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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 June 2015, Volume 58 Issue 6
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Effects of starvation stress on the contents of biochemical substances used as energy sources in alate adults of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    XU Xiang-Li, WU Jun-Xiang
    2015, 58(6):  587-592. 
    Abstract ( 1698 )   PDF (1908KB) ( 914 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to analyze the contents of biochemical substances used as energy sources in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) to provide a foundation for future biochemical and physiological studies of its energy adaptation to starvation stress. 【Methods】 With the aphids fed on wheat seedlings as the control, the fresh body weight, dry body weight, and the contents of water, soluble sugars, glycogen, total lipids, and soluble proteins in alate S. avenae adults under starvation stress were measured, and the changes of energetic metabolism were analyzed by correlations between the contents of various biochemical substances. 【Results】 The fresh body weight (5.30-8.73 mg/20 individuals) and dry body weight (1.67-3.10 mg/20 individuals) of alate S. avenae adults in the starvation group were lower than those in the feeding group (7.93-8.73 and 2.53-3.10 mg/20 individuals, respectively) at the same day after emergence. The water contents in the starvation and feeding groups were 63.16%-71.76% and 63.25%-67.32%, respectively. Except for the 1st day after emergence, the starved aphids had higher water content than the feeding aphids at the same day after emergence. The contents of soluble sugars, glycogen, total lipids, and soluble proteins in the starvation group were 6.60-11.21, 0.35-10.81, 18.28-30.42, and 12.77-33.44 μg/mg fresh body weight, respectively, which were lower than those in the feeding group at the same day after emergence (7.53-11.21, 3.66-10.81, 27.53-33.63, and 21.54-34.43 μg/mg fresh body weight, respectively). After newly emerged aphids were starved for 3 d, their fresh body weight, dry body weight, and the contents of water and glycogen increased, whereas their contents of total lipids and soluble proteins decreased on the 1st day after resuming feeding. There was a positive correlation between the content of soluble sugars and the content of glycogen, total lipids, or soluble proteins as well as between the content of soluble proteins and the content of glycogen or total lipids in the starvation group. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that changes of energy metabolism under starvation stress are associated with the decrease of contents of glycogen, total lipids, and soluble proteins in alate S. avenae adults. Aphids use a mixture of energy sources to adapt to brief starvation stress when they are starved.
    Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of ATP-binding cassette transporter genes in the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi(Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    KANG Xin-Le, LI Yu-Ting, WANG Kang, ZHANG Meng, DUAN Xin-Le, PENG Xiong, CHEN Mao-Hua
    2015, 58(6):  593-602. 
    Abstract ( 2029 )   PDF (1729KB) ( 1034 )     
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    【Aim】 The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are important transmembrane proteins encoded by a supergene family. The expression of some ABC transporter genes significantly increase in some insecticide resistant strains of insect species. This study aims to clone the full cDNA of ABC transporter genes RhpaABCG9, RhpaABCG20 and RhpaABCG23 of the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, and to analyze their expression patterns in different developmental stages and different insecticide resistant strains. The results will provide a theoretical knowledge to clarify the biological functions of ABC transporters of R. padi, especially their roles in the resistance to insecticides of this insect. 【Methods】 RT-PCR and RACE were used to clone the full-length cDNAs of three ABC transporter genes from R. padi. The expression levels of the three genes in different developmental stages and different insecticide resistant strains of this aphid were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. 【Results】 The cDNAs of RhpaABCG9, RhpaABCG20 and RhpaABCG23 have an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 103, 2 436 and 2 082 bp with the deduced amino acid sequence of 700, 811 and 693 residues, respectively. Structural analysis showed that all the three proteins have the typical structural features of ABC transporter family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the amino acid sequences of these three proteins show high identity to those of the corresponding proteins from Acyrthosiphon pisum. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the three genes were expressed differently in different developmental stages. The expression level of RhpaABCG20 was not significantly different in various developmental stages. The expression level of RhpaABCG9 was the highest in the 4th instar nymphs and the lowest in the 1st instar nymphs. The expression level of RhpaABCG23 was significantly higher in the 3rd instar nymphs and significantly lower in the 1st instar nymphs than those in other instar nymphs, while there was no significant difference among the other instar nymphs. Compared with that in the susceptible strain, the expression level of RhpaABCG20 in the isoprocarb resistant strain of R. padi was significantly up-regulated, whilst the expression levels of RhpaABCG9 and RhpaABCG23 were insignificantly down-regulated. The expression levels of RhpaABCG20 and RhpaABCG23 in the imidacloprid resistant strain were significantly higher than in the susceptible strain, whilst the expression level of RhpaABCG9 was not significantly up-regulated in the resistant strain. 【Conclusions】 RhpaABCG9, RhpaABCG20 and RhpaABCG23 may play roles in the transport of insecticides in R. padi, and be related to the resistance of this pest to insecticides. The results provide a foundation for further study of the resistance mechanisms, and for the resistance management and integrated pest management of R. padi.
