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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 July 2013, Volume 56 Issue 7
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    Integrin β is involved in regulating embryonic proliferation in the polyembryonic wasp Macrocentrus cingulum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
    YAN Xi, WANG Peng, HU Jian
    2013, 56(7):  715-723. 
    Abstract ( 2441 )   PDF (10311KB) ( 1293 )     
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    Integrin are transmembrane heterodimers composed of α and β subunits, playing an important role in regulating cell proliferation. This study investigates how integrin β functions during embryonic proliferation in Macrocentrus cingulum. Mcitg-β (GenBank accession no. KC784942) was successfully cloned by PCR. It has an open reading frame of 2 526 bp, encodes an 841 amino-residual protein, and contains typical function domains of integrin genes. Alignment results showed that Mcitg-β is a member of insect integrin gene family, and phylogenetic analysis showed that it shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity (up to 76%) with the integrin gene from Bombus impatiens.  qRT-PCR results revealed that Mcitg-β was expressed in primary embryos and secondary embryos, especially highly in eggs, but none in morulae. After RNA interference with dsMcitg-β or siMcitg-β in culture medium, the expression of Mcitg-β mRNA and proliferation ability of embryos were decreased. Furthermore, injecting dsMcitg-β into the parasitized larvae of host Ostrinia furncalis decreased the number of wasp’s offsprings in each host larva. These results initially prove that Mcitg-β may play important roles in regulating the proliferation of embryos in M. cingulum.
    High-throughput discovery of SSR genetic markers in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), from its transcriptome database (In English)
    ZHU Jia-Ying, WU Guo-Xing, YANG Bin
    2013, 56(7):  724-728. 
    Abstract ( 2004 )   PDF (569KB) ( 1147 )     
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    Tenebrio molitor is a well known model insect. Although a lot of achievements have been made in many research aspects related to this insect, only very few molecular/genetic resources are available. In this study, a high-throughput method was used for discovering the simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic markers from this beetle. In total, 1 249 SSR genetic markers were developed from the previously constructed trancriptome database. The majority of them contained mono-and trinucleotide motifs (44.44% and 41.15%, respectively), and A/T (42.70%) was the most abundant motif. Except for mononucleotide, the SSRs with five repeat units were the most common, with the frequency of 30.90%. Base on the identified SSRs, 1 004 pairs of primers were designed, of which a maximum of 5 pairs of alternative primers were designed from a single SSR. The SSRs identified here will constitute an important resource for marker-assisted investigation in functional and comparative genomics of T. molitor.
    Cloning and expression analysis of fem-1 genes from the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Orthoptera: Locustidae)
    SHI Hong, HAO You-Jin, CHEN Bin, SI Feng-Ling, WANG Peng, HE Zheng-Bo
    2013, 56(7):  729-737. 
    Abstract ( 3309 )   PDF (3149KB) ( 1266 )     
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    The fem-1 gene plays a key role in sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, three homologs of the C. elegans fem-1 gene were cloned and characterized from a transcriptome database of the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis, based on bioinformatical analysis. They were named Lmfem-1a, Lmfem-1b and Lmfem-1c, with the Genbank accession numbers of AB698670, AB698671 and AB698672, respectively. The cDNAs of the three genes are 2 233, 2 625 and 2 142 bp in length, encoding proteins with 662, 642 and 638 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatical analysis revealed that Lmfem-1a, Lmfem-1b and Lmfem-1c contain 6, 8 and 8 typical ankyrin repeat motifs, respectively. Gene expression analysis showed that Lmfem-1a, Lmfem-1b and Lmfem-1c were expressed in all tested tissues with significantly different transcript level, suggesting that Lmfem-1a, Lmfem-1b and Lmfem-1c are tightly regulated and might be involved in multiple physiological processes. Lmfem-1a, Lmfem-1b and Lmfem-1c had the highest expression level in testis, and their expression increased gradually with the development of testis. These findings strongly suggest that Lmfem-1a, Lmfem-1b and Lmfem-1c may be involved in the spermatogenesis of the locust. Further functional analysis is required to clarify the roles of these genes in sex determination in the locust.
    Cloning, expression profiles in different developmental stages and under imidacloprid stress and prokaryotic expression of a ferrtin gene in Bemisia tabaci MED (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
    BAI Run-E, WANG Xiong-Ya, LI Jing-Jing, LIU Xiao-Hua, XIONG Da-Bin, LI Dong-Bing, CAO Ling-Long, YAN Feng-Ming
    2013, 56(7):  738-746. 
