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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 August 2013, Volume 56 Issue 8
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Expression pattern analysis of BmCph2 in Bombyx mori strains with different acceptance of the artificial diet
    LI Juan, ZHANG Sheng-Xiang, XU Xin, ZHANG Jin, GUO Xiao-Qi, ZHUO Wei-Wei, ZHOU Qian-Kai, LIU Qing-Xin, CUI Wei-Zheng, XU Shi-Qing
    2013, 56(8):  831-840. 
    Abstract ( 2775 )   PDF (14216KB) ( 1622 )     
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    The feeding habits to the artificial diet are diverse in different strains of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the molecular mechanism is not fully understood now. By investigating differentially expressed genes responsible for appetite of the silkworm to the artificial diet in the constructed SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) library, we excavated a CPH2 (cuticular protein hypothetical 2) gene (BmCph2) from the silkworm based on the constructed SAGE library of differentially expressed genes in silkworm strains with different acceptance of the artificial diet. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was employed to analyze the expression of BmCph2 in different strains of the silkworm and real-time PCR was employed to further reveal its expression pattern. The results showed that BmCph2 possessed a high expression level during the molting and newly molted stages, while it could be hardly detected during the embryonic stage and the time right before the molting stage. The expression profile of BmCph2 in the head was similar to that in the whole body. However, the expression level of BmCph2 was low in the midgut, suggesting that BmCph2 may be related to the formation of new cuticle layer. BmCph2 was differently expressed in B. mori strains with different feeding habits to the artificial diet. The expression level of BmCph2 in B. mori strains with low feeding habit was significantly higher than that in B. mori strains with high feeding habit. The expression of BmCph2 in different strains reacted differently to the flavour stimulus of food and repellent, and the feeding stimulus as well. The silkworms with high feeding habit were relatively sensitive, while those with low feeding habit were less influenced, specifically in the low feeding strains of Jingsong A and Jingsong B. The results suggest that BmCph2 may be involved in feeding habits except for having the potential function in the formation of new cuticle layer. However, the detail mechanisms still need further investigation.
    Functional studies of pacifastin proteinase inhibitor genes, nvpp-1 and nvpp-2, in Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)
    QIAN Cen, FANG Qi, WANG Lei, YE Gong-Yin
    2013, 56(8):  841-853. 
    Abstract ( 3878 )   PDF (12025KB) ( 1740 )     
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    Pacifastin proteinase inhibitors (PPIs) play key roles in the immunity and development of insects. For exploring the function of PPIs in parasitoid wasps, two cDNA sequences, nvpp-1 and nvpp-2, encoding the open reading frames of two PPIs in Nasonia vitripennis, were successfully cloned in this study. The cDNA sequences of both nvpp-1 and nvpp-2 sequences are 723 and 888 bp in length, encoding 240 and 295 aa, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of nvpp-1 and nvpp-2 both possess a 17-aa signaling peptide at their N-terminus. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses results indicated that NVPP-1 and NVPP-2 contain 5 and 4 typical pacifastin conserved domains, respectively. NVPP-1 and NVPP-2 are clustered into one group with CVP4, a venom protein from Pimpla hypochondriaca. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR results revealed that the mRNAs of both nvpp-1 and nvpp-2 were expressed in all tissues of female adults tested, and the transcript levels of these two genes were significantly higher in thorax, abdomen carcass (post dissection) and venom apparatus than in the other tissues. In venom apparatus, the transcript levels of both nvpp-1 and nvpp-2 were high in the initial stage of eclosion (0 and 1 d), and then maintained at low levels. Western blot results showed that NVPP-1 and NVPP-2 were detected only in venom, not in any other tissues. The contents of NVPP-1 and NVPP-2 were low in the initial stage of eclosion (0 d). nvpp-1 and nvpp-2 were recombinantly expressed utilizing pET-28a (+) vector, and the recombinant expression products were sequentially purified. The inhibition of the recombinant NVPP-1 and NVPP-2 to four serine proteinase inhibitors, including trypsin, chymotrypsin, proteinase K and elastase were determined. The results showed that the recombinant NVPP-1 and NVPP-2 could inhibit the activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively. Meanwhile, the influences of these two recombinant proteins on phenoloxidase (PO) activity and pro phenoloxidase (PPO) activating reaction in the hemolymph obtained from the pupal stage of host Musca domestica were evaluated. The results showed that the activation of PPO in the hemolymph of the pupal stage of host was impaired by these two recombinant proteins. However, there was no remarkable influence on the PO activity in host hemolymph by these two recombinant proteins. In conclusion, NVPP-1 and NVPP-2 are present in the venom of N. vitripennis, and belong to the members of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor families, respectively. They probably suppress the humoral immunity of the host via suppressing the PPO activation in its hemolymph. The results acquired from this research make a further insight into the comprehension of PPIs in insects, especially in parasitoid wasps.