    Cloning and tissue expression profiling of the olfactory receptor gene CchlOrco in Campoletis chlorideae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)
    DONG Jun-Feng, SONG Yue-Qin, SUN Jiu-Guang, YAN Zhi-Ning, SUN Ya-Lan, WANG Chen-Zhu
    2015, 58(6):  603-609. 
    Abstract ( 1537 )   PDF (7878KB) ( 790 )     
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    【Aim】 Olfactory receptors (ORs) interact with the co-receptor (Orco) to form heterodimeric complexes that are critical for insect olfaction. Due to its highly conserved sequence, Orco has received extensive attention. The present study aims to clone and identify the Orco gene in Campoletis chlorideae, and analyze its tissue expression profiles. 【Methods】 The Orco gene from C. chlorideae was cloned by RT-PCR and transcriptome technology, and the putative amino acid sequence was analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The expression level of Orco in different tissues of C. chlorideae adults was analyzed by realtime quantitative PCR. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequence of Orco was obtained from C. chlorideae, and named as CchlOrco (GenBank accession no. KP255444). Sequence analysis revealed that the open reading frame of CchlOrco is 1 437 bp in length, encoding 478 amino acid residues with seven transmembrane domains. Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that CchlOrco was mainly expressed in the adult antennae of C. chlorideae, while expressed in other tissues at an extremely low level. The expression level of CchlOrco in the antennae of male adults was 8.0-fold as high as that in the antennae of female adults. 【Conclusion】 The cloning of the full-length olfactory receptor gene CchlOrco and its expression profiles provide a basis for future functional study of CchlOrco and other olfactory receptor genes of C. chlorideae.
    Isolation, purification, and detection of the antimicrobial activity of the antimicrobial peptide CcAMP1 from Coridius chinensis (Hemiptera: Dinidoridae)
    LI Shang-Wei, ZHAO Bai-Song, DU Juan
    2015, 58(6):  610-616. 
    Abstract ( 1918 )   PDF (1464KB) ( 1718 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to isolate and purify antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from an officinal insect Coridius chinensis so as to lay a foundation for further developing AMP resources and medicinal functions of this species. 【Methods】C. chinensis was induced by a mixture of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as the source of stimulation to produce AMPs. The hemolymph of C. chinensis was extracted and purified using gel filtration chromatography, solidphase extraction, and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The active ingredient was determined by mass spectrometry to obtain an antimicrobial peptide. Then this peptide was artificially synthesized and its antimicrobial activity was detected. 【Results】 We obtained an antimicrobial peptide named CcAMP1, which consists of 17 amino acid residues, with a molecular weight of 1 997.37 u, a positive charge, and five hydrophobic amino acids on its surface. Detection of antimicrobial activity showed that the synthetic CcAMP1 had strong antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with stronger antimicrobial effects on Gram-negative bacteria, just like the hemolymph of C. chinensis. 【Conclusion】 The cationic antimicrobial peptide CcAMP1 acquired from C. chinensis shows strong antimicrobial activity and has a great exploitation value.