    Abstract ( 2884 )   PDF (2157KB) ( 1109 )     
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    Insect ferritins play key roles in iron transport, response to oxidative stress and the immune response to pathogen infection and others. In this study, cDNA identification and expression of recombinant ferritin from Bemisia tabaci MED were done in order to elucidate the function of ferritin in this insect. The cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR and named BtFer1 (GenBank accession number: JX865415). The partial sequence of BtFer1 is 1 043 bp in length, encoding 224 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that the protein has the characteristic features of typical ferritin ironbinding region signature and a 19residue signal peptide. q-PCR assay displayed that BtFer1 was expressed in various developmental stages of B. tabaci and the expression levels in B. tabaci at the adult and 3rd instar nymphal stages were much higher than those at other stages. The expression profiling also showed that BtFer1 was up-regulated in adults treated with 1 mg/L imidacloprid. Furthermore, the BtFer1 gene was constructed into the expression vector pMAL-c2x for protein expression in prokaryotic cells and purified by amylose affinity. The results showed that the fused MBP-BtFer1 proteins could be effectively induced with 0.3 mmol/L IPTG, and the fusion protein was about 68 kDa, which was consistent with the predicted result. This study makes clear the expression levels of BtFer1 in various developmental stages and in adults of B. tabaci MED treated with lower concentration of imidacloprid, and provides a basis for further functional study of this gene. 
    Changes in expression levels of superoxide dismutase and acetylcholine genes in Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) exposed to cadmium for long term
    GAO Huan-Huan, YANG Jie, BAI Xiao-Hui, ZHANG Li, ZHAO Hui-Yan
    2013, 56(7):  747-753. 
    Abstract ( 2087 )   PDF (1964KB) ( 1371 )     
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    As a selective stress, heavy metal plays an important role during biological evolution. This study aims to explore the expression profiles of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and acetylcholine (AchE) gene in Sitobion avenae under the long-term exposure of cadmium (Cd). In the simulative natural environment, the soil for growing wheat was irrigated with CdCl2 solution. S. avenae was treated with Cd for 20 generations through the system of soil-wheat-aphids. The SOD and AchE genes in S. avenae were cloned with PCR technique. Real-time PCR was adopted to estimate the transcript levels of SOD and AchE genes in S. avenae at the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th generations, respectively. The results showed that the expression levels of the two genes were affected by both concentration of Cd and the number of generations. Compared to control, the two genes were over-expressed in the contaminated aphids at the 10th generation, but their expression was inhibited in the 20th generation. At the concentration of Cd higher than 40 mg/kg, the gene expression levels declined, suggesting that 40 mg/kg is the crucial concentration. These results suggest that the expression of SOD and AchE is promoted by the toxicity of low-dose and short-term pollutions, and the detoxification of superoxide dismutase and hydrolysis of acetylcholine, however, is inhibited under the high-dose and long-term stress.
    Molecular cloning and functional identification of a Minus-C odorant binding protein from the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    WEI Dan, YE Zhan-Feng, GAO Jian-Qing, DONG Shuang-Lin
    2013, 56(7):  754-764. 
    Abstract ( 2858 )   PDF (1883KB) ( 1147 )     
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    Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) play important roles in the perception of host plant volatiles, but Minus-C OBPs (with only four conserved cysteins) and their functions are rarely addressed. In this study, a full-length cDNA of a Minus-C OBP gene from the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), was cloned and identified by transcriptome analysis and RACE technology, which was named CsupOBP1 (GenBank accession no. KC492498). The sequence of CsupOBP1 contains a 423 bp open reading frame that encodes 141 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 18 amino acids at the N terminus and the four conserved cysteins of Minus-C OBPs. The results of real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that CsupOBP1 was highly expressed in the larval heads, adult legs and wings of both sexes, and adult antennae of males. The expression level in female antennae was significantly lower than that in male antennae. Affinities of recombinant CsupOBP1 with 38 ligands were tested by fluorescence competitive binding assay. Beta-ionone showed the highest affinity (Ki=9.53 μmol/L) to CsupOBP1. In the electroantennogram (EAG) recording assay, beta-ionone elicited stronger EAG responses than other tested volatiles, and stronger response in males than in females, consistent with the results of binding assay and male antennae biased expression of CsupOBP1. Considering that beta-ionone is a common fragrant volatile of many host plants of C. suppressalis, we propose that CsupOBP1 functions to bind and transport beta-ionone and thus plays a role in finding host plants in C. suppressalis.
