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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 December 2010, Volume 53 Issue 12
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    Cloning and expression analysis of the cyclin gene BmCcnl1 in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    FAN Lan-Fen, ZHONG Yang-Sheng, LIN Jian-Rong
    2010, 53(12):  1325-1332. 
    Abstract ( 2969 )   PDF (6747KB) ( 1133 )     
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    Cell division and differentiation were processing in quantity from the fertilized eggs to larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, but in diapause eggs embryonic development arrested in the G2 of cell division. In order to explore the molecular regulation in this developmental stage, the cyclin gene of B. mori was cloned according to the cyclin L1 sequence of Homo sapiens and named BmCcnl1. The ORF of BmCcnl1 is 1 254 bp, encoding a 417-amino acid protein and registered with GenBank accession number FJ889988. The predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point of BmCcnl1 protein were 49 kDa and 9.84, respectively analyzed by Protean software. The prokaryotic expression vector pET-21d-BmCcnl1 was constructed, and the expression product was present in inclusion bodies. The expression of the BmCcnl1 mRNA was detected using RT-PCR. The relative expression level of BmCcnl1 mRNA was stable in the embryonic stage of non-diapause eggs, but its expression was not detectable 72 h after oviposition. The results suggest that BmCcnl1 is related to the development regulation of the diapause and non-diapause eggs. The cloning and expression analysis of BmCcnl1 provide the basis for the research of the embryonic development and cell cycle regulation.

    Instant hydrochloride acid soaking reduces markedly the GSH/GSSG ratio in diapause eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    ZHAO Lin-Chuan, SHI Lian-Gen
    2010, 53(12):  1333-1338. 
    Abstract ( 2931 )   PDF (856KB) ( 1025 )     
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    In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, H2O2 significantly increases in diapause eggs when diapause initiation is prevented with instant hydrochloric acid (HCl) soaking. The ratio of the reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) is indicative of the oxidative stress. To investigate whether instant HCl soaking causes the oxidative stress in diapause eggs of the silkworm, GSH and GSSG levels and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in diapause eggs soaked with HCl for 5 min at 24 h after oviposition were determined using spectrophotometric methods with those without soaking with HCl as the control. Total glutathione content (GSH+2GSSG), GSH content, GSSG content, GSH/GSSG ratio and GST activity in diapause eggs soaked with HCl were equal to 204%, 78%, 550%, 14% and 97% of those in unsoaked diapause eggs at 48 h after oviposition, respectively. It is so inferred that the marked decline of GSH/GSSG ratio in diapause eggs soaked with HCl is resulted from the stronger oxidation of GSH to GSSG, which causes the transition from the reducing conditions to the peroxidatic conditions.
    Screening of proteins interacting with Gqα by yeast two-hybrid technique in the antenna of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)(In English)
    SU Hong-Hua, WANG Gui-Rong, ZHANG Yong-Jun, LIANG Ge-Mei, WU Kong-Ming, GUO Yu-Yuan
    2010, 53(12):  1339-1344. 
    Abstract ( 3004 )   PDF (5579KB) ( 1201 )     
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    G proteins are important signalling components. Many findings indicated that members of Gq family were functionally diverse than previously thought. In order to determine the exact functions of the α subunit of Gq family of G proteins (Gqα) in signal transduction pathway, Gqα was used as the bait to screen the antennacDNA library of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera by the two-hybrid system. More than ten proteins including pheromone binding protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein S20, cytochrome oxidase subunit , allatotropin neuropeptide precursor (AT2), translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), humoral lectin prepropeptide and glycosylasparaginase were found to interact with Gqα, suggesting that Gqα plays diverse roles in signal transduction. Among the diverse functions, Gqα is most likely to be involved in the pheromone detection among olfactory signalling. The findings may provide a primary basis for future construction of an integrated signalling network in the moth.

    Mating behaviour of black-stripe-body mutant of Drosophila melanogaster
    AI Yan-Jun, ZENG Qing-Tao
    2010, 53(12):  1345-1351. 
    Abstract ( 3408 )   PDF (990KB) ( 1011 )     
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    The black-stripe-body (ebsr) and ebony (e) are different mutants for the same gene (ebony) of Drosophila melanogaster. Both phenotypes have the similar shape, but the behavioral characteristics demonstrate significant differences between them. In this study, the black-stripe-body, ebony and wild-type flies were studied. Firstly, we detected the vision and locomotor activity of flies, and then the different mating-groups were designed for analyzing the mating success, mating latency and courtship pattern of flies. The results showed that the vision and locomotor activity were not significantly different between black-stripe-body and wild-type flies. There was no significant difference in mating success and mating latency for the black-stripe-body and wild-type flies, while there were significant differences (P<0.000) in mating success and mating latency for ebony and wild-type flies. Black-stripe-body flies perform locomotor activity and mating activity differently from ebony flies, and this may be due to the new way of the ebony gene mutation, which leads to abnormal levels of dopamine in Drosophila, thus forming the unique courtship pattern of black-stripe-body.