    Gene cloning, expression profiling and anti-microbial assay of Muscin, a new antimicrobial peptide in the housefly (Musca domestica)
    YANG Xue, TANG Ting, WANG Yi-Li, LIU Xin, CAO Xin-Ru, NI Zhi-Hua, LIU Feng-Song
    2015, 58(6):  617-624. 
    Abstract ( 1837 )   PDF (1440KB) ( 881 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this research is to identify and characterize a new antimicrobial peptide (Muscin) gene from the housefly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus). 【Methods】 Based on the digital gene expression profiling (DGE) and bioinformatics analysis, a potential antimicrobial peptide gene, muscin, was identified from the housefly transcriptome database. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was employed to investigate the tissue distribution of muscin mRNA and its temporal expression in housefly larvae challenged with the mixture of bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The anti-microbial and hemolytic activities of the synthetic peptide were also tested. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA of muscin is 379 bp, with an open reading frame of 153 bp encoding a peptide of 50 amino acid residues. The deduced peptide contains a putative signal peptide of 25 amino acids. The deduced mature peptide is rich in hydrophobic and positively charged amino acid residues with a theoretical pI of 9.39. The qRT-PCR results showed that muscin was mainly transcribed in the hemocytes and fat body. Post immunity induction with the mixture of bacteria, the expression of muscin was up-regulated and reached the maximal level at 6 h. Anti-microbial assays and hemolytic test displayed that c-Muscin had broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and a low hemolytic activity. 【Conclusion】 Muscin is a novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide with potential medicinal value and may take part in immune defense against bacterial pathogens in the housefly.
    Bioactivity of momordicin I against Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and its effects on the metabolizing enzyme activities in larval bodies of the moth
    CAO Xi, ZHU Chun-Ya, ZHANG Mao-Xin, LING Bing
    2015, 58(6):  625-633. 
    Abstract ( 1827 )   PDF (1346KB) ( 727 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the effects of momordicin I on the growth and related enzyme activities of the experimental population of Ostrinina furnacalis(Güenée). 【Methods】 The effects of momordicin I on the larval weight gain, developmental duration, survival rate and fecundity of O. furnacalis were investigated by adding the compound to the artificial diet provided to O. furnacalis larvae under laboratory conditions. The life table was used to evaluate the control effects of momordicin I on the experimental population of O. furnacalis. The effects of momordicin I on activities of trehalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase in O. furnacalis larvae were determined. 【Results】 After the 3rd instar larvae of O. furnacalis were fed with the artificial diet containing 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/g momordicin I for 3 d, their survival rates decreased and the LC50 value was 3.2 mg/g. Momordicin I had an apparently inhibitory effect on the body weight gain of O. furnacalis larvae. After the larvae were fed with the artificial diet containing 4.0 mg/g momordicin I for 1, 2 and 3 d, their body weight gain was inhibited by 76.87%, 78.24% and 79.94%, respectively, and the developmental duration of the treated larvae was significantly longer than that of the control group. The pupal duration and adult longevity of the treated larvae were not significantly different from those of the control, while the fecundity of adults in the treatment groups was significantly lower than that of the control. The 4.0 mg/g momordicin I in the artificial diet inhibited the fecundity of adults by 73.55%. Momordicin I in the artificial diet inhibited the activities of trehalase, alkaline and acid phosphatase in O. furnacalis larvae. At 24, 48 and 72 h after the larvae were fed with the artificial diet containing momordicin I, the IC50 values of the trehalase activity were 3.8, 2.9 and 4.9 mg/g, while those of the alkaline phosphatase activity were 3.1, 2.6 and 1.5 mg/g, and those of the acid phosphatase activity were 3.3, 1.9 and 3.6 mg/g, respectively. 【Conclusion】 These results suggest that momordicin I inhibits the population growth and fecundity of O. furnacalis, and its inhibition on the activities of trehalase, alkaline and acid phosphatase of larvae may be a major mechanism of action.
