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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 November 2014, Volume 57 Issue 11
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Expression analysis of heat shock protein genes in Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under temperature stress
    CHEN Fang, LU Yong-Yue
    2014, 57(11):  1253-1264. 
    Abstract ( 2174 )   PDF (6603KB) ( 752 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to study the roles of heat shock protein in the adaptation to temperature stress in Phenacoccus solenopsis. 【Methods】 Based on the successful transcriptome sequencing in P. solenopsis, we analyzed two sequences of heat shock protein 70 gene family [PsHsp70 (GenBank accession no. KJ909505) and Pshsp70-4 (GenBank accession no. KJ909506)] and one sequence of heat shock protein 90 gene family [Pshsp90 (GenBank accession no. KJ909507)], and used comparative quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) to analyze the expression of genes Pshsp70, Pshsp70-4 and Pshsp90 at different developmental stages (2nd instar nymph, 3rd instar nymph and female adult) of P. solenopsis in response to different temperatures (constant temperature 18 and 32℃, and temporary heat shock for 1 h at 37, 39, 41, 43 and 45℃ and then recovery for 1 h at 26℃) were detected. 【Results】 Sequence analysis showed that the Pshsp70 cDNA contains a 1 923 bp open reading frame, encoding a polypeptide of 641 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 70.9 kDa and an estimated isoelectric piont (pI) of 5.65. The Pshsp70-4 cDNA contains a 1 962 bp open reading frame, encoding a polypeptide of 654 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 71.8 kDa and an estimated isoelectric piont (pI) of 5.38. The Pshsp90 cDNA contains a 2 172 bp open reading frame, encoding a polypeptide of 724 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 83.5 kDa and an estimated isoelectric piont (pI) of 4.93. Both Pshsp70 and Pshsp70-4 contain the highly conserved functional motifs of the Hsp70 gene family. PsHsp70 shares 85% amino acid sequence identities with the Hsp70 proteins from Bemisia tabaci and Bombyx mori, while PsHsp70-4 shares 95% amino acid sequence identities with the Hsp70 proteins from Ericerus pela and Riptortus pedestris. Pshsp90 contains the highly conserved functional motifs of the Hsp90 gene family, and PsHsp90 shares 87% amino acid sequence identities with the Hsp90 proteins from Tribolium castaneum and Orius sauteri. The expression analysis result showed that the mRNA expression levels of the three Hsp genes in the 2nd instar nymphs were down-regulated at constant temperature 18℃, as compared with those at 26℃(the control), while at 32℃, the mRNA expression level of Pshsp70 was significantly higher than the control group in these three developmental stages. Under heat shock at 37-45℃ for 1 h and then recovery for 1 h, the relative expression levels of the three Hsp genes increased with the increase of temperature in the three different developmental stages. The correlation analysis suggested that the correlation coefficients between the expression level of the three Hsp genes in all developmental stages and the heat stress temperature were greater than 0.6, except that of Pshsp70-4 in female adult (0.225). The expression levels of the three Hsp genes in all tested stages under heat shock at 43℃ and 45℃ for 1 h and then recovery for 1 h were significantly higher than the control group. 【Conclusion】 The expression of heat shock protein genes in P. solenopsis is positively correlated with temperature, and PsHsps may play an important role in high temperature tolerance in P. solenopsis.
    Molecular characterization and functional analysis of chitin deacetylase 1 gene in Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae)
    DING Guo-Wei, YU Rong-Rong, YANG Mei-Ling, MA En-Bo, YANG-Jing, ZHANG Jian-Zhen
    2014, 57(11):  1265-1271. 
    Abstract ( 1915 )   PDF (2902KB) ( 723 )     
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    【Aim】 Molecular characterization and functional analysis of chitin deacetylase 1 gene in Oxya chinensis were conducted so as to provide the insight into novel target identification for pest management. 【Methods】 CDA-like gene fragments were obtained from an O. chinensis transcriptome database and the sequences of these fragments were analyzed by bioinformatics and homology analysis methods. A full-length cDNA sequence of OcCDA1 was obtained by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was applied to detect the relative expression levels of OcCDA1 in different tissues of the 5th instar nymphs and at different developmental stages. RNA interference was performed to study the function of OcCDA1 during the growth and development of O. chinensis. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequence of chitin deacetylase 1 gene in O. chinensis was cloned and named as OcCDA1 (GenBank accession number: KP271171) . Gene expression profiling in tissues showed that OcCDA1 was highly expressed in foregut, integument, hindgut and fat body, and the expression level of OcCDA1 was the highest in the integument of the 1st day of the 5th instar nymphs. After the 5th instar nymphs were injected with OcCDA1 dsRNA, the relative expression level of OcCDA1 in the nymphs decreased by 93.3% as compared with that in the control (injected with dsGFP). Significantly down-regulated expression of OcCDA1 resulted in reduced feeding, slow development, and high mortality (95.2%) including 38.1% nymphs died before molting and 57.1% nymphs failed to detach from the old cuticle during molting process and died eventually. 【Conclusion】 The results demonstrate that OcCDA1 plays a key role in molting process of O. chinensis, and silencing OcCDA1 may result in high mortality with feeding reduction or molting defect phenotype.
