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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 July 2015, Volume 58 Issue 7
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    Effects of salbutamol on the genome stability, apoptosis and protein expression in Drosophila melanogaster
    YAO Yun, LIN Xin-Da , WANG Bo
    2015, 58(7):  699-705. 
    Abstract ( 1597 )   PDF (3168KB) ( 929 )     
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    【Aim】 Previous studies have shown that salbutamol, a main component of lean meat powder, can be accumulated in human body after ingestion of meat containing it. Excessive salbutamol intakes would lead to a series of adverse reaction in organisms, but its toxic action mechanism remains unclear. Genes of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster show high homology to those of mammals, and D. melanogaster has the advantages of short reproductive cycle, easy genetic operation and so on. To explore its toxic mechanism, we studied the effects of excessive salbutamol on genome stability, apoptosis and protein expression in D. melanogaster.【Methods】 After the 3rd instar larvae of the wild type and transgenic rpr-lacZ strains of D. melanogaster were fed with the artificial diet containing 120 μg/mL salbutamon for 2 h, their imaginal discs were dissected for histone H2Av immnofluorescent staining and measurement of the lacZ activity, respectively. Total proteins were extracted from the 3rd instar larvae of the wild type strain treated with salbutamol and separated by SDS-PAGE. 【Results】 Immnofluorescent staining results showed that histone H2Av in some imaginal discs cells of the salbutamol treated D. melanogaster larvae increased significantly as compared with that in the control. With the increment of salbutamol concentration, the lacZ activity of imaginal cells was enhanced in the rpr-lacZ reporter transgenic strain. The SDS-PAGE and MS-MALDI-TOF/TOF results showed that the expression levels of actin and isocitrate dehydrogenase increased in the larvae treated with salbutamol. 【Conclusions】 Salbutamol treatment affects the stability of nuclear DNA, promotes the apoptosis and changes the protein expression in D. melanogaster. Salbutamol might increase actin expression to promote muscle contraction and accelerate energy metabolism.
    Temporal and spatial expression analysis of allatostatin C (AST-C) and prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) genes in the brain of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)
    GAN Ling, LIU Xi-Long, HE Ning-Jia
    2015, 58(7):  706-711. 
    Abstract ( 1663 )   PDF (1518KB) ( 700 )     
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    【Aim】 Allatostatins play important regulatory roles in insects. The transcription expression patterns of allatostatin-C (AST-C) and prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) genes in different developmental stages of Bombyx mori were compared, and their expression location in the brain was detected to supply important clues for the functional study of AST-C gene in B. mori. 【Methods】 Microarray data were analyzed to compare the developmental expression patterns of AST-C and PTTH genes. RT-PCR was conducted to corroborate the microarray data and analyze the developmental expression pattern of AST-C in the central nervous system. The transcription location of AST-C and PTTH genes in the brain was observed using whole mount in situ hybridization. 【Results】 The results showed that AST-C and PTTH genes shared the similar transcription pattern, and both were expressed in a pair of laterally neurosecretory cells of the brain of the silkworm. 【Conclusion】 AST-C and PTTH genes may be involved in the regulation of metamorphosis through the same transcription expression pattern.
    Cloning and expression analysis of Bcl-2 family gene BmBuffy in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)
    ZHANG Jin-Ye, ZHAO Yuan-Jun, QIAO Liang, PAN Min-Hui, LU Cheng
    2015, 58(7):  712-720. 
    Abstract ( 1531 )   PDF (3475KB) ( 767 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clone a Bcl-2 family member gene from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and explore its expression profiles and roles in different larval tissues and developmental stages of the moth. 【Methods】 BmBuffy was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. RT-PCR and qPCR were used to detect the gene expression profiles. The chromosome localization of this gene was conducted using SSR markers. 【Results】 The Bcl-2 family member gene cloned in B. mori was named BmBuffy, which is located on chromosome No. 4, coding a protein of 292 aa with an estimated molecular weight of 57.8 kDa and pI of 9.94. Its encoded protein also possesses a Bcl-2 like superfamily domain between 130-231 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BmBuffy is homologous to DmBuffy of Drosophila melanogaster with 27% amino acid sequence identity. The expression profiles in different larval tissues showed that BmBuffy had the highest expression level in Malpighian tubules. There was significant variation in the transcription level of BmBuffy in different developmental stages including metamorphosis. 【Conclusion】 BmBuffy has the typical Bcl-2 family domain, BmBuffy is located on chromosone No.4, and BmBuffy might play a role in the alteration of tissue physiology during metamorphosis. This study lays a foundation for further study on the function of Bcl-2 family genes in B. mori.