    Effects of sublethal doses of cyantraniliprole on the growth and development and the activities of detoxifying enzymes in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    YU Hui-Ling, XIANG Xin, YUAN Gui-Xin, CHEN Yi-Qu, WANG Xue-Gui
    2015, 58(6):  634-641. 
    Abstract ( 2330 )   PDF (762KB) ( 1106 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole on Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)so as to provide a scientific basis for the integrated management program for S. exigua and the rational use of cyantraniliprole. 【Methods】 The toxicity of cyantraniliprole on the 3rd instar larvae of S. exigua was assayed with diet-incorporation bioassays, and the effects of cyantraniliprole at two sublethal doses (LC10 and LC25) on the growth and development of S. exigua and the activities of three detoxifying enzymes were assayed. 【Results】 When the S. exigua larvae were treated with two sublethal doses of cyantraniliprole (LC10 and LC25), their growth was significantly restrained compared to that in the control group, the average body weight was inhibited by 11.55% and 27.68% and the developmental durations from the 3rd instar larva to pupa were elongated by 0.07 and 0.20 d, respectively. The pupation rates in the LC10 and LC25 treatment groups were 63.89% and 49.43% and were significantly lower than that of the control (80.93%). The adult longevity in the LC10 and LC25 treatment groups was obviously shortened by 1.11 d and 2.08 d, respectively, and the number of eggs laid per female and the egg hatching rates in the two treatment groups were significantly lower than those of the control. The activities of carboxylesterase (CarE) and glutathione- S-transferases (GSTs) in the 3rd instar larvae treated with the two sublethal doses of cyantraniliprole were promoted first and then decreased from 24 h to 96 h aftertreatment. The activities of mixed function oxidase (MFO) were also inhibited at 48 h and 72 h after treatment, and the inhibition effect was in proportion to the cyantraniliprole dose. 【Conclusion】 These results demonstrate that sublethal dose of cyantraniliprole can significantly restrain the growth and development of S. exigua and the activities of three detoxifying enzymes in its larvae.
    Calculation of the association between amide mosquito repellents and ammonia
    XU Xi-Zhao, SONG Jie, WANG Peng, FAN Guo-Rong, CHEN Jin-Zhu, CHEN Shang-Xing, WANG Zong-De
    2015, 58(6):  642-649. 
    Abstract ( 1352 )   PDF (1138KB) ( 697 )     
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    【Aim】 The effect of association between mosquito repellents (terpenoids and DEET analogues) and attractants (L-lactic acid, carboxylic acids, etc.) was investigated in previous studies. In this study, a group of 43 amide repellents were chosen to further study bimolecular association between these repellents and ammonia as well as the effect of aggregate structures on repellency, so as to provide assistance for repellent mechanism research. 【Methods】 Geometry optimizations of the repellents and aggregate structures were done using Gaussian 03, and the QSAR model was established by Ampac and Codessa. 【Results】 Calculated results showed that the hydrogen bondings between amid repellents and ammonia were within the normal range of bond distances and bond angles (2.2-3.0 Å and 128-180°,respectively). The binding energies were 14-25 kJ/mol. The best four-parameter QSAR model had a R2 value of 0.8987. These four statistic important parameters can be divided into two groups. The first two are related to repellents only, namely (1/6) X GAMMA polarizability (DIP) and ESP-minimum net atomic charge for an H atom. The other two are related to the repellent-ammonia aggregate, ESP-DPSA-2 difference in CPSAs (PPSA2-PNSA2) [Quantum-Chemical PC] and minimum valency of a C atom. The mean squared correlation coefficients of the training sets and the test sets were 0.9013 and 0.8666, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Weak hydrogen bonds are observed between repellents and ammonia. Polarizability of repellent molecules, dipole-dipole interactions between amide and ammonia, and charge distribution in aggregates are important factors influencing repellency. Model test shows that the four-parameter model has favorable stability and predictive ability. This study is helpful for seeking novel mosquito repellents and revealing the mechanism of mosquito repellents.