    Cloning, prokaryotic expression and homology modeling analysis of midgut aminopeptidase gene PxAPN5 in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
    XU Lian, GAO Huan-Juan, PAN Zhi-Zhen, ZHU Yu-Jing, CHEN Qing-Xi, LIU Bo
    2014, 57(11):  1272-1280. 
    Abstract ( 2598 )   PDF (3031KB) ( 694 )     
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    【Aim】 The aim of this study is to analyze the cloning, expression and homology modeling of midgut aminopeptidase gene PxAPN5 in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. 【Methods】 A aminopeptidase (APN) gene was cloned from the P. xylostella midgut, and bioinformatics analysis of the gene was performed. The APN protein was expressed using prokaryotic expression system, and its enzymatic activity was assayed. The interaction between APN and Cry2Ab was determined by using ligand blot analysis. Homology modeling of APN gene was conducted for the prediction of characteristics and functions of mutation sites. 【Results】 The sequencing results showed that the cloned APN gene (NCBI accession no.: KM034756) is 2 853 bp in length and encodes 950 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 107.3871 kDa and isoelectric point of 5.24. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that this APN gene belongs to class 5 of APN family, and it was named as PxAPN5. PxAPN5 has the conservative features of the APN proteins in lepidopteran insects including N-glycosylation and O-glycosylation sites, GPI anchor point, C-transmembrane domains and zinc-metalloprotease domain (361HEXXH365). A 110 kDa specific protein band appeared when APN protein was inducibly expressed in Escherichia coli. Aminopeptidase activity assay showed that the supernatant of broken bacteria possessed aminopeptidase activity and its specific activity was 1 047.2 U/g. The ligand blot result indicated that PxAPN5 could bind to Cry2Ab specially. Multiple alignment of amino acid sequences demonstrated that there are three mutations in PxAPN5 when compared to other known APN proteins from P. xylostella. 【Conclusion】 The PxAPN5 protein with aminopeptidase activity was successfully cloned and expressed, and it could bind to Cry2Ab. Prediction of characteristics and functions of mutation sites in PxAPN5 was carried out by homology modeling. These results laid the foundation for the functional research of PxAPN.
    Molecular cloning and expression pattern analysis of sex peptide receptor gene in Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    FAN Yin-Yin, AN Shi-Heng, WANG Qiong, LIU Xiao-Ming, LI Wei-Zheng, GUO Xian-Ru, YUAN Guo-Hui
    2014, 57(11):  1281-1288. 
    Abstract ( 2118 )   PDF (5625KB) ( 668 )     
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    【Aim】 In order to explore the relationship between sex peptide (SP) and post-mating response (PMR), the sex peptide receptor (SPR) gene from Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) was cloned and its expression patterns were analyzed. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA sequence of SPR gene was cloned from sex pheromone glands of H. assulta by RT-PCR method. The expression patterns of SPR gene were analyzed by using qRT-PCR. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequence of SPR gene from H. assulta is 2 048 bp in size and named as HassSPR (GenBank accession number: AFH53182.1). The open reading frame of HassSPR is 1 275 bp that encodes 424 amino acid residues with 7 putative transmembrane domains. The predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point of HassSPR are 48.6 kDa and 9.25, respectively. The alignment analysis indicated that HassSPR shared 98.35% and over 84% amino acid sequence identities with SPR proteins from its close relative species H. armigera and other moths, respectively, and shared high identities (>64%) with the corresponding SPR proteins from other insects. The tissue expression profiles revealed that HassSPR could be detected in all tested tissues of 1 day-old female adults of H. assulta, and had the highest expression level in brain. The temporal expression profiles showed that the HassSPR was expressed in female pheromone gland from 1 d before emergence to 6 d after emergence and reached the peak at 3 d after emergence. After mating, the expression level of HassSPR in female brain and pheromone gland significantly increased, while that in bursa copulatrix and ovary significantly decreased. 【Conclusion】 The sex peptide receptor gene HassSPR was cloned from sex pheromone glands of H. assulta. The expression level of HassSPR is associated with the reproductive physiology and reproductive behavior of female adults of this moth.
