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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 March 2008, Volume 51 Issue 3
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and transcriptional activity determination of cytochrome P450 gene CYP18A1 in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    AI Jun-Wen
    2008, 51(3):  237-245. 
    Abstract ( 2672 )   PDF (1077KB) ( 1512 )     
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    Fundamental events in the life of insects such as growth, development and reproduction are regulated by ecdysteroids (molting hormone), especially during molting and metamorphosis. The available amino acid sequences from GenBank of the orthologous CYP18A1 genes, which are candidates for the ecdysone 26-hydroxylase, was used to BLAST search against the silkworm genomic sequences database, and an ortholog in Bombyx mori was identified. In order to obtain full-length cDNA in B. mori, we used this sequence as a probe and performed in silico cloning based on the B. mori EST database. A contig containing 1 737 bp was assembled on the basis of several ESTs, which extended into 5′-UTR. It was then verified by RT-PCR. PCR product was purified and ligated into pMD18-T vector. The recombinant clones were sequenced, which had the same sequence as the predictive contig. It contains an ORF of 1 623 bp encoding 541 amino acids, termed as B. mori CYP18A1 by the P450 nomenclature committee (GenBank accession number:EF421988). It shares high identities with other orthologs, with its deduced mass 61.67 kD and isoelectric point 8.54. The five conserved motifs of insect P450 enzymes including signature heme-binding region of P450s are present. An alignment of the cDNA sequence with the silkworm genome sequences revealed that there were 6 exons and 5 introns in this gene, and all of them conformed the canonical GT-AG rule. The result of RT-PCR revealed that B. mori CYP18A1 not only showed a temporal and tissue-specific expression profile, but also exhibited a distinct expression pattern which closely coincided with the reported peak of ecdysteroid in the haemolymphs of B. mori. This further suggests orthologous CYP18A1 gene in insects is closely related to ecdysteroid homeostasis.
    A dense linkage map of the silkworm ( Bombyx mori )based on AFLP markers
    ZHANG Lie
    2008, 51(3):  246-257. 
    Abstract ( 3084 )   PDF (789KB) ( 1138 )     
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    For studying QTL of silkworm quantitative traits, the backcross hybrid was obtained with female of a commercial race C100 crossing with male of the first filial hybrid of C100 and Dazao. Based on improved AFLP method,1 744 AFLP markers in agreement with 11 segregation ratio (P0.05) were obtained employing 96 pairs primers, and a dense linkage map composing of 36 linkage groups of 814 loci was constructed employing the Map Manager QTXb19 Version 0.29 software. The total length of the groups was 13 005 cM and the distances between loci were 2.3 to 47.7 cM. The average length of the groups was 361.25 cM and the average length between loci was 15.98 cM, and only 39 gaps whose distance between loci was more than 30 cM were in the constructed map. The number of loci in the constructed map ranged from 8 to 92 and the average loci of the groups was 23. Two groups of the constructed map correspond with the 15th and W chromosome of traditional linkage map.
    cDNA cloning, sequence analysis and expression profiling of HaKettin1 gene from Helicoverpa armigera
    QI Xiao-Peng
    2008, 51(3):  258-263. 
    Abstract ( 2730 )   PDF (390KB) ( 985 )     
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    ObjectiveTo clone the full length cDNA sequence of Kettin gene from Helicoverpa armigera and analyze its expression profiles in the life cycle of H. armigera development. Methods Using multiple RT-PCR and 5-, 3-RACE to clone the full length cDNA sequence of HaKettin1, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR to analyze the expression profiles. Results The full length of HaKettin1 cDNA sequence is 13 805 bp, containing an open reading frame of 13 365 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 4 454 amino acids, with molecular mass about 504.3 kD. The results of expression profiles showed HaKettin1 was expressed in all the cycle of insect life, and the expression of HaKettin1 at larval stage was higher than at other developmental stages. Conclusions Percent identity of HaKettin1 protein and Bombyx mori Kettin protein is 90%, suggesting that Kettin proteins are much conserved among Lepidoptera insects. The results of expression profiles suggest that HaKettin1 plays an important role in the development of H. armigera.