    Cloning and tissue expression profiling of Malvolio gene Acmvl in the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    MENG Jiao , MA Wei-Hua, ZHAO Hui-Ting, SHAO You-Quan, TIAN Song-Hao, YANG Shan-Shan, WANG Shu-Jie, DU Ya-Li, PAN Jian-Fang, JIANG Yu-Suo
    2015, 58(7):  721-730. 
    Abstract ( 1708 )   PDF (8437KB) ( 751 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clone the cDNA sequence of Malvolio (Mvl) gene in  Apis cerana cerana, to analyze the structure of its coding protein, and to explore its expression profiles of mRNA in different tissues of nurse, nectar forager and pollen forager. This may provide a fundamental evidence for the future study of the physiological function of this gene. 【Methods】 The cDNA sequence of  Acmvl  was cloned from the brain of A. c. cerana  nurse by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A quantitative analysis of its expression level in different tissues (antenna, head, thorax, abdomen and leg) of the nurse, nectar forager and pollen forager was conducted using real-time PCR.【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequence of Acmvl of A. c. cerana is 2 130 bp (GenBank accession no. KP662686), encoding 578 amino acids with the predicted MW and pI of 65.86 kD and 6.03, respectively. The encoded protein has no signal peptide but has 11 transmembrane domains, 9 predicted glycosylation sites and 14 potential phosphorylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Acmvl of A. c. cerana and Malvolio proteins of other Hymenoptera insects gather in the same clade, and Acmvl of A. c. cerana and Nramp2 proteins of Nramp family from Mus musculus and Homo sapiensgather in another clade. Acmvl of A. c. cerana has an extensive similarity to Nramp proteins of Mus musculus, Oryza sativa, Drosophila melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in transmembrane domain (TM), charged residues of TM and transport motif, especially with Nramp2 proteins. The Acmvl transcript was clearly detected in different tissues of the worker, and was expressed significantly higher in thorax of nurse, abdomen and legs of nectar and pollen forager, suggesting that the expression of Acmvl gene has an effect on foraging behavior of bees. 【Conclusion】 As a member of the family of Nramp, Acmvl gene may be homologous with Nramp2, and it affects foraging behavior in part because of its involvement in transportation of Fe2+,Cu2+ and Mn2+, especially Fe2+.
    Comparison of digestive capability and digestive enzyme activities in male adults of the wing-dimorphic cricket Velarifictorus ornatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)
    ZHAO Lü-Quan, WU Hong-Jun, ZHU Dao-Hong
    2015, 58(7):  731-738. 
    Abstract ( 1695 )   PDF (1175KB) ( 1019 )     
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    【Aim】 The cricket species Velarifictorus ornatus displays distinct wing dimorphism. In order to understand the effect of wing dimorphism on the digestive capability and digestive enzyme activities, we investigated the food utilization efficiency and digestive enzyme activities in long-winged (LW) and short-winged (SW) male adults. 【Methods】 To evaluate the food utilization efficiency of males in V. ornatus, we calculated the gravimetric nutritional indexes of male adults of V. ornatus in the first 12 days after last molt, including food consumption (CR), growth (GR), relative growth (RGR), approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food to body matter (ECI), and efficiency of conversion of digested food to body matter (ECD). In order to further explore the relationship between food utilization efficiency and digestive enzyme activities, we analyzed the activities of four enzymes (total protease, trypsin, lipase, and amylase) that are primary enzymes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate processing, respectively, by using four special substrates. 【Results】 No significant difference was observed in all the gravimetric nutritional indexes between LW and SW males of V. ornatus, but the activities of digestive enzymes showed difference between LW and SW males. Total protease activity wassignificantly higher in SW males than in LW males on day 0 and day 12 after emergence, but lower in SW males than in LW males on day 4 after emergence. Lipase activity was similar in both LW and SW males on day 0 after emergence, but increased significantly higher in LW males afterwards. Amylase activity was significantly higher in SW males than in LW males on day 4 after emergence, but not significantly different between them on day 0 or day 12 after emergence. 【Conclusions】 Our findings indicated that there is no difference in digestive capability between LW and SW male adults of V. ornatus, but obvious difference exists in digestive enzyme activities between them, which might be correlated with the different resource needs for the development of flight muscles and reproductive organs at different period after adult emergence.