    Cloning and expression analysis of an odorant binding protein gene AsinOBP1 from Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae)
    QIN Zeng, RAN Yong-Hong, ZHI Zhong-Jing, YAN Zhen-Tian, ZHANG Yu-Juan, HUANG Ting, HE Zheng-Bo, CHEN Bin
    2014, 57(11):  1289-1298. 
    Abstract ( 2020 )   PDF (3172KB) ( 938 )     
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    【Aim】 Olfactory cues play a critical role in mediating a variety of important behaviors in mosquitoes including host seeking, and oviposition. Anopheles sinensis is the major malaria vector in China. However, little is known about the olfactory signal transmission of An. sinensis. Our study aims to clone an odorant binding protein (OBP) gene from An. sinensis and analyze its expression patterns in different tissues and in response to blood-meal feeding, so as to provide the foundation for further research of the molecular mechanism of An. sinensis olfactory transmission. 【Methods】 A transcriptome database for An. sinensis was mined through bioinformatic analysis. Gene expression levels were analyzed in different tissues of An. sinensis adults and at different time post blood-meal feeding using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) or real-time PCR. 【Results】 An odorant binding protein gene was identified and named AsinOBP1, with the Genbank accession number of KJ958382. AsinOBP1 contains a 453-bp open reading frame encoding 144-amino-acid residues including an N-terminal signal peptide. The mature protein of AsinOBP1 contains six conserved cysteine residues, which are the hallmark of insect OBPs. Tissue expression profile analysis showed that AsinOBP1 was expressed in all tested tissues of antennae, maxillary palps, proboscis and head in adults, but not in tissues of legs and body (head removed). The expression level of AsinOBP1 in antennae of female adults was strongly downregulated after blood-meal feeding. Similarly, AsinOBP1 expression in antennae of female adults was also decreased significantly in response to mouse odor. 【Conclusion】 These findings strongly suggest that AsinOBP1 might be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues and involved in host seeking. Further functional analysis is required to clarify the roles of AsinOBP1 in An. sinensis.
    Screening of aerospace mutants of Beauveria bassiana with high virulence against Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
    WANG Xi-Zhuo, WANG Lai-Fa, MA Jian-Wei, GUO Min-Wei, LIU Hong-Jian, DONG Guang-Ping
    2014, 57(11):  1299-1305. 
    Abstract ( 1643 )   PDF (1877KB) ( 1099 )     
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    【Aim】 Monochamus alternatus is the major vector of pinewood nematode disease Bursaphelenchus xylopilus in China. We aimed to obtain high virulence mutants of Beauveria bassiana for biological control of M. alternatus through space mutation and laboratory selection. 【Methods】 A wild-type B. bassiana strain cfcc81357 isolated from M. alternatus had been carried into space for mutation induction by the Shenzhou 8 Spacecraft in 2011. Then, the obtained spore diluents were spread on PDA plate culture for single colony strains. Biological characteristics including the morphology, colony growing rate, spore production, conidia germination rate and conidial tolerance to thermal stress were compared between nine aerospace mutants and the original wild-type strain used as the control. Based on these results, three mutants (B159, B252 and B305) were adopted for further bioassay against the 4th instar larvae of M. alternatus. By sprinkling conidial powder on pine log surface and injecting conidia liquid into beetle-bored holes, the pathogenicity of the mutants B252 and B305 against M. alternatus larvae in pine logs was assessed. 【Results】 The results showed that these colony morphologies of nine aerospace mutants of B. bassiana changed at different degrees, of which six mutants had the colony growing rate obviously slowed down while only three mutants (B159, B252 and B305) produced conidial spores. Compared with the wild-type strain, mutant B252 and B305 had evidently higher virulence against M. alternatus, with a corrected mortality of 100% and the median lethal time (LT50) of 8.08 and 8.56 d when applied at the concentration of 1.0×107 spores/mL, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that aerospace mutants B252 and B305 may be excellent strains with great application potential for biological control of M. alternatus.