    Changes of cantharidin content in Mylabris cichorii Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Meloidae) at different developmental stages under laboratory conditions
    WANG Hui-Rong
    2008, 51(3):  264-268. 
    Abstract ( 3290 )   PDF (153KB) ( 1291 )     
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    Objective To analyze changes on the level of cantharidin at different life stages in telini fly Mylabris cichorii Linnaeus artificially reared under laboratory conditions. 【Methods Cantharidin was extracted respectively from different life stages and different parts of adult body of the beetle by hot alkali extraction and detected with gas chromatogram. ResultsDuring the first five instars, larvae accumulated cantharidin as they grew and developed. Adult beetles kept sex-segregated exhibited a pronounced sexual dimorphism in cantharidin biosynthesis. The male produced a great deal of toxin in 5–30 days after emergence, while in the female very low level of cantharidin was detected. Much higher canthardin level, however, was detected from female beetle in sex-mixed rearing group in 25 days after emergence.ConclusionLarvae accumulate cantharidin as they grow and develop. Adult beetles exhibit a pronounced sexual dimorphism in cantharidin biosynthesis, but total content of cantharidin produced by sex-mixed rearing group is much higher than that by sex-segregated rearing group. The highest cantharidin level presents in abdominal part of adults and lower level in thoracic part.


    Effects of sublethal avermectin and fipronil treatments to host Plutella xylostella larvae on growth and development of theparasitoid wasp Cotesia plutellae
    SUN Hong-Xia
    2008, 51(3):  269-276. 
    Abstract ( 3186 )   PDF (280KB) ( 1235 )     
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     Effects of insecticides on the cocoon formation and adult emergence in the field population of Cotesia plutellae were studied. Sublethal dosage of avermectin or fipronil was fed to the 2nd instar larvae of host Plutella xylostella (DBM), in which the parasitoid C. plutellae were at the egg, early and mid larval stages. When compared to the control, the cocoon formation of C. plutellae reduced by 26.6%, 22.8% and 5.8% if parasitized DBM larvae were fed on leaves treated with avermectin when the immature parasitoids were at the egg, early larval and mid larval stages, respectively, and by 76.9%, 42.5% and 18.5%, respectively if parasitized DBM larvae were fed on leaves treated with fipronil. No significant depression on the adult emergence of C. plutellae was found in avermectin treatment. However, the adult emergence of the parasitoid reduced by 53.1%, 36.1% and 47.8% at the egg, early and mid larval stages of the parasitoid in fipronil treatment. The results indicated that avermectin and fipronil, even at very low dosages (=LC10 to the host insects), might still cause serious damage to the parasitoid's eggs or larvae. The effects of the insecticides on cocoon formation and adult emergence of C. plutellae varied depending on different insecticides and different developmental stages of the endoparasitoid.

    Relative significance of the kdr mutation and detoxifying metabolism to alpha-cypermethrin resistance in B-type whitefly, Bemisia tabaci
    WANG Li-Hua
    2008, 51(3):  277-283. 
    Abstract ( 2946 )   PDF (213KB) ( 1049 )     
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    The field-collected NJ strain of B-type B. tabaci has 266-fold resistance to alpha-cypermethrin compared with the SUD-S strain non B-type. The NJ-R1 811-fold and NJ-R2 2 634-fold strains were derived from the NJ strain by using mass selection and single pair family selection with alpha-cypermethrin, respectively. The activities of esterase EST, mixed function oxidase MFO and glutathione S-transferase GST were similar among the NJ, NJ-R1 and NJR2 strains,while the frequency of L925I mutation of para-homologous sodium channel gene kdr mutation was 55%, 80.6% and 100% in the NJ, NJ-R1 and NJ-R2 strains, respectively. This suggested that the detoxifying metabolism did not increase during selection with alpha-cypermethrin, and the enhanced resistance to alpha-cypermethrin in the NJ-R2 strain of B-type B. tabaci  was mainly due to the increased frequency of kdr mutation. Piperonyl butoxide PBO is a MFO and EST inhibitor. The synergism ratios of PBO to alpha-cypermethrin in the NJ, NJ-R1 and NJ-R2 strains were all about 20-fold, but no synergism in the SUD-S strain was found. The synergism ratio of triphenyl phosphate TPP to alpha-cypermethrin in the NJ strain was 12-fold, implying that the synergism of PBO in the B-type whitefly is mainly due to inhibition of esterase activity. It is concluded that B-type B. tabaci has about 20-fold inherent resistance to alpha-cypermethrin mainly conferred by ESTcompared with the non-B type SUD-S strain, and the determinant factor for alpha-cypermethrin resistance in B-type B. tabaci is kdr mutation frequency.