    Effects of four superoxide dismutases (SODs) from different sources on the lifespan, fecundity and tolerance to environmental stress of Drosophila melanogaster
    HUANG Xiao-Feng, LIN Xia-Dan, ZHU Qian-Ting, ZHANG Wen-Qing
    2013, 56(7):  765-771. 
    Abstract ( 3075 )   PDF (6608KB) ( 1440 )     
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    【Aim】To assess the effects of superoxide dismutases (SODs) from different sources on development of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.【Methods】 The effects of four SODs, i.e., the SOD extracted from Musca domestica, human extracellular SOD (hEC-SOD) expressed via Pichia pastoris, Paecilomyces sinensis SOD (ps-SOD) expressed via Saccharomyces cerevisiae and commercial SOD, on the lifespan, fecundity and tolerance to environmental stress of D. melanogaster was evaluated. 【Results】All SODs added in the diets prolonged significantly the average lifespan of D. melanogaster by 8.09%-12.38% for females and 12.01%-15.86% for males, and increased the number of F1 offsprings by 25.94%-30.07% for females and 21.75%-39.54% for males, respectively. The tolerance to heat exposure and UV-radiation of the fruit fly was related with the concentration of SOD in the diets. Fed on the diet with the high concentration of SOD, the lifespan of heat-exposed fruit flies increased by 7.45%-9.88% for females and 13.46%-15.12% for males, while UV-radiated flies had 13.47%-20.47% longer lifespan for females and 16.49%-23.73% for males, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The four SODs prolonged the lifespan of D. melanogaster, and enhanced its fecundity and tolerance to environmental stress; however, the differences in above effects between the four SODs tested were not significant in most cases. These findings offer important data for commercialization of SODs from different sources.
    mRNA expression profiling of signal molecules on the pathway of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Periplaneta americana (Blattaria: Blattidae) treated with deoxypodophyllotoxin
    LI Yan, WANG Li-Shan, LIU Jing-Li, WANG Jun, CHENG Jie, GAO Cong-Fen, XIAO Hang, GAO Rong
    2013, 56(7):  772-778. 
    Abstract ( 2325 )   PDF (1150KB) ( 915 )     
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    【Aim】 To investigate the effect of deoxypodophyllotoxin on the signal pathway of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Periplaneta americana. 【Methods】 Three critical signal molecule genes (mRNA of nAChR, CaM and CaMKⅡ) extracted from the head of P. americana adults were cloned and sequenced. After P. americana were injected with different concentrations (10, 45, 80, 115 and 150 μg/μL) of DOP, the mRNA expression levels of three genes at 24 and 48 h after treatment were assayed, respectively, by real-time PCR. 【Results】 Sequence alignment of mRNA revealed that P. americana nAChR gene (539 bp) shares 84% nucleotide sequence identity to nAChR α6 gene from Tribolium castaneum; P. americana CaM gene (435 bp) has 85% nucleotide sequence identity to Graphocephala atropunctata CaM gene; P. americana CaMKⅡgene (513 bp), however, shows 77% nucleotide sequence identity to Drosophila melanogaster CaMKⅡ gene. In P. americana treated with DOP for 48 h, the mRNA expression of nAChR α6, CaM and CaMKII all increased in treatments with low concentration of DOP, reached the peak at 45-80 μg/μL, and then decreased when the DOP concentration was 80-150 μg/μL. 【Conclusion】 After long-term accumulation in P. americana, DOP binding with nAChR leads to the triggering of CaM-CaMKII cascade, resulting in the changes in mRNA expression of three genes (nAChR, CaM and CaMKⅡ genes), which are up-regulated by low concentration of DOP and inhibited by high concentration of DOP. Therefore, DOP could exert the potential toxic effects on of the nervous system of P. americana.
    Fumigation activity of 41 essential oils against Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae)
    FU Chen-Chen, WAN Tao, JIANG Zhi-Li, WU Hua, FENG Jun-Tao, MA Zhi-Qing, ZHANG Xing
    2013, 56(7):  779-785. 
    Abstract ( 3115 )   PDF (903KB) ( 1122 )     
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    To find the essential oils with high insecticidal activity and promote the development of hygienic insecticides, essential oils from 41 plants belonging to 17 families were evaluated for adulticidal activity against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens by airtight fumigation in conical flask and hermetic round canister method. The results showed that 26 essential oils (12 μL/L) including spearmint oil, lavender oil and Litsea cubeba oil were very toxic to the mosquito (KT50<15 min) by airtight fumigation in conical flask. Further assay using hermetic round canister method indicated that 5 essential oils (wintergreen oil, blumea oil, peppermint oil, Eucalyptus robusta oil and E. globulus oil) had high fumigation toxicity at the concentration of 10 μL/L, and their KT50 values were 16.91, 21.20, 22.57, 18.43 and 19.48 min, respectively. The results demonstrate that wintergreen oil, blumea oil, peppermint oil, E. robusta oil and E. globulus oil all have high fumigation activity against C. pipiens pallens, with the potential to be developed as hygienic insecticides
    Combined effects of temperature and relative humidity on eggs of the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    FANG Yuan-Song, LIAO Huai-Jian, QIAN Qiu, LIU Xiang-Dong
    2013, 56(7):  786-791. 