    Differentiation of wing forms in pure macropterous and brachypterous lineages is less subject to photoperiod in rice planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    AN Zhi-Fang, YU Ju-Long, PENG Juan, ZHANG Chao, LIU Xiang-Dong
    2014, 57(11):  1306-1314. 
    Abstract ( 2399 )   PDF (846KB) ( 893 )     
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     【Aim】 To illustrate the influences of photoperiod and genetic factor on wing form of rice planthoppers, the differentiation of wing forms in three rice planthopper species, i.e., the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera and the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, under different photoperiods was studied. 【Methods】 The survival rate, macropterous rate and brachypterous rate in females and males of rice planthoppers under different photophases (4-20 h) were measured using the pure or near pure macropterous and brachypterous lineages of BPH, WBPH and SBPH whose wing form had been selected for 4 to 45 generations under the same conditions in the laboratory. 【Results】 The wing forms of the pure macropterous or brachypterous lineages of SBPH and WBPH were not significantly different among different photoperiods (P>0.05). The brachypterous rates in females and in the population of the near pure brachypterous lineage of BPH were not significantly different among different photoperiods (P>0.05), but the brachypterous rate in males was significantly higher at 4 h and 14 h photophases than that at the 20 h photophase. However, when the BPH became a pure brachypterous lineage, the wing form was not significantly different among 6-16 h photophases. The near pure macropterous lineage of BPH still produced brachypterous offspring, but the brachypterous rates in females or males were not significantly different among different photophases (P>0.05), except that the brachypterous rate in population was higher at 12 h photophase than at 16 h photophase (P<0.05). The brachypterous rate of females in the hybrid lineage of macroptery and brachyptery (M♂×B♀) of BPH increased significantly with the increase of photophase. The brachypterous rate of males in hybrid lineage M♂×B♀ of SBPH increased significantly with the decrease of photophase, but when the hybrid lineage was selected for 45 generations, the increasing trend became insignificant. The survival rates of nymphs in pure or near pure macropterous and brachypterous lineages of the three rice planthopper species were relatively lower than that in the hybrid offspring, but not significantly different among 6-16 h photophases. 【Conclusion】 The response of wing form of rice planthoppers to photoperiod was strongly dependent on their genetic backgrounds, and the differentiation of wing forms in pure macropterous and brachypterous lineages is less subject to photoperiod.
    Flight capacity of adults of the ber fruit fly, Carpomya vesuviana (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    DING Ji-Tong, ADIL Sattar, ZHU Hai-Feng,YU Feng, ALIMASI, LUO Lang
    2014, 57(11):  1315-1320. 
    Abstract ( 1588 )   PDF (1063KB) ( 791 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to determine the ability of migration and dispersal of adults of the ber fruit fly, Carpomya vesuviana Costa and the impact of the relevant factors on their flight capability.【Methods】 The flight capability differences between female and male adults of C. vesuviana at different ages as well as the impact of temperature on the flight capacity were studied by a flight mill. 【Results】 The 12 day-old adults of C. vesuviana had the strongest flight capacity. The average flight distance and maximum flight distance of the females were 1.037 and 3.192 km, respectively, while those of the males were 0.943 and 3.085 km, respectively. The flight capacity of C. vesuviana adults firstly increased and then decreased with adult age. The average flight distance and average accumulated flight time of the same day-old female adults were slightly higher than those of the male adults. There were no significant differences in the average flight distance, the average flight speed and the average flight time between the females and the males. The temperature ranging from 28 to 34℃ was suitable for flight, while 31℃ was the most optimal for flight. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that C. vesuviana adults have fairly strong potential of migration and dispersal.
    Screening of resistance indicators and evaluation of the resistance of wheat varieties to the orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)
    HAO Ya-Nan, ZHANG Jian, LONG Zhi-Ren, WANG Yue, CHENG Wei-Ning
    2014, 57(11):  1321-1327. 