    Cloning, induced expression and promoter activity of defensin-1 gene from the housefly (Musca domestica)
    LU Dan, ZHENG Li, WANG Xin-Xin, WANG Fan, TANG Ting, LIU Feng-Song
    2013, 56(8):  854-863. 
    Abstract ( 2802 )   PDF (18922KB) ( 1466 )     
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    【Aim】 Identify a new defensin gene from the housefly, Musca domestica, and analyze its function. 【Methods】 We identified the cDNA sequence of a new defensin gene from M. domestica transcriptome database and named Md-defensin-1 gene (Mdde-1). Bioinformatics web site and software were used to predict the structure information and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR technique to study the gene expression profiles. Meanwhile, Mdde-1 promoter sequence was obtained using genome walking method and its activity was validated using cell transfection technology. 【Results】 The Mdde-1 sequence contains a 276 bp open reading frame, encoding 91 amino acid residues. A putative signal peptide of 23 amino acid residues and a potential propeptide of 28 amino acid residues are present at the N-terminus followed by a mature peptide of 40 amino acid residues, which contains a typical CSαβ motif. The results of real-time quantitative PCR indicated that the expression level of Mdde-1 was up-regulated significantly after the 2nd instar larvae of M. domestica were challenged by the gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus while down-regulated after they were challenged by the gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli. The expression of Mdde-1 was up-regulated after the housefly larvae suffered heat shock. In order to further study its regulatory mechanism, we cloned Mdde-1 prompter and verified its activity. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that Mdde-1 is a new defensin from housefly, and it plays an important role in immune challenge by gram-positive bacteria. Mdde-1 promoter activity has been first proved. This study lays the foundation for further research on antibacterial mechanism of housefly defensin.
    Changes of trehalase activity and contents of trehalose and glucose in the hemolymph of Dendrolimus tabulaeformis (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) larvae infected with Beauveria brongniartii
    FAN Jin-Hua, XIE Ying-Ping, XUE Jiao-Liang, ZHANG Hai-Tao
    2013, 56(8):  864-869. 
    Abstract ( 2836 )   PDF (3137KB) ( 1065 )     
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    To reveal the approach of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria using glucide in host insect hemolymph as nutrition, we investigated the changes of trehalase activity and contents of trehalose and glucose in larval hemolymph of Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu after infection with Beauveria brongniartii (Sacc.) Petch 2382 strain. After the 4th instar larvae of D. tabulaeformis were infected with the strain, the acid trehalase activity in their hemolymph was significantly higher than that in control groups, reached the highest level (0.2786 U/mg) at 3 d after infection, and then dropped slowly during 4-6 d after infection. The trehalose content in larval hemolymph in treatment groups was significantly lower than that in the control, began to decrease at 4 d after infection and reached the lowest level at 6 d after infection, which was consistent with the dynamics of the acid trehalase activity. By contrast, the glucose content was higher in treatment groups than in the control. The glucose content in larval hemolymph in treatment groups increased quickly in 1-3 d with a peak (7.7615 mmol/L) at 3 d after infection, and then decreased gradually. These results suggest that after entering into the hemolymph of D. tabulaeformis, B. brongniartii can produce acid trehalase that hydrolyzes trehalose into glucose for the use by the fungus as nutrition, and a series of physiological metabolism and biochemical reaction result in blood sugar imbalance in host insect.