    EAG responses of Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to volatiles from larval frass and the repellency tests in fields
    LI Shui-Qing
    2008, 51(3):  284-289. 
    Abstract ( 3036 )   PDF (218KB) ( 1196 )     
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    For screening a deterrent to Monochamus alternatus Hope, electroantennogram (EAG) responses of the females and males of M. alternatus to volatiles from larval frass were measured, and field tests of hexane extracts of larval frass and mixtures of each compound identified from larval frass were carried out. EAG tests showed that α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, limonene and longifolene all elicited EAG responses to the females and males of M. alternatus in different degrees. Butylated hydroxytoluene did not elicit EAG responses of the both sexes. Field tests showed that females gnawed significantly fewer oviposition scars on Pinus massoniana trees treated with hexane extracts of larval frass than on the control trees. Mean catch of females in traps with mixtures of synthetic compounds (3.80±1.02) was significantly fewer than those in the control traps (16.80±1.16). These results suggested that hexane extracts of larval frass and mixtures of α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, longifolene and butylated hydroxytoluene can deter the females of M. alternatus and may be applied in management of this pest.
    Habitat suitability analysis in live releasing of two butterflies Papilio polytes Linnaeus and Stichophthalma howqua (Westwood) in China using ENFA
    YANG Rui
    2008, 51(3):  290-297. 
    Abstract ( 2889 )   PDF (385KB) ( 1822 )     
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    Live butterflies releasing in non-native range may bring about invasive risk. Based on the Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA), we modeled the potential distribution of Papilio polytes Linnaeus and Stichophthalma howqua (Westwood) in China and studied the ecogeographical determinants underlying their spatial response, including climate, topography, vegetation, habitat structure and human impact. The results indicate that the main environments which limited the distribution of the two butterflies are corresponding with their ecosystem characteristics mutually, and the factors that influenced the range niche of the two butterflies are annual accumulated temperature and low winter temperature. Human disturbance plays an important role in the distributing range of the species. According to the habitat suitability map, the suitable areas of the two butterflies are overlapped, which are mainly concentrated in the central part and the southeast of mainland China with the spreading tendency from southeast to northwest. Based on habitat suitability index, we proposed feasible strategies to prevent from invasive risk whenHSI50, the two butterflies should not be released outdoors; if 5HSI<50, limited outdoors releasing of the two butterflies could be carried out; and if HSI<5, live butterflies of the two species could be released in the open air and introduced into new territories.
    Phylogenetic relationships among 15 sarcophagidfly species (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) based onpartial sequences of mitochondrial cytochromeb and cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅰgenes
    SONG Zhong-Kui
    2008, 51(3):  298-306. 
    Abstract ( 2527 )   PDF (311KB) ( 1188 )     
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    In this study, partial DNA sequences of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit (CO) genes, were  used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among 15 sarcophagid fly species, representing the six subgenera of the genus Sarcophaga in the catalogue of the Sarcophagidae of the world. The concatenated sequences (972 bp) were employed to carry out the phylogenetic analyses, including MP, ML, and Bayesian analyses. Our results suggested monophyly of three subgenera, i.e., the subgenus Parasarcophaga, the subgenus Boettcherisca, and the subgenus Liopygia. Our analyses also showed that the subgenus Liosarcophaga and the subgenus Pandelleisca were not monophyletic. This study showed no resolution for the phylogenetic positions of S. (Pandelleisca) similis and S. (Robineauella) coe. Furthermore, the MP analysis and the likelihood function analyses revealed incongruent phylogenetic relationship between the scopariiformisiwuensis clade and the polystylata hui clade. Therefore, other molecular markers and more taxon samplings were needed in the future study.
    Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequences from nine species of silk-producing insects
    LIU Yan-Qun
    2008, 51(3):  307-314. 
    Abstract ( 2794 )   PDF (254KB) ( 1310 )     
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    The nucleotide composition and substitution pattern of the partial mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene from nine species of silk-producing insects were investigated. The phylogenetic relationships among the nine species were then assessed by the methods of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA), neighbor-joining (NJ), minimum evolution (ME), and maximum parsimony (MP). The 12S rRNA gene sequences of 427 bp of the wild Antheraea pernyi are identical to the semi-domestic A. pernyi (Yuzao No. 1). The genera Antheraea, Samia, and Bombyx show obviously different nucleotide composition: i the AT content of Bombycidae family is higher than that of Saturniidae; ii) the nucleotide of Antheraea and Samia  (Saturniidae)  contains more Ts than As, while more As than Ts exist in Bombyx (Bombycidae). By analyzing the nucleotide substitution pattern, more transitions than transvertions were found among these species except Bombyx. All of the phylogenetic trees showed monophyly for the three genera, and the confidence limits were measured more than 96% for the clades. However, the phylogenetic tree based on UPGMA method supported the ancestral position of A. assama within Antheraea species, whereas all the trees using NJ, ME, and MP methods backed up the ancestral position of A. mylitta, suggesting that the phylogenetic relationship among Antheraea members need to be further studied with more molecular markers.