    Abstract ( 1769 )   PDF (731KB) ( 843 )     
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    【Aim】 Our study aims to screen more accurate resistance indicators and to evaluate the resistance of wheat varieties to the orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), so as to provide a scientific basis for screening and application of resistant wheat varieties. 【Methods】 During 2012 and 2013, 2013 and 2014, 85 and 83 wheat varieties were planted in the field in Zhouzhi County, Shaanxi province, respectively, and the number of larvae in wheat kernel per variety whose ear emergence growth stage was consistent with adult emergence period of insect was counted in the next year. The correlation between four resistance indicators including the estimated loss rate, percentage of infested grains, percentage of infested ears and insect number per ear, as well as the relationship between each indictor and the yield loss rate, were analyzed. According to the more accurate indicators screened, resistance of the planted wheat varieties to S. mosellana was evaluated.【Results】 The estimated loss rate not only exhibited the highest correlation but also was highly significantly correlative with other three indicators and the yield loss rate in both years. The total number of resistant varieties among the total evaluated wheat varieties was 25 during 2012-2013 and 40 during 2013-2014, respectively. Among the 16 wheat varieties planted repeatedly, 14 varieties exhibited resistance in both years, of which Kenong 1006 and Jinmai 47 were continuously highly resistant. 【Conclusion】 The estimated loss rate is a representative and better resistance indicator of wheat varieties to S. mosellana. Resistant wheat varieties screened can be used as the main extension varieties or reserved varieties in the occurrence areas of S. mosellana or as the parent material for breeding of resistant varieties.
    Types and colony foundation capacity of secondary reproductives in the termite Reticulitermes labralis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
    LIU Ming-Hua, ZHANG Xiao-Jing, XUE Wei, CHEN Jiao-Ling, LIU He, WU Jia, SU Xiao-Hong
    2014, 57(11):  1328-1334. 
    Abstract ( 1997 )   PDF (2854KB) ( 740 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the role of secondary reproductives in the colony stabilization and development in Reticulitermes labralis. 【Methods】 In the present study, we investigated the field termite colonies, established and compared paired female-male swarming colonies with isolated secondary reproductive colonies during the initial stage of colony foundation.【Results】 A pair of primary king and queen and a large number of secondary reproductives were found in collected field colonies. Three types of secondary reproductives were observed in R. labralis, i.e., apterous neotenics moulted from workers, brachypterous neotenics moulted from nymphs and adultoid reproductives moulted from the last-instar nymphs. The survival rates of paired colonies and isolated colonies under laboratory conditions in the 1st month were 64% and 96%, respectively. The number of individuals in paired colonies increased slowly with time. The mean numbers of individuals in paired colonies in the 2nd and 10th months were 6.3±1.54 and 8.4±1.47, respectively, while those in isolated colonies were 52.4±6.44 and 164.3±20.85, respectively. The secondary queens in field colonies had huge ovaries like the primary queens. 【Conclusion】 The secondary reproductives of R. labralis were not only the main reproductive individuals in termite colonies, but also the most important reproductive caste for colonies foundation.
    Amplification stability and polymorphism of microsatellite loci in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in China
    ZHENG Yan, WANG Kang, LI Yu-Ting, QIAO Xian-Feng, CHEN Mao-Hua
    2014, 57(11):  1335-1342. 
    Abstract ( 1666 )   PDF (749KB) ( 775 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this research was to screen microsatellite loci which were available for population genetic research of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta in China. 【Methods】 The amplification stability and genetic polymorphism of 11 microsatellite loci previously reported in European populations of G. molesta and Cydia pomonella were characterized from 257 individuals from 12 geographic populations of China. The screened polymorphic microsatellite loci were then used for population genetic analysis of the G. molesta populations. 【Results】 The results showed that loci Gm01, Gm03, Gm04 and Cyd15 could not be amplified from the samples. Gm05 could be amplified from a low proportion of individuals. Gm07 could be stably amplified, but was weakly polymorphic. Loci Gm02, Gm06, Gm08, Gm09 and Gm10 showed high polymorphism and could be amplified stably. For the five polymorphic loci, the mean number of alleles (NA) ranged from 7.417 to 12.500, the values of mean observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) were from 0.366 to 0.655 and from 0.642 to 0.846, respectively, and the polymorphic information content (PIC) was between 0.800 and 0.935. 【Conclusion】 We successfully selected five loci, i.e., Gm02, Gm06, Gm08, Gm09 and Gm10. High genetic diversity of G. molesta populations sampled in Shandong Province and Shaanxi Province was revealed by data from these five loci. These five loci can be used for further population genetics research of G. molesta populations from China.
    Identification of Bactrocera species from the border areas of Yunnan province, southwestern China using DNA barcoding (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    YOU Huan, ZHOU Li-Bing, DENG Yu-Liang, CHEN Guo-Hua
    2014, 57(11):  1343-1350. 