    Effects of isoniazid intake on the glutathione redox cycle and glutathione S-transferase activity in larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    WEI Guang-Bing, WANG Lu, YIN Wei-Min, HE Yue, ZHU Wen-Juan, ZHOU Qian-Kai, ZHAO Lin-Chuan, XU Shi-Qing, SIMA Yang-Hu
    2013, 56(8):  870-877. 
    Abstract ( 2733 )   PDF (5268KB) ( 1574 )     
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    In order to construct a model of drug screening and toxicity evaluation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the metabolisms related to antioxidation and detoxification in the midgut and fat body in the 3-day-old 5th instar larvae of the silkworm fed with isoniazid, an antituberculosis model drug, at a dose of 2 000 mg/kg were investigated. The results indicated that in the midgut of female silkworms, the contents of total glutathione (GSH+2GSSG), glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) increased rapidly first and then decreased slowly. The glutathione Stransferase (GST) activity also increased to a higher level first and then dropped gradually to a steady level. The decline of the GSH/GSSG ratio in the midgut of female silkworms indicated the oxidative shift of redox status at 72 min after treatment. In the fat body of female silkworms, however, the contents of total glutathione, GSH and GSSG dropped rapidly first and then increased quickly, while the GST activity fell gradually and then increased to a peak. The increase of the GSH/GSSG ratio in the fat body revealed the reduced shift of redox status at 72 min after treatment. In both female and male silkworms the contents of total glutathione, GSH and GSSG, and the GST activity were higher in the fat body than in the midgut. The contents of total glutathione, GSH and GSSG were higher in females than in males, whereas the GST activity was higher in males than in females. The results suggest that the intake of isoniazid resulted in the change of the glutathione redox status and the related enzyme activities in larvae of the silkworm, and fat body plays a major role in the process of detoxification.
    Biological characteristics and mating advantage of the red-eye mutant of the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    WANG Li-Hua, ZHUANG Ze-Jin, LI Yong-Teng, FANG Ji-Chao
    2013, 56(8):  878-883. 
    Abstract ( 2407 )   PDF (5137KB) ( 1128 )     
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    Laodelphax striatellus is one of the most serious rice pests in China, and its phenotype mutations possibly affect population parameters and mating. In this study, the biological characteristics of the red-eye mutant of L. striatellus were analyzed by life table method. The results showed that the red-eye mutant had no significant effects on reproduction, egg hatching duration, nymphal period, adult longevity and the intrinsic rate of increase, but the mortality in mutant planthoppers (17.1%) was significantly higher than that in wild type planthoppers (black eye) (10.3%) (P<0.05). The amount of offsprings with red-eye was more than that of expectation in the mate choice test which consisted of one red-eye female, one redeye male and one homozygous black-eye male (♀rr×♂rr♂BB), or one red-eye male, one red-eye female and one homozygous black-eye female (♀rr♀BB×♂rr). The Chi-square values were 18.15 and 14.99, respectively, in the two cross combination, and higher than the critical value. The rare male mating advantage was found when the ratio of red-eye planthoppers was 20%. These results provide a foundation to further study the red-eye mutation mechanisms and for the use of red-eye mutation as genetic marker.
    Effects of body weight and feeding on the flight capacity of adults of Osmia excavata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)
    DING Nan, XIN Xing-Guang, ZHOU Xian-Hong, MEN Xing-Yuan, YU Yi, ZHANG An-Sheng, LI Li-Li, ZHUANG Qian-Ying
    2013, 56(8):  884-889. 