    Purification, kinetics and inhibition studies on co-existing starch and cellulose digesting enzymes from the gut of the variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus)(In English
    Tolulope Felix ADEDIRAN, Isaac Olusanjo ADEWALE
    2015, 58(7):  739-749. 
    Abstract ( 2106 )   PDF (3340KB) ( 1135 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to gain information on carbohydrate digestion in the variegated grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. 【Methods】 Crude enzyme extracts of the midgut with specific activity of 283±1.72 U/mg for α-amylase and 17±0.83 U/mg for cellulase, were subsequently purified by a combination of cation-exchange on CM-Sepharose CL-6B, anion-exchange on QAE Sephadex A-50 and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The co-existing enzymes were separated into alpha amylase and cellulase by the final step of chromatography. 【Results】 Both enzymes are monomers with molecular weights of 38 kDa for αamylase and 21 kDa for cellulase. Alpha amylase has a Km of 13.8±1.29 mg/mL for starch and a Vmax of 3 883±52.25 U/mg protein, whereas the values of 5.03±0.57 mg/mL and 433.00±5.24 U/mg protein were respectively obtained for cellulase with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as substrate. Z. variegatus α-amylase could hydrolyse raw starches with varying efficiency while the cellulase could also hydrolyze various cellulosic materials to varying degrees. Hydrolytic activity was maximal for α-amylase at pH 6 and 40℃ and cellulase at pH 9 and 45℃. 【Conclusion】 The proteinaceous inhibitors were isolated from Carica papaya seeds and found to be effective inhibitors to both enzymes, suggesting that these protein inhibitors (CpAI and CpCI) may be useful in the pest control if overexpressed in crop plants that the pests feed on. Though both cellulosic and starchy materials may contribute significantly to the pests’ energy requirements, kinetic analysis suggests that Z. variegatus prefer starchy foods.
    Wolbachia infection and its relationship with mtDNA diversity in the flower thrips, Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
    LOU Heng, CHEN Ya-Ting, ZHANG Yan-Kai, YANG Xian-Ming, SUN Jing-Tao, HONG Xiao-Yue
    2015, 58(7):  750-760. 
    Abstract ( 1699 )   PDF (2325KB) ( 833 )     
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    【Aim】 Wolbachia is a bacterial endosymbiont that is found in a wide variety of arthropods, and affects the biological characteristics of host. The flower thrips, Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), is an important pest, and can cause damages to crops and garden plants. This study aims to examine the infection status of Wolbachia and its relationship with the mtDNA diversity of the host flower thrips.【Methods】 The Wolbachia infection in 26 natural populations of F. intonsa was analyzed by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) in China. The genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of F. intonsa were investigated by using COI genetic markers. The COI data between the Wolbachiainfected and uninfected individuals were compared to explore the relationship between Wolbachia diversity and host mtDNA diversity. 【Results】 The prevalence of Wolbachia in theF. intonsa populations ranged from 0% to 60%. Five Wolbachiastrains (wFint1, wFint2, wFint3, wFint4 and wFint5) were detected. All the detected strains were assigned to supergroup B and formed a monophyletic group.The mitochondrial diversity of these populations (except CC, GZ, TA and TY, N<5) was associated with Wolbachia infection. The mtDNA haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (Pi) of the uninfected group were higher than those in the infected group. Wolbachia infection was significantly negatively correlated with Hd (P<0.05). Furthermore, the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the geneticdifferentiation of F. intonsa mtDNA is related to the presence of Wolbachia infection. 【Conclusion】 Genetic differentiation of Wolbachia occurred after infecting host F. intonsa populations. Wolbachia infection is associated with host mtDNA haplotype diversity.
    Comparison of the insecticidal activities of terpinen-4-ol optical isomers and racemate against the housefly, Musca domestica
    LI Lin, XIONG Xin, MA Shu-Jie, MA Zhi-Qing , ZHANG Xing
    2015, 58(7):  761-766. 