    Abstract ( 3306 )   PDF (6282KB) ( 1254 )     
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    In order to explore the roles of temperature and relative humidity in population development of the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée), the duration, embryo development, hatchability and weight loss of eggs of this moth under different temperature and relative humidity were investigated in the laboratory experiments. The results showed that egg duration significantly shortened and egg hatchability significantly increased as relative humidity increased. Egg hatchability significantly reduced when relative humidity was less than 46% and 66% at 22℃ and 25-34℃, respectively, and no eggs were hatched at 37℃ under any relative humidity (46%-100%). Under the conditions of relative humidity less than 50% and temperature higher than 28℃, all eggs could not be hatched either. The optimal temperature and relative humidity ranges for rice leaf folder eggs were 22-31℃ and 77%-100%, respectively. The lower threshold temperature for development and effective accumulated temperature of eggs were 10.1±0.6℃ and 63.7±3.5 day degrees, respectively. The relationship between egg hatchability (Y) and the ratio of relative humidity to temperature (RH/T) fitted the logistic model very well, Y=0.8662/[1+exp(17.4084-7.5714×RH/T)]. When the RH/T value was less than 2.34, egg hatchability would be less than 50%. The optimal RH/T was about 3.0 for eggs. It is concluded that the higher weight loss of eggs, egg wizening and an arrested development of embryo resulted from lower humidity are the main lethal factors of eggs.
    Synergistic effect of visual and olfactory cues in the food searching behavior of Drosophila melanogaster
    FENG Bo, WANG Xia, LI Yan, DU Yong-Jun*
    2013, 56(7):  792-798. 
    Abstract ( 2965 )   PDF (7067KB) ( 1605 )     
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    To study the roles of olfaction and vision in the food searching behavior of insects, we investigated the number of trapped adults of Drosophila melanogaster with bayberry and orange as attractants, and the effect of pretreatment with olfactory fruits (bayberry or orange) during the behavioral scenario. The results showed that traps with visual and olfactory cues from the same fruit sources attracted more flies than the bayberry picture or olfactory odor from the bayberry. However, the flies attracted by the combination of visual and olfactory cues from different kind of fruits were not significantly more than those attracted by olfactory cues. Experience by olfactory pretreatments with fruit bayberry or orange not only increased the number of flies attracted by olfactory or visual cues, in which the number of flies attracted by olfactory bayberry was the same as that attracted by bayberry with visual and olfactory cues, but also increased the number of flies attracted by traps with visual and olfactory cues from different kind of fruits. However, olfactory pretreatments did not influence the number of flies attracted by traps with visual and olfactory cues from the same fruits. So, olfactory and visual cues were used by flies in food searching behavior and there was synergistic effect of visual and olfactory cues from the same fruits on the attraction of flies. The fly D. melanogaster has strong memory, and can use remembered olfactory cues to facilitate food searching. Our results will not only improve our understanding about the food searching behavior of flies in nature, but also help us to design more efficient fly traps.
    Effects of host plants on the developmental duration, feeding and reproduction of the nipa palm hispid, Octodonta nipae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
    XI Bo, ZHANG Zhi-Yong, HOU You-Ming, SHI Zhang-Hong
    2013, 56(7):  799-806. 
    Abstract ( 2435 )   PDF (6392KB) ( 1190 )     
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    In this paper, the influence of four host plant species, including Phoenix canariensis, Trachycarpus fortunei, Phoenix hanceana and Livistona chinensis, on the developmental duration, feeding and reproduction of Octodonta nipae was studied, and the main nutrient components in those four host plants affecting feeding and reproduction of O. nipae were analysed. The results indicated that O. nipae obviously preferred to P. canariensis and T. fortunei, while had the lowest selectivity to L. chinensis. Significant differences existed in contents of four nutrient components of different palm leaves (crude fat: F3,8=153.508, P=0.000; soluble sugar: F3,8=56.922, P=0.000; soluble protein: F3,8=150.309, P=0.000; free amino acid: F3,8=41.278, P=0.000). The nutrient components of free amino acids, soluble sugar and soluble protein in P. canariensis were relatively high, with the content of 1.13%, 1.05% and 19.50%, respectively. However, the content of crude fat in L. chinensis was higher (7.04%) compared with the contents of other three nutrient components in L. chinensis. Principal component analysis showed that the free amino acid, soluble sugar and soluble protein were the key factors that affect the feeding and reproduction of O. nipae, and their contribution rates were 56.1%, 26.7% and 13.7%, respectively. In addition, the significant correlations were found between the three nutrient components of palm leaves and the feeding and reproduction of O. nipae on their respective hosts. This research has important significance for analysis host adaptive variation of O. nipae and its mechanism.