    Abstract ( 2240 )   PDF (909KB) ( 890 )     
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    The osmia bees of Osmia excavata Alfken are extensively used for pollination of fruit trees. Flight capacity is one of the important determinants of their pollination efficiency. This study evaluated the effects of body weight and feeding behavior of adult O. excavata on their flight capacity using tethered flight test. The results showed that female bees were significantly heavier (116.30 mg per female) than males (59.80 mg per male), and their flight speed (3.44 km/h) was also significantly higher than males (2.36 km/h) (P<0.001). The flight distance and maximum flight speed of the male bees were positively correlated with their body weight. Female bees showed positive correlation between their body weight and flight duration, but their average flight speed was negatively correlated with body weight. The average flight distance of female adults of O. excavata was 0.23 km/h, and the bees were considered as central foragers because they returned to their nests several times in a day with pollen to nourish their brood cells. So, we recommend that the foraging distance of O. excavata in the field may be less than 100 m. O. excavata showed longer flight distance and flight duration, and also higher maximum flight  speed if they fed on honey or pollen. Thus, we recommend that the bees used for pollination should be provided with food following emergence. The results elucidate the fly capacity of female and male adults of O. excavata, and the promotion of fly capacity by food supplement after cocoon break. This stduy provides a theorntical basis for exploiting pollination efficiency in the osmia bees.
    Growth and development patterns of Hydrotaea spinigera (Ditpera: Muscidae) and their significance for estimating postmortem interval
    MA Ting, GUI Ling-Feng, WANG Jiang-Feng
    2013, 56(8):  890-895. 
    Abstract ( 2455 )   PDF (4847KB) ( 1024 )     
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    Hydrotaea spinigera Stein is a species that exists in corpses and the surrounding soil during the decay of the cadaver, and it has a great significance for estimating the postmortem interval for badly decomposed remains. Until now there has been no systematic research on the growth and development of this species. This species was collected in succession studies conducted with piglet carcasses. Our research provided an opportunity to derive developmental schedules for H. spinigera at four different constant temperatures [20, 24, 28 and 32 (±1)℃], and aimed to gain the data of its developmental duration and body length change with time that can be used in forensic investigations. The results showed that at 20, 24, 28 and 32 (±1)℃, the minimum average developmental duration of H. spinigera to complete their immature stage was 869.6±21.6, 673±18.5, 410±16.4 and 379±17.2 h, and the average developmental duration was 966±74.0, 808±80.2, 570±40.7 and 470±30.5 h, respectively. The larval body length increased with time, fluctuating between 12-14 mm after reaching the maximum length. The relationships between larval body length and time at four constant temperatures could be simulated by logistic function y=(a+bx)/[1+exp(c+dx)]. This is a relatively systematic study on the developmental biology of H. spinigera, which is meaningful for the determination of postmortem interval of more highly decayed corpse as well as for the control of hygienic pests.
    The multivariate similarity clustering analysis and geographical division of insect fauna in China
    SHEN Xiao-Cheng, LIU Xin-Tao, REN Ying-Dang, SHEN Qi, LIU Xiao-Guang, ZHANG Shu-Jie
    2013, 56(8):  896-906. 
    Abstract ( 3394 )   PDF (7224KB) ( 1533 )     
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    In order to analyze the insect distributional law in China and provide scientific basis of insect geographical division, in 2008 we created a new method, i.e., the multivariate similarity clustering analysis (MSCA). The key difference of this method from traditional similarity clustering analysis methods is directly computing the similarity coefficient of multiregion and throwing away the old merged steps. By using the MSCA, distribution information of total 93 662 insect species belonging to 17 018 genera of 823 families in 64 basic geographical units (BGUs) of China was analyzed. The results showed that 9 large unit groups and 20 small unit groups are clustered by 64 BGUs when similarity levels are 0.14 and 0.19, respectively. First insect fauna geographical division plan of China was putted forward by quantitative analysis, in which the insect fauna of China is divided into 9 regions and 20 sub-regions. The 9 regions were named as Northwestern China, Northeastern China, Northern China, Qinghai-Xizang, Changjiang-Huaihe, Central China, Southwestern China, Eastern China and Southern China insect region. A northern large region was clustered by the preceding 4 regions and a southern large region by the others stably. Taiwan was clustered to East China, but not to South China, because its similarity degree with Fujian is closer than that with Guangdong, Guangxi or Hainan. Several important aspects in quantitative analysis on insect biogeography are discussed, and some suggestions about insect fauna investigation are given. This study proves that the MSCA method is very applicable, simple and quick, and can be used in a wider range. It is presaged that bio-geographical study will get from qualitative analysis into a quantitative stage.