    Abstract ( 1475 )   PDF (1196KB) ( 631 )     
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    【Aim】 This research aims to evaluate the difference in insecticidal activity among the optical isomers and racemate of terpinen-4-ol against the housefly, Musca domestica, and to provide a guidance for utilization of terpinen-4-ol optical isomers. 【Methods】 The fumigation and knock-down toxicities of the optical isomers and racemate of terpinen-4-ol against 4-day-old adults of M. domestica were detected with the Erlenmeyer flask method, and the effects of these compounds onNa+, K+-ATPase specific activity in the head were tested. 【Results】 The racemate of terpinen-4-ol showed the highest fumigation and knockdown toxicities to M. domestica adults, followed by the dextroisomer and then the laevoisomer. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of the racemate, dextroisomer and laevoisomer against M. domestica adults were 2.5, 2.9 and 3.7 μL/L, respectively, and the median knockdown time (KT50) values in treatment of LC90were 12.6, 16.7 and 18.9 min, respectively. In vivo, the dextroisomer, laevoisomer and racemate of terpinen-4-ol could significantly inhibit Na+, K+-ATPase specific activity, and the inhibitory effect showed time effect, viz.the inhibition was enhanced as the symptom exacerbated; moreover, the laevoisomer showed more significantly inhibitory effect onNa+, K+-ATPase activity than the dextroisomer and racemate. In vitro, terpinen-4-ol inhibited Na+, K+-ATPase activity with a dosedependent effect, and racemate showed remarkably superior inhibitory effect than the dextroisomer and laevoisomer at the same dose. 【Conclusion】 There exist differences in insecticidal activity of the optical isomers of terpinen-4-ol against M. domestica adults, and the racemate has remarkably superior activity to the optical isomers. Thus, the mixture of the optical isomers of terpinen-4-ol should be adopted as the effective component to develop terpinen-4-ol insecticide.
    Combined effects of high temperature and acetamiprid on life table parameters of the F1 offspring of the treated  Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
    ZUO Tai-Qiang, ZHANG Bin, ZHANG Shao-Ting, ZHENG Chang-Ying, WAN Fang-Hao
    2015, 58(7):  767-775. 
    Abstract ( 1595 )   PDF (2021KB) ( 728 )     
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    【Aim】 Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a dangerous invasive pest in the world, whose growth and development are greatly influenced by temperature. Our previous study indicated that heat shock did not achieve ideal efficiency in controlling F. occidentalis, but changed their sensitivity to insecticides. The effect of acetamiprid on life table parameters of the F1 offspring of heat-shocked  F. occidentalis was determined to study whether reducing pesticide use could improve the control effect of high temperature and the optimum combination of high temperature and acetamiprid to control F. occidentalis. 【Methods】 Age-stage and two-sex life tables were constructed to evaluate the effect of 45℃ heat shock and acetamiprid on life table parameters of the F1 offspring of F. occidentalis. 【Results】 For the F. occidentalis treated with acetamiprid after recovery for different time (8 h and 24 h) from 45℃ heat shock (2 h), the average durations of egg, the 1st instar larva and pupa of their F1 offspring were significantly longer than the control which were only exposed to 45℃ heat shock for 2 h (P<0.01). And the longevity and fecundity of their F1 offspring female adults were significantly less than the control (P<0.01). Although the developmental duration and female adult longevity of the F1 offspring of the thrips treated with acetamiprid after recovery from 45℃ heat shock for 8 h showed no significant difference from that of the F1 offspring treated with acetamiprid after recovery from 45℃ heat shock for 24 h, the adult pre-oviposition period (APOP) and the total pre-oviposition period (TPOP) of the F1 offspring recovery from 45℃ heat shock for 8 h were significantly longer than those of the F1 offspring recovery from 45℃ heat shock for 24 h (P<0.01), and the number of eggs laid per female of the F1offspring recovery from 45℃ heat shock for 8 h was significantly less than that of the F1 offspring recovery from 45℃ heat shock for 24 h (P<0.01). 【Conclusion】 Compared with only high temperature stress, reasonable combination of high temperature and insecticides might get better efficiency in controlling F. occidentalis. An optimum control effect can be achieved when the insecticides are applied at 8 h instead of 24 h after heat shock.
    Behavioral responses of Sitobion avenae  (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to E-β-farnesene
    JIANG Shan-Shan, DENG Qing, FAN Jia, SUN Jing-Rui, CHEN Ju-Lian
    2015, 58(7):  776-782. 