    Incidence and synergism of resistance to conventional insecticides in larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in northern Xinjiang, China(In English)
    JIANG Wei-Hua, XIONG Man-Hui, WANG Zhi-Tian,LU Wei-Ping, LIU Ping, GUO Wen-Chao, LI Guo-Qing
    2010, 53(12):  1352-1359. 
    Abstract ( 3728 )   PDF (1121KB) ( 1335 )     
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    To understand the resistance levels and dynamics of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) in Xinjiang to conventional insecticides and offer the fundamental data for res0stance management, six overwintered CPB adult populations were collected from potato fields of Urumqi, Fukang, Changji, Altay, Nilka, and Tekes counties (cities) in northern Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in China, and the first generation of 4th instar larvae were tested for resistance to fourteen conventional insecticides by topical application. And possible resistance mechanisms were investigated using three synergists, triphenyl phosphate (TPP), diethylmeleate (DEM), and piperonyl butoxide (PBO). The results showed that the Tekes field population was susceptible to several tested insecticides when compared to the baselines that have been documented. This population, therefore, was selected as a reference susceptible strain. Compared with the Tekes strain, Changji and Nilka populations had extremely high- to high- or moderate-level resistance to cyhalothrin (resistance ratio was 108.8- and 29.4-fold, respectively), deltamethrin (30- and 42.5-fold, respectively), carbofuran (17.6 and 10.1-fold, respectively), and carbosulfan (24.7- and 89.9-fold, respectively). Moreover, the Changji and Fukang beetles developed low- to moderate-level resistance to α-cypermethrin(8.9- and 13.0-fold, respectively). Synergism studies revealed that PBO had significant synergism to cyhalothrin in the Nilka population, and PBO, TPP and DEM exhibited significant synergism to carbofuran in the Changji population. These results suggest that enzymatic detoxification may be one of the resistance mechanisms to cyhalothrin and carbofuran for local populations in Xinjiang. Because the synergists do not completely eliminate CPB resistance, there are probably additional resistance mechanisms involved.

    Effects of Cry1Ac protein on growth and development, reproduction and flight potential of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    JIANG Shan-Jun, LUO Li-Zhi, HU Yi, ZHANG Lei
    2010, 53(12):  1360-1366. 
    Abstract ( 3359 )   PDF (1017KB) ( 1128 )     
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    To obtain a fullscale assessment of the influences of transgenic Bt crops on the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), larval growth and development, adult reproduction, and flight potential of M. separata were examined when newly hatched larvae continuously fed on artificial diet containing different concentrations of Cry1Ac toxin. The results showed that the mean head capsule width, and body length of the larvae fed with diets containing 0 (CK), 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 μg/g of Cry1Ac toxin for 6 d were significantly decreased as the concentration of toxin increased. Similarly, body weight, mortality, and the developmental period of the larvae treated for 18 d were negatively and significantly affected as the Cry1Ac dosage increased. The larvae fed with diets containing more than 12 μg/g of Cry1Ac toxin could not pupate, while the larvae fed with diets containing 0, 3 and 6 μg/g of Cry1Ac toxin could pupate and emerge normally. Furthermore, the pupal duration was extended, and the pupation rate decreased significantly as Cry1Ac concentration increased from 0 (CK) to 3, and 6 μg/g. Reproductive potential of the moths resulting from the larvae fed with diets containing 0, 3, and 6 μg/g of Cry1Ac toxin was also significantly different. Preoviposition period of adults was significantly prolonged, and the number of eggs laid per female was significantly decreased as the dosage of Cry1Ac toxin increased. Flight potential (including flight duration, distance, and velocity) of the 1-day-old moths was significantly decreased as the dosage of Cry1Ac toxin increased by tethered-flight test. All these results showed that the Cry1Ac had a significant impact on growth and development, reproduction and flight potential of M. separata, and this will help to improve the evaluation of ecological safety of Bt-crops.