    Revision of the genus Xenozancla Warren, 1893 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae) with an analysis of its distribution pattern
    HAN Hong-Xiang
    2008, 51(3):  315-321. 
    Abstract ( 3043 )   PDF (1067KB) ( 1107 )     
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    The genus Xenozancla Warren, 1893 and its type-species X. vericolor are redescribed, and the diagnostic characters of the genus is given. Morphological characters of adult, including those of appearances of dorsal and ventral view, wing veins and genitalia, are figured; variations of male genitalia within species are discussed in detail and illustrated. Two new synonyms are proposed: Yinchie Yang 1978 as a new junior synonym of Xenozancla Warren 1893, and Yinchie zaohui Yang 1978 as a new junior synonym of Xenozancla versicolor Warren 1893 The lectotype is designated for X. versicolor Warren. The biogeographical features and distribution pattern of the genus are discussed on the basis of using mean propinquity and GIS methods. The results show that Xenozancla is endemic to eastern Asia. Its distributional area may be continuous from North China to Southwest China and India. Its distribution pattern should belong to South-East Asian tropical-subtropical type of the Oriental realm.

    Advances in application of recombinant insect viruses as biopesticides
    JIANG Hong
    2008, 51(3):  322-327. 
    Abstract ( 3195 )   PDF (178KB) ( 1165 )     
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     Biological control of agricultural and urban pests has gained importance in recent years due to increased pressure to reduce the use of chemical insecticides and their residues in the environment and food. Insect viruses are valuable natural control agents and have been genetically modified to improve their insecticidal activity. Recombinant insect viruses are efficacious in the laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. After 17 generations of selection, the level of resistance to the treated recombinant baculovirus insecticide was twice as great as that of their control line. This is among the lowest levels of resistance evolved to a baculovirus. The insecticidal efficacies can be promoted by adding adjuvant agents into formulations like fluorescent brighteners or expressing enhancins in viral infection. Hopefully, the negative influence of social perception of genetically modified organisms on biotechnological research will gradually decrease and recombinant insect viruses will be introduced as an important biological factor in the near future.

    Climatic changes and shifting species boundaries of Drosophilids in the Western Himalaya
    Subhash RAJPUROHIT
    2008, 51(3):  328-335. 
    Abstract ( 2784 )   PDF (941KB) ( 1194 )     
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    Population dynamics studies under shifting environmental conditions over a longer time scale can help to determine how different species react to new biotic and abiotic conditions. Two different field surveys with similar collection methods as well as sites in the western Himalayas (1961–1962 and 2003–2004) were compared on the basis of relative abundance and dominance indices of different Drosophila species. Climatic data for the last fifty years involves a significant change in average temperature (Tave) of western Himalayas, which has affected the distribution and boundaries of various Drosophilids in this region. Current study reports a significant decline in the number of Drosophila nepalensis and other cold adapted species from lower ranges; and introduction of Drosophila ananassae and other warm adapted species to lower and mid mountainous ranges. For D. nepalensis, species abundance is negatively correlated (r=-0.93±0.03) with Tave of the localities of origin and while reverse trend was observed for Drosophila ananassae (r=0.90±0.05). Thus, climatic changes over long periods (42 years) have affected invasive ability of different Drosophila species in the western Himalayas.
    The correlation between EPT community distribution and environmental factors
    DU Rui-Qing
    2008, 51(3):  336-341. 
    Abstract ( 2973 )   PDF (228KB) ( 1233 )     
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    In order to study the correlation between EPT insects and environmental factors, five sampling sites were respectively selected to test EPT insects and the quality of water in the two major water source rivers of Danjiangkou Reservoir from June to July and September to October in 2006. In total, 780 individuals of 16 species (or species groups) in 12 families of EPT insects were collected, and seven physical and chemical monitoring indexes related to water quality were assayed. Both simple and multiple correlation analysis showed that the nitrogen concentration, phosphorus concentration, biochemical oxygen demand were significantly positively correlated with the density of EPT insects (P<0.01), but negatively correlated with the species number (P<0.01). Canonical analysis showed that the groups of EPT insects, which were mainly Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera, were significantly positively correlated with such main environmental factors as the nitrogen concentration, phosphorus concentration, and biochemical oxygen demand P<0.0001. So it is concluded that even in the low pollution and nutrition water environment, EPT insects were significantly correlated in groups with environmental factors, and were greatly affected by environmental factors.