    Abstract ( 1785 )   PDF (2119KB) ( 821 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this research was to determine the low threshold concentration of E-β-farnesene (EβF) in paraffin oil for repelling the wheat aphid, Sitobion avenae, and to provide a reference for field application of EβF. 【Methods】 The effects of different doses of EβF on escaping behavior of the 3rd instar nymphs of S. avenae on wheat seedlings and their behavioral response in Y-tube olfactometer were investigated. Wheat seedlings in a pot were infested with 15 individuals of the 1st instar nymphal aphids. Filter paper strips impregnated with 10 μL of EβF at different concentrations were attached to toothpicks which were placed at the central area of the pot. Filter paper strips were replaced five times every day (9:00, 11:30, 14:00, 16:30 and 19:00) for consecutive five days, and winged and wingless adult aphids were recorded. After two weeks, the population size of aphids was counted. 【Results】 With the increase of EβF dose, the number of escaping aphids in 3 min increased significantly, while the percent of winged adult aphids increased but the population size of aphids decreased significantly after treatment, and the repelling effects increased significantly. EβF at the concentration of 200 ng/μL and ≥600 ng/μL caused significant decrease in the population size of aphids (P<0.05). Choice behavior bioassay with Y-tube olfactometer indicated that the 3rd instar nymphal aphids were significantly repelled by ≥600 ng/μL EβF (P<0.01). The percent of winged adult aphids in treatments with ≥600 ng/μL EβF was significantly higher than that in the control (P<0.01). The aphid population growth was significantly inhibited by ≥400 ng/μL EβF (P<0.01), but there was no statistical difference between treatments with 400 ng/μL and 600 ng/μL EβF. 【Conclusion】 We so proposed 600 ng/μL EβF in paraffin oil as the low threshold concentration of EβF for repelling S. avenae.
    Effects of rearing host on parasitization behavior and capacity of Trichogramma japonicum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)
    SONG Jing, HUANG Jing, WANG Lei-Ying, LI Yuan-Xi
    2015, 58(7):  783-790. 
    Abstract ( 1575 )   PDF (1435KB) ( 744 )     
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    【Aim】 The rearing host affects biological characteristics of Trichogramma. In order to know the differences between Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead reared on Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) eggs and reared on Chilo suppressalis (Walker) eggs in the control effect on Ch. suppressalis, and also the possibility of using Co. corcyra eggs as the alternative host of T. japonicum in the field, we observed the host preference and parasitization behavior of T. japonicum emerged from different rearing hosts, and investigated the effects of rearing host on the parasitization capacity of T. japonicum, so as to provide basic information for the control of rice borer with Trichogramma. 【Methods】 The host preference of T. japonicam reared on Co. cephalonica eggs (TjCc) and Ch. suppressalis eggs (TjCs), respectively, were observed in choice tests in the laboratory. The parasitization behavior and capacity of TjCc and TjCs on eggs of Ch. suppressalisand Co. cephalonica, respectively, were investigated. 【Results】 TjCs preferred Ch. suppressalis eggs to Co.cephalonica eggs, while TjCc did not show preferences. The host searching time was not significantly affected by either rearing host or host for parasitization, and both the outside host examination time and ovipostion time were not significantly affected by rearing host. However, the outside host examination time of both TjCc and TjCs on Co. cephalonica eggs was significantly longer than that on Ch. suppressalis eggs. The parasitism rate (36.95%) on Ch. suppressalis eggs and the emergence rate (45.68%) of TjCs were lower, respectively, than those in other three combinations (TjCc-Cc, TjCc-Cs and TjCs-Cc) among which no significant differences were found. The longevity of emerged wasps was not significantly different among the four treatments. 【Conclusion】 The rearing host affects the host preference and parasitization capacity of T. japonicum, but does not affect the host searching ability and parasitization behavior of the wasp.
    Community composition and diversity of soil oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in karst forests in Shibing, Guizhou, Southwestern China(In English
    ZHANG Yan, JIN Dao-Chao, ZHOU Yu-Feng, YANG Gui-Ping, LIANG Wen-Qin
    2015, 58(7):  791-799. 
    Abstract ( 1725 )   PDF (886KB) ( 1005 )     
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    【Aim】 This study was carried out to gain an understanding of the distribution and composition of oribatid soil mites in karst areas in Shibing, Guizhou, Southwestern China. 【Methods】 We examined the effects of forest management and forest type on the abundance, species diversity and community structure of oribatid mites in Shibing karst areas. Eight sites were chosen to represent typical forest types in the study area, including three natural evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forests, two coniferous plantations, one natural coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest, one planted bamboo grove and one natural shrub in a valley. Nine soil samples were collected at each site. The oribatid mites were extracted by a Berlese-Tullgren funnel over 24 h in August 2012. 【Results】 The results indicated that Perscheloribates and Protoribates were the most abundant genera collected in the eight sites in Shibing karst areas in Southwestern China, accounting for 22.48% and 11.45% of the total catch, respectively. Protoribates, Epilohmannia, Oppiella, Suctobelbella and Tectocepheus were the most widespread in eight sites or seven sites in this region. The oribatid faunal exhibited characteristics of pantropical and subtropical regions at the genus level. Sites with natural evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forests supported rich individuals and genera, whereas the highest Shannon and lowest Berger-Parker indices were observed in coniferous plantations. The oribatid assemblages at all sites were dissimilar, even between sites of the same vegetation type. The oribatid communities were particularly and significantly variable in evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forests. 【Conclusion】 The species diversity and community stability of oribatids are affected by the unique characteristics of karst ecosystems in Shibing, and the natural evergreen and broadleaved deciduous forests serve as an ecological “ark” for preserving oribatids in this ecosystem.