    Modelling of the relationship between the frequency of large-scale outbreak of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the wide-area temperature and rainfall trends in China
    WEN Li-Zhang, ZHANG You-Jun
    2010, 53(12):  1367-1381. 
    Abstract ( 3198 )   PDF (2227KB) ( 1009 )     
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    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a major agricultural pest in China, which frequently breaks out in many parts of China in the last 20 years. To explore the rule of the population dynamics and to establish the forecasting mode of population trends of S. exigua in quantity, the time series analysis and stepwise regression analysis methods were used for studying the law of wide-area (greater range) atmospheric temperature and rainfall influence on outbreak frequency of S. exigua in China. The results indicated that the wide-area temperature and rainfall had a complex effect on the long-term trends and fluctuations of S. exigua outbreak frequency. During 1979-2008, the frequency of the beet armyworm outbreaks in China showed an upward trend wave, and its average annual growth rate of the outbreak index was 0.076, while the widearea temperature of China (taking the 27 city-level observation points as a statistics example) in the years 1990-2008 increased at the average annual incremental rate of 0.039, showing a rising frequency of the beet armyworm outbreak with wide-area temperature rising trend. Ten factors, which had a significant effect (P<0.05 or 0.01) on the regression forecasting model and could be used to forecast quantitatively a wide-area outbreak trend index of S. exigua (the forecast accuracy of the simulation model was more than 99%), were screened out from 52 factors (the temperature and rainfall of the monthly and annual average of January to December of the current year and last year). The author believes that this close relationship between the wide-area temperature, rainfall factors and the beet armyworm outbreak trend index is not a mere coincidence, but a necessary consequence of environments (temperature and rainfall) acting on creatures (beet armyworm).

    Influences of temperature on development and reproduction of the experimental population of the ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)
    YANG Qun-Fang, WANG Hui, LI Qing, WANG Hai-Jian, JIANG Chun-Xian
    2010, 53(12):  1382-1389. 
    Abstract ( 2788 )   PDF (1161KB) ( 1113 )     
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    In order to illustrate the influences of temperature on development and reproduction of the ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus, the adult females and larvae of the ambrosia beetle were fed with Acremonium kiliense and Ambrosiella hartigii, respectively, in Petri dishes, the adult females were reared on semi-artificial diet in glass tubes, and its development at six constant temperatures between 16 and 31 and its fecundity and sex ratio at five constant temperatures between 16 and 28 were studied in the laboratory, respectively. The results showed that the developmental duration for the immature stages and from the egg stage to adult emergence increased with the temperature within the range of 16 to 28, and the development duration at 16 was 3-4 times as long as that at 28; it, however, was prolonged at 31 except during the pupal stage. Developmental duration of the larva was the longest at all temperatures tested, and was more than half of that from the egg stage to adult emergence. The optimum temperature for the larval stage was 26.44. Temperature thresholds for development ranged from 11.0 (pupal stage) to 12.7 (egg to adult). The thermal constant was the lowest for the egg (61.5 degree-day, DD) and the highest for the larva (189.7 DD). Nearly 305 DD was required above the lower temperature threshold of 12.7 to complete the development from egg to adult. Survivorship from egg to adult increased from 53.3% at 16 to 68.3% at 25, and decreased from 35.0% at 28 to 3.3% at 31. The larvae almost failed to pupate at 31. When the adult females were reared on semi-artificial diet in glass tubes, the life fecundity averaged 114.3 to 121.5 offspring per female at 22-25, and was the highest at 25, almost 3 times that at 16 and two times that at 19 or 28. The female to male sex ratio was lowest (9.61) at 16 and highest (23.31) at 25, and above 19.01 at the rest of all temperatures tested. The results suggest that temperature directly influences the development of X. germanus, and also influences the reproduction of X. germanus mostly by influencing growth and sporulation of the ambrosia fungi.
    Semiochemicals used in chemical communication in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
    LU Peng-Fei, HUANG Ling-Qiao, WANG Chen-Zhu
    2010, 53(12):  1390-1403. 
    Abstract ( 4125 )   PDF (2430KB) ( 1166 )     
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    The oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholitha molesta Busck, is an important pest of stone fruits in North China. Semiochemicals play a crucial role in hostplant selection and mate location of this pest, and thus manipulating insect behaviour through the application of semiochemicals in the environment has become a practical method in OFM management. This article reviews the research progress on OFM attractants, including female and male sex pheromones, pheromone-based mating disruption techniques, and host plant volatiles and their use in pest attraction. The sex pheromone components included (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate, (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate, (Z)-8-dodecenol and dodecanol. The geographic variation was found in ratio of components. In the laboratory bioassay, the two acetate esters were essential to attractiveness, and (Z)-8-dodecenol had synergistic effects. In the field tests, the three-component blend was also attractive. Mating disruption of G. molesta was successfully carried out by using hand-applied pheromone dispensers, wax drops and sprayable microencapsulated pheromone. Twenty-two compounds were identified in peach shoots. Green leaf volatiles accounted for more than 50% of the total emitted volatiles. A bioassay indicated the compounds with a chain length of 6-8 carbon atoms were bio-active. The 5-compound mixture, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, benzaldehyde and benzonitrile, was as attractive as natural peach shoots volatiles. Benzylnitrile accounted for 0.14% of the total emitted volatiles of peach shoots, but it played a key role in successful recognition and behavioral discrimination of suitable host plants. Further investigations on semiochemicals in G. molesta are discussed.