    Abstract ( 2014 )   PDF (2612KB) ( 702 )     
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    【Aim】 A lot of Bactrocera species are important international quarantine pests. However, intra-specific morphological variation can become a serious limitation for the correct identification at the species level. The border areas of the Yunnan province, southwestern China are an important channel of invasion for Southeast Asian fruit fly. Developing a new method for identification of the fruit fly species has important significance for the rapid and accurate identification of the species. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of species identification of DNA barcoding technology in the genus Bactrocera. 【Methods】 In this study, sixty samples from twenty species of Bactrocera were tested. Two mtDNA sequences, i.e., COI and COII sequences, were amplified and sequenced. The species identification efficiency for the two barcodes was assessed by distance-based method and neighbor-joining method. 【Results】 The average length of COI and COII sequences was 682 bp and 339 bp, respectively. There existed high intra-specific and inter-specific genetic variability and significant barcoding gap. The rates of successful identification with COI and COII sequences were 91.2% and 90.7%, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses suggest that the subgenus Sinodacus is not a monophyletic group. 【Conclusion】 COI and COII genes can be used to correctly identify the most species of Bactrocera.
    FORUM
    Do insects have vertebrate sex hormones?
    SHEN Guan-Wang, WANG Ji-Yan, YANG Cong-Wen, ZHANG Hai-Yan, XING Run-Miao, LIN Ying, XIA Qing-You
    2014, 57(11):  1351-1359. 
    Abstract ( 3272 )   PDF (2310KB) ( 799 )     
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    Sex hormones including estrogens and androgens mainly exist in higher animals, especially in mammals. Sex hormones play an irreplaceable role in regulating the growth and maturation of accessory sex organs of higher animals, stimulating and maintaining their secondary sex characteristics, as well as enhancing the combination of sex cells and their breeding capability. With the application of more sensitive analytical technologies, more and more studies have shown that sex hormones are not limited to higher animals. Invertebrates including insects also contain sex hormones. Insects, e.g., Bombyx mori and Spilopsyllus cuniculi, treated by sex hormones or hormone analogues of higher animals could produce certain responses. Studies also showed that some enzymes in insects, e.g., hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, are used to catalyze and synthesize sex hormones. Based on the examples of estrogens and a comprehensive summary about the identification, metabolism and physiological action of estrogens of higher animals in insects, we analyzed the synthesis and reaction of sex hormones in insects as well as the possibilities of sex hormones of higher animals acting as sex hormones of insects in this article. As the main estrin of higher animals, estrogens widely exist in organs and extracts of insects. Present studies have confirmed that insects such as B. mori could metabolize estrogens and using estrogens to treat some insects will also influence their physiological process. Estrogens have remarkable regulation function in many physiological processes of higher animals but they mainly function as sex hormones to adjust the physiological processes related to genders. To determine whether vertebrates’ estrogens exist in insects and function as sex hormones, related researches could mainly be conducted from the following three aspects: firstly, whether the estrogen analogues can be detected in insects; secondly, whether the estrogens can generate similar function as female-related physiological responses and whether the estrogen analogues extracted from insects have corresponding function in higher animals; thirdly, whether insects can synthesize estrogens and whether the enzymes that catalyze this synthesis exist in vivo.
    ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES
    China launches a genome sequencing project of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)
    2014, 57(11):  1360-1360. 
    Abstract ( 1644 )   PDF (613KB) ( 894 )     
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    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a destructive insect pest in the fruit production. The occurrence of this notorious pest frequently causes huge economic loss to apple orchards. It also attacks pears, walnuts and other tree fruits. As one of the most important invasive species in China, the codling moth first appeared in Kuerle, Xinjiang in 1953 and rapidly expanded in the whole area of Xinjiang. In 1987 the codling moth spread to Dunhuang, Gansu. Recently, researchers from the Institute of Plant Protection of China Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University and so on initiated a genome-sequencing project of the codling moth. The genome size of the codling moth is 650 Mb as estimated by flow cytometry and survey sequencing. Since the heterozygosity is a potential obstacle in sequencing insect genome, the research consortium carefully measured the heterozygosity of the codling moth by SNP analysis and 17-mer estimation, showing that the heterozygosity of the codling moth is around 0.3%-0.6%. Adopting the whole genome shotgun strategy, a sequencing plan has been made and officially launched. The availability of the codling moth genome should be of great value to uncovering the molecular mechanisms of its invasion and high adaptive ability to stress and developing efficient control strategies of this pest worldwide and in China.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 57 Issue 11
    2014, 57(11):  1361. 
    Abstract ( 1359 )   PDF (662KB) ( 651 )     
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