    Effects of heavy metal Ni2+ on the development and reproductive behavior of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    CAO Hong-Mei, ZHENG Li-Xia, WEI Hong-Yi
    2015, 58(6):  650-657. 
    Abstract ( 1655 )   PDF (1565KB) ( 790 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the potential impacts of heavy metal nickel (Ni2+) in polluted farmlands on herbivorous insects. 【Methods】 Neonate larvae of the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), were fed with the artificial diet containing heavy metal Ni2+ at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg) or without any heavy metal (as the control) under laboratory conditions. The parameters of development and reproductive behaviors were systematically investigated. 【Results】 Heavy metal Ni2+ exhibited inhibitory effects on the larval and pupal duration, pupation rate and emergence rate of O. furnacalis. However, Ni2+ promoted the female pupal weight, and this promoting effect gradually decreased with the increasing Ni2+ concentrations. The pupal weight of male larvae exposed to the low concentrations of Ni2+ (1-10 mg/kg) was higher than that of the control, while the pupal weight of male larvae exposed to the high concentrations of Ni2+ (15-20 mg/kg) was lower than that of the control. The average calling duration of female adults gradually declined with the Ni2+ concentration. The calling rate of female adults exposed to Ni2+ and their calling peak time were basically similar to those of the control group, but were affected by the four higher concentrations. In the treatments of the four higher concentrations, the calling peak time appeared earlier and the highest calling rate of female adults was less than 100%. Ni2+ at the concentration of 5 mg/kg had the promoting effectson the orientation behavior of male adults, while the remaining four concentrations of Ni2+exhibited the inhibitory effects. All the concentrations of Ni2+ showed the significantly inhibitory effects on the ovipostion and egg hatchability of O. furnacalis. 【Conclusion】 The development and reproductive behaviors of O. furnacalis are affected by the heavy metal Ni2+, and there exists a dose-response relationship that the partial indicator parameters change with the increasing Ni2+concentrations (except 5 mg/kg).
    Circadian behaviors of the parasitic beetles, Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) under artificial light/dark conditions
    LYV Fei, HAI Xiao-Xia, WANG Zhi-Gang, LIU Bing-Xiang, YAN Ai-Hua, BI Yong-Guo
    2015, 58(6):  658-664. 
    Abstract ( 1540 )   PDF (2159KB) ( 894 )     
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    【Aim】The parasitic beetle, Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) is the dominant species among the natural enemies against the wood-boring insects of trees. The research of the circadian rhythm of male and female adult behaviors of D. helophoroides can help us to understand their biological characteristics and illustrate their living habits. 【Methods】 The behaviors of D. helophoroides adults were observed and recorded at a 30 min interval by single rearing separately under the temperature 27±1℃ and relative humidity 65%±10% in the laboratory from July 10th to 15th, 2014. The observed behaviors of males and females were divided into five types, i.e., moving, foraging, drinking, resting with contacting wood and resting without contacting wood. 【Results】 The moving and resting with contacting wood behaviors of D. helophoroides adults showed obvious circadian rhythm. The moving behavior mostly took place during the dark period, and the peak of moving was recorded at 20:30-22:30 and 2:00-4:00 of the dark period, while the lowest was recorded at 6:00-16:30 of the light period. The resting with contacting wood occurred mainly at 9:30-16:30 of the light period and 0:00-1:30 of the dark period, while the lowest was recorded at 20:30-23:00 of the dark period. The occurrence of foraging and drinking behavior was very low within a day and happened mainly after 0:00 and before 14:00 o’clock. The peak of resting without contacting wood behavior was recorded at 0:30-3:30 and 20:00-22:00 of the dark period. The percentages and time points of occurrence of various behaviors showed no significant difference between females and males. 【Conclusion】 The behaviors of D. helophoroides are influenced significantly by light and dark conditions. The moving behavior mostly takes place during the dark period; however, there is no significant difference in the percentages of various behaviors between females and males.
    Preference of Apis mellifera ligustica to flower odours of two rapes (Brassica napus cv. Shengli and B. juncea cv. Mawei)
    