    Analysis of genetic differentiation and gene flow among different geographic populations of Oedaleus infernalis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) based on mtDNA COI gene sequences
    SUN Wei, ZHANG Zhu-Ting, DONG Hui, QIAN Hai-Tao, SHI Yu, XIE Li-Na, CONG Bin
    2013, 56(8):  907-916. 
    Abstract ( 3514 )   PDF (5443KB) ( 1881 )     
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    Oedaleus infernalis Saussure is one of the most important agricultural and grass forage pests, which is widely spread in China. The partial sequences of mtDNA COI gene in 10 geographic populations of O. infernalis were sequenced and analyzed. The genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, gene flow and molecular variance were analyzed using DnaSP 5.0 and Arlequin Bayesian inference (BI) phylogenetic tree and the haplotype network of COI haplotypes were constructed. The results showed that a total of 21 haplotypes were defined among 144 gene sequences, including one haplotype shared by ten populations. The total haplotype diversity of all populations was 0.653 and the range of haplotype diversity of different populations was 0.423-0.790. The Tajima’s D test indicated that there might be no population expansion for the total in recent history. The total Gst was 0.04436, Fst was 0.05255 and the gene flow Nm was 9.01 among 10 populations. Molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) demonstrated that observed genetic differentiation mainly occurs within populations and just a little differentiation exists among populations. The genetic distance among populations was not correlated with the geographic distribution. The Bayesian inference (BI) phylogenetic tree and haplotype network showed that haplotypes were distributed in different clades and no obvious geographical structure formed. The results suggest that the gene flow among O. infernalis populations is not affected by the geographical distance.
    The main processes and molecular mechanisms of wing disc development and differentiation in Drosophila
    OU Jun, ZHENG Si-Chun, FENG Qi-Li, LIU Lin
    2013, 56(8):  917-924. 
    Abstract ( 4190 )   PDF (13844KB) ( 8178 )     
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    The development and differentiation of wing disc is closely related with the ontogeny of insects, and the study on wing disc is helpful to understand the development of insects. Pests with the ability of flight can cause great loss to agriculture and forestry every year, so the study on the development and differentiation of their wing may help to find new targets to control them. The development and differentiation of wing disc in Drosophila was well elucidated. It includes four main processes: definition of wing disc, establishment of A-P and D-V organizing centers, definition of wing region, and differentiation of wing region. Homeobox genes [such as engrailed (En), apterous (Ap), and Ultrabithorax (Ubx)], secretory proteins [such as Wnt family member Wingless (Wg), and TGF-β superfamily members Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Hedgehog (Hh)] and wing disc specific nuclear protein coding gene Vestigial (Vg) are involved in normal development and differentiation of wing disc. In this article, the research findings on the development and differentiation of Drosophila wing disc and the related molecular mechanisms were reviewed.
    Research progress in the interactions of baculoviruses with host insects
    MENG Qing-Feng, LIU Xiao-Yong
    2013, 56(8):  925-933. 