    Genetic diversity and demographic history of Dolichus halensis (Schaller) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) populations in the Qinling Mountains, China (In English
    YIN Huan, LI Xiao-Chen
    2013, 56(7):  807-815. 
    Abstract ( 2816 )   PDF (7172KB) ( 1229 )     
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    Dolichus halensis (Schaller) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is an important predator insect that is widely distributed in China. To reveal the genetic diversity and demographic history of D. halensis populations from the Qinling Mountains, a 1 601 bp fragment from the mtDNA gene (Cox1-tRNALeu-Cox2) was sequenced for 191 individuals from 24 local populations. Forty-five polymorphic sites were found, and 53 haplotypes were identified. The high haplotype diversity (Hd=0.796) was accompanied by lower nucleotide diversity (Pi=0.0033). Phylogenetic analysis (Bayesian inference) of the 53 haplotypes revealed two major clades. AMOVA analysis suggested that most of the variation occurred within populations (86.61%). SAMOVA and PERMUT analyses showed no phylogeographic structure. The results of neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analyses showed a sudden population expansion. The above analyses confirmed the existence of a postglacial population expansion.
    Bionomics and integrated control of the pear leaf blister moth, Leucoptera malifoliella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)
    YU Guo-Yue, WANG He, ZHANG Jun-Ming, FENG Shu-Kuai, LIU Xi, ZHAO Lian-Xiang
    2013, 56(7):  816-823. 
    Abstract ( 2732 )   PDF (6481KB) ( 1249 )     
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    Leucoptera malifoliella (Costa) is an occasional pest of apple and pear in China. This article reviews its damage and host plants, morphology, biology, natural enemies and control techniques, based upon literatures and our research. The moth occurs 4 generations a year in Beijing. Adult emergence starts in the spring, at the ‘pink bud’ stage of apples, and lasts for about one month, with the peak period at the apple florescence. The caterpillars undergo three larval instars to complete their development, with the average head capsule width of 0.23, 0.33, and 0.44 mm for each instar, respectively. Its outbreak occurred in the Wangjiayuan Orchard in Beijing in 2010. In spring of 2011 in this orchard, a huge number of adults were found in the sex pheromone traps, but very few eggs were found on the leaf. The population thereafter was maintained at a very low level. This is believed to be caused by low humidity for overwintering pupae and then low fecundity for the females. Protection of parasitoids is vital for its control, and measures including removing old and loose barks with the cocoons of pupae, and spraying with chlorbenzuron at egg peak during its outbreak, are also suggested. Color pictures for the damage, adult, egg, larva, cocoon and some parasitoids of this moth are provided.
    Roles of vision and antennae in the short-distance mate searching behavior of male adults of Massicus raddei (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
    WEI Jian-Rong, GAO Chun, GAO Jun-Chong, DONG Li-Jun
    2013, 56(7):  824-830. 
    Abstract ( 2383 )   PDF (1213KB) ( 966 )     
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    Massicus raddei (Blessig) is a main wood borer of chestnut tree in China and it attacks the trunk of Quercus mongolica and Quercus liaotungensis in Liaoning and Jilin provinces, Northeast China. It has already caused serious damage to the local economy and forest ecology. In order to explore whether semiochemicals would help the male matesearching, we devised a bioassay cage to observe the searching and mating behavior of male adults of M. raddei, and to access their visual and olfactory capability from their behavior. The results showed that the blind males could have normal searching and mating behavior. The normal males had no behavioral response to dead females enveloped with paraffin. Both results indicated that vision plays little role on the process of males searching for females. The searching and mating ability of males, with seven segments of antennal flagella removed significantly decreased. Removing whole antennal flagella would deprive the mating capability of males. However, the females who lost the whole antennal flagella could still successfully mate with the normal males. These results suggest that male antennae, especially the terminal seven segments, play important roles in searching and mating behavior of males and may contribute to sensing the semiochemicals released from females.