    Morphological characteristics and evolutionary adaptation analysis of the antennal sensilla of fig wasps from China
    MENG Jing, BU Wen-Jun, XIAO Jin-Hua, HUANG Da-Wei
    2015, 58(7):  800-810. 
    Abstract ( 1703 )   PDF (4037KB) ( 1172 )     
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    【Aim】 The interaction between figs and their pollinating fig wasps represents a classic system of co-evolution and mutualism. In addition, there are various species of non-pollinating fig wasps living on each fig species. Under the selective pressure of living within fig syconia, the fig wasps have evolved many adaptive morphological characteristics. Antennal sensillum, as the unit of communication system of fig wasps, is one of the best morphological characteristics to reflect the evolutionary adaptation. This study aims to investigate the morphological diversity and evolutionary adaptation of the antennal sensilla of fig wasps. 【Methods】 Fifty-four types of 24 species of fig wasps on 15 fig species from Hainan and Yunnan provinces, China were selected as the materials. The morphology of antennal sensilla of these species was observed by the scanning electronic microscope. Based on the molecular phylogeny tree, thecharacter evolution of the antennal sensilla was analysed, and the evolutionary adaptation of morphological characteristics was discussed. 【Results】 Our results show that the extremely sexual dimorphism of the antennal sensilla exists in most species of fig wasps. There are differences in the morphological characteristics of the antennal sensilla between the pollinators and the non-pollinators ovipositing outside the fig syconia and also between the pollinators and the non-pollinators ovipositing inside the fig syconia. The morphological characteristics of the antennal sensilla of the pollinating males and the non-pollinating males without male polymorphism are much degenerated. The morphological characteristics of the antennal sensilla among the non-pollinating males with male polymorphism do not show significant difference. Character evolution analysis of the types of the antennal sensilla reveals the multiple independent evolution of these morphological characteristics and the relationship with evolutionary adaptation. 【Conclusion】 The diversity of the antennal sensilla of fig wasps are very rich, revealing the diagnostic characters for evolutionary adaptation. Due to the different ecological pressures and functions for males and females, they evolved different adaptive characteristics, which correlate with different oviposition behaviors of females and with different mating strategies of males. Our study provides new insight on the morphological adaptation, evolutionary trend, behavioral strategies, and ecological relationship of fig wasps.
    Widespread displacement of the exotic whitefly species Bemisia tabaci B by Bemisia tabaci Q in fields in Shandong, China
    LI Hong-Ran, LIU Xin, LIU Xiao-Long, LI Chang-You, SHEN Chang-Peng, TAO Yun-Li, CHU Dong
    2015, 58(7):  811-816. 
    Abstract ( 1322 )   PDF (1149KB) ( 790 )     
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    【Aim】 To reveal the distribution and infestation status of Bemisia tabaci cryptic species, a systematic and comprehensive survey on its species composition was conducted in Shandong, China. 【Methods】 Sixty-nine collections of adult whiteflies were sampled from 22 locations distributed in 15 counties in Shandong during July-August, 2013, the cryptic species of the 1 387 individuals was determined based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) PCR-RFLP method, and the percentages of B.tabaci Q on different host plants and in geographical regions were analyzed. 【Results】 The results showed that the percentage of B. tabaci Q was 100% in 17 locations and was >90% in five locations (Weifang, Heze, Tai’an, Zibo, and Linyi), whereB.tabaci B was found with low percentage (<10%). The average percentages of B.tabaci Q did not differ significantly among the populations on the five hosts (eggplant, pepper, cucumber, tomato and cotton) and in the three areas (the western plain region, the eastern hilly region and the central mountains region). 【Conclusion】 The results indicate that B. tabaci Q is predominant in all the investigated locations, suggesting that B. tabaci Q has completely displaced B.tabaci B in most regions of Shandong, China. 
    Contents of Vol. 58 Issue 7
    2015, 58(7):  817. 
    Abstract ( 1208 )   PDF (656KB) ( 546 )     
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