    Abstract ( 2340 )   PDF (1622KB) ( 1545 )     
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    The interactions of baculovirus with insect host is a basic molecular and ecological process that has practical applications not only in agriculture but also in Eukaryotic expression systems, gene therapy, protein display systems and engineering vaccine. In addition, baculoviruses are promising viral insecticides and are friendly to the environment. A number of important and valuable discoveries have emerged from studies of these interactions. The baculovirus life cycle involves two distinct forms of virus, i.e., occlusion derived virus (ODV) and budded virus (BV). The former is present in polyhedrin and responsible for the primary infection of the host while the latter is released from the infected host cells and caused the secondary infection. Typically, the initial infection occurs when a susceptible host insect feeds on plants that are contaminated with the occluded form of the virus. The polyhedrin dissolves in the alkaline environment of the host midgut, releasing ODV that then fuse to the columnar epithelial cell membrane of the host intestine and are taken into the cell in endosomes. Nucleocapsids escape from the endosomes and are transported to nucleus. Viral transcription and replication occur in the cell nucleus and new BV particles are budded out from the basolateral side to spread the infection systemically. The interactions of baculovirus with host cells include the physical interactions occurring during viral binding and entry, the complex regulation of host gene expression and modification and regulation of cellular organismal defenses. Here, we review the recent investigations on how baculoviruses interact with insect hosts during the infection process, especially the roles of genes of baculoviruses during viral infection.
    Pathological changes in larval midgut tissues of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), after feeding Cry2Ab
    GAO Zhen, LIANG Ge-Mei*, WEI Ji-Zhen, ZHANG Li-Li
    2013, 56(8):  934-944. 
    Abstract ( 2658 )   PDF (20903KB) ( 1464 )     
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    In order to ascertain the action mechanism of the insecticidal protein Cry2Ab, the pathological changes in the larval midgut of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on an artificial diet containing Cry2Ab protein (8 μg/g) were observed using transmission electron microscope, and the changes induced by Cry1Ac (0.97 μg/g) and the normal diet were also investigated. The results showed that the midgut cells and organelles both exhibited obvious pathological changes after H. armigera larvae fed on the artificial diet containing Cry2Ab. The main changes include that: the lumen of the goblet cells became swollen or elongated, some columnar cells were extruded by the goblet cells, microvilli dropped off, cell nuclei shrank, the membrane of plasma and nuclear were blurred, chromatin cohered, mitochondria was stretched and deformed, and the endoplasmic reticulum swelled and broken. The pathological changes became more obvious with extension of feeding time. The pathological changes of larval midgut cells in H. armigera caused by Cry2Ab were slower than those caused by Cry1Ac. These results may provide the theoretical basis for better using Cry2Ab as important insecticidal protein in transgenic cotton in the future.
    Species identification of overwintering whitefly pseudo-pupae and detection of the infection status of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Bemisia tabaci in winter greenhouses in Liaoning, northeastern China
    ZHANG Wan-Min, LI Hong-Ran, PIAO Chun-Shu, ZHANG Dan, TAO Yun-Li, CHU Dong
    2013, 56(8):  945-951. 
    Abstract ( 2029 )   PDF (5350KB) ( 1280 )     
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    To identify the species of over-wintering whitefly pseudo-pupae and detect the infection status of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in winter greenhouses in Liaoning, northeastern China, 17 samples of whitefly pseudopupae were collected from different counties in the province in January, 2012. The whitefly species was identified under microscope based on morphological characteristics and the biotype of B. tabaci was determined using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene. Then TYLCV in the whitefly vector, B. tabaci was checked using specific primers and the product was sequenced and analyzed. The results showed that there were two whitefly species, i.e., Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) and B. tabaci, over-wintering in winter greenhouses in the province. Of the 17 whitefly samples, 11 were B. tabaci B-biotype samples while the other 6 were mixtures of two whiteflies (biotypes B and Q). In addition, T. vaporariorum was dominated in only one mixture in Linghai, Jinzhou (code LH). Of the 17 B. tabaci samples including the mixtures, only 4 samples were the mixture of biotypes B and Q, while the other 13 were Q-biotype samples. TYLCV was only detected in 3 Q-biotype samples. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed that the virus was TYLCV. These results provide scientific basis for the forecast, prevention and control of the whiteflies and TYLCV in Liaoning, China.
