biocontrol agents and be used in forest for controlling M. alternatus.
    Species identification of white grubs in lawns around Beijing and their damage characteristics
    2008, 51(1):  108-112. 
    Abstract ( 3716 )   PDF (199KB) ( 1300 )     
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    The authors investigated the species composition and damages of white grubs in the production base of lawns, the greening lawns, golf course, and the lawns of sports ground in and around Beijing from 2004 to 2006. We collected 2220 individuals of white grubs which represent 17 species belonging to 10 genera and 2 subfamilies. Holotrichia oblita, Anomala exoleta, and Anomala corpulenta were found to be the dominant species. The morphological characters for species identification are illustrated and a key to the species of white grubs in lawns in Beijing is provided.