    Cloning and sequence analysis of a cDNA fragment of prophenoloxidase activating proteinase from larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    FENG Cong-Jing, GUO Xiao-Li, ZHAI Hui-Feng
    2010, 53(12):  1404-1409. 
    Abstract ( 3032 )   PDF (1060KB) ( 993 )     
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    In order to explore the molecular mechanism of expression and regulation of prophenoloxidase activating proteinase (PAP) in larvae of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), the sequences of conserved regions of PAP genes in different insects were used to design the degenerate primers, and a cDNA fragment with the size of 509 bp encoding 169 amino acids was amplified from the 5th larvae of O. furnacalis by RT-PCR. The fragment has a predicted molecular weight of 18.7 kD and pI value of 5.1. A conserved catalytic triad (H, D, S) in the serine protease like domain was found, but the clip domain did not exist. BlastP analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of the cloned fragment from O. furnacalis had the highest identity (47%) to those of Manduca sexta PAP-3 and Anopheles gambiae Clip B1 protein, and 45%, 45%, 44%, 43% and 41% identity to those of M. sexta PAP-2, Bombyx mori PPAE, Spodoptera litura PPAE-3, Samia cynthia ricini PAP and Drosophila melanogaster serine protease-7, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genetic relationship of O. furnacalis, M. sexta PAP-3 and S. litura PPAE-3 was closer, while that of O. furnacalis, Drosophila melanogaster serine protease-7 and Anopheles gambiae Clip B1 protein was more distant. The results suggest that the cloned cDNA fragment of O. furnacalis larvae is a part of the PAP gene nucleotide sequence at the C-terminus.

    Identification and analysis of insertion sequences in the genome of Wolbachia infecting the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    CHEN Shu-Juan, HE Yan, JIANG Ming-Xing, CHENG Jia-An
    2010, 53(12):  1410-1418. 
    Abstract ( 3254 )   PDF (1408KB) ( 930 )     
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    The endosymbionts Wolbachia can cause various reproductive alterations to their hosts. Previous reports indicate that the mobile genetic elements, insertion sequences (ISs), are widely distributed in Wolbachia genomes and can extensively modify the plasticity, diversity and evolution of the bacterial genome. The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, is an alien insect pest of rice in Eastern Asia, which reproduces bisexually in its native regions but reproduces parthenogenetically in all of invaded areas. In this study, by using PCR we cloned two ISs, ISWosp4 and ISWosp6, from the Wolbachia infecting parthenogenetic rice water weevils collected from Tanghai, Hebei, China, and two ISs, ISWosp3 and ISWosp5, from the Wolbachia infecting sexual weevils collected from Texas, USA. Nucleotide sequence alignment suggested that ISWosp3 and ISWosp4 can be grouped to IS3 group in IS3 family, ISWosp5 to IS231 group in IS4 family, and ISWosp6 to IS1031 group in IS5 family. The ORF structure and deduced amino acid sequences of these ISs were analyzed, and ISWosp5 was speculated to have potential transposition activity. The findings can enrich our knowledge on the insertion sequences of IS3, IS4 and IS5 families, and can serve as a basis for future studies concerning interactions of Wolbachia and the rice water weevil.