    Diurnal rhythm of adult behavior of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    YANG Mao-Fa, YANG Da-Xing, XU Jin, LIU Jian-Feng, WU Cheng-Xu
    2013, 56(8):  952-959. 
    Abstract ( 2308 )   PDF (6566KB) ( 1541 )     
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    Diurnal rhythm of adult behavior of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, was watched and recorded at 30 min interval by single rearing separately in field from April 30th to May 4th, 2012. All behaviors were divided into five types, i.e., moving (MG), foraging (FG), resting without contacting water (ROCW), resting with contacting water (RWCW) and others (OT), and 7 200 behavioral data were collected and analyzed. The results showed that the major behaviors were ROCW, accounting for 47.83%, while MG was minimum, accounting for 5.64%. Diurnal time among various behaviors were significantly different (P<0.001). The peak of ROCW was recorded at 23:30 (72.67%), the lowest was recorded at 7:30 (14.67%). Both RWCW and FG had two peaks, occurring at 7:30 (75.33%) and 19:00 (37.33%), and 15:00 (26.67%) and 21:00 (18.00%), respectively. The peak of MG occurred at 17:00 (20.00%). The proportion of OT fluctuated from 1.33% to 18.67%. The results of the Mann-Whitney U test indicated that there were significant differences in ROCW, MG, FG and OT between day and night (P<0.001), but RWCW had no difference between day and night (P=0.834). The further analysis also showed that five behaviors had significant differences in forenoon, noon, afternoon and night during a day (P<0.001). ROCW and FG mainly occurred on the rice leaf, while MG mainly occurred in the water. However, the results of the Kruskal-Wallis H test confirmed that ROCW, MG and FG had marked spatial variation in different parts (P<0.001). RWCW, MG and OT were found in the water, but the fluctuation of RWCW was the biggest. The three behaviors had significant differences among different time periods within a day (RWCW and MG: P<0.001; OT: P=0.002). ROCW, MG and FG were found on the leaf, ROCW and FG were strongly regulated by time and their frequencies had significant differences among different time periods within a day (P<0.001). ROCW and MG were found in the stem and bottle wall or sealing gauze, however, the proportions of behaviors kept at a lower level. The behaviors of the rice water weevil were mainly found in the water and on rice leaf, the peak of behaviors in the water (81.33%) and the lowest frequency of behaviors on the leaf (12.00%) occurred at the same time (7:30), both showing rotation variation. These results suggest that both temporal and spatial variation could significantly influence the behaviors of the rice water weevil, and the effect of temporal variation is more significant than spatial variation.
    Ultrastructure of the reproductive system in Dermatophagoides farinae (Acariformes: Pyroglyphidae) observed with transmission electron microscopy
    WANG YueMing1, 2, LIU XiaoYu1, HUANG LiNian2, SUN Xin3, LIU ZhiGang1,*
    2013, 56(8):  960-964. 
    Abstract ( 2338 )   PDF (5018KB) ( 1217 )     
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    The ultrastructure of the reproductive system for male and female Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes) was observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The male reproductive system of D. farinae consists of testis, vasa deferentia, accessory gland, ejaculatory duct, copulatory organ and accessory copulatory organs. All stages of spermatogenesis exist simultaneously in the testis. A typical sperm is characterized by short of nucleus, chromosomal material in threads, mitochondria without typical cristae, and cytoplasm with conspicuous parallel electron-dense lamellae. The female reproductive system consists of copulatory bursa, ductus bursae, receptaculum seminis, ducti receptaculi, ovaries, oviducts, chorion glands, and the ovipositor. The ovary contains a large multinucleated central cell surrounded by oocytes and other germ cells. The results broaden our understanding of the reproductive system of D. farinae.