    Using confocal microscopy to study sexually dimorphic antennal lobes in insects
    LI Jiang-Hui, CHEN Qi-Yu, CHEN Xi, WANG Ya-Hong, DU Yong-Jun
    2010, 53(12):  1419-1423. 
    Abstract ( 2884 )   PDF (4953KB) ( 1422 )     
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    Aim To study the sexually dimorphic antennal lobes (AL) of three insects from Lepidoptera, Blattaria, and Coleoptera. Methods The whole brains of female and male Spodoptera litura, Periplaneta americana, and Monochamus alternatus were dissected, stained with a fluorescent dye, fixed, and dehydrated, and then the structure of AL was scanned by using confocal microscopy. Results The results indicate that the macroglomerular complex (MGC), a specialized region in the AL for processing sex pheromones, is present in the males of all three species, but absent in the females. The size of the antennal lobe of these three insects varies considerably, with a measured depth of 130 μm, 235 μm and 115 μm, respectively. The number of glomeruli of these three species was 35, 59 and 39, respectively. Conclusion The technology of laser confocal scanning is an effective way to observe the structure of the antennal lobe of insects, and the results show a proof of concept for a larger investigation on the structure and function of antennal lobes across different orders.

    Effectiveness of indoxacarb and hexaflumuron on eggs,larvae and adults of Plutella xylostella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae))(In English)
    2010, 53(12):  1424-1428. 
    Abstract ( 4311 )   PDF (716KB) ( 1851 )     
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     Chemical control is the mainly control method for Plutella xylostella (L.) throughout the world. Choosing insecticides with high efficacy on all stages of this pest can help us control it well. In this case, toxicities of indoxacarb and hexaflumuron on eggs, larvae and adults of P. xylostella were studied with leaf dip method. The LC50 values of egg stage for indoxacarb and hexaflumuron were 201.40 and 37.32 mg/L, respectively. Also indoxacarb and hexaflumuron had excellent toxicity on the 3rd larval instar (LC50: indoxacarb=4.82 mg/L, hexaflumuron=1.48 mg/L). Results of moth toxicity indicated that above insecticides had no acceptable toxicity on this insect (LC50: indoxacarb=845.20 mg/L, hexaflumuron=3 438 mg/L). According to the calculated LC50 values, hexaflumuron was more toxic than indoxacarb to eggs and larvae of diamondback moth but at the adult stage the indoxacarb was more toxic.

    Forecasting model for the oviposition peak day in the second generation of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) based on radial basis wavelet network
    ZHU Jun-Sheng, ZHAI Bao-Ping, DONG Bao-Xin
    2010, 53(12):  1429-1435. 
    Abstract ( 2800 )   PDF (992KB) ( 900 )     
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    To improve the accuracy of crop pest forecasting, this paper introduced and applied radial basis wavelet network into the area of crop pest forecasting for the first time. The author modified the learning algorithms of radial basis wavelet network for application in pest forecasting. The scale and translation parameters were determined by the theory that timefrequency support of analyzed data sequence is covered with time-frequency support of radial basis wavelet functions. Based on the Euclidean distance between central vectors, the hidden-layer neurons are selected preliminarily. At case study, the investigation data of Helicoverpa armigera in Huimin, Shandong between 1966 and 1995 were used to establish the forecasting model of oviposition peak day in the second generation of H. armigera based on radial basis wavelet network, while the investigation data between 1996 and 2000 were used to test the model. The test results showed that the forecasting deviation of four years was less than three days and the forecasting deviation of one year was four days. The forecasting results proved satisfactory. This paper developed a new studying method for crop pest forecasting.
    Bioassay data analysis based on support vector regression
    WANG Zhi-Ming, TAN Xian-Sheng, ZHOU Wei, YUAN Zhe-Ming
    2010, 53(12):  1436-1441. 
    Abstract ( 3193 )   PDF (791KB) ( 1018 )     
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    Bioassay plays an important role in the studies of biology, medicine and toxicology. The time-dose-mortality model (TDM) widely applied to quantitative bioassay data analysis can not construct a unified model for complex bioassay data, and has the disadvantage of utilizing the information incompletely. Based on support vector regression (SVR), a novel quantitative bioassay model has been developed, which can construct a unified model for complex data with different test factors, different test objects and different environment factors. We compared the prediction performance between SVR and TDM using 14 simple data and 2 complex data. The results showed that SVR achieved better precision than TDM not only in self-consistency test but also in jackknife test, implying that the estimated values of LD50 and LT50 by the former are more reliable. As a useful supplement to TDM, SVR has the potential to be widely used for quantitative bioassay data analysis.

    General content of Volume 53
    2010, 53(12):  1442-1458. 
    Abstract ( 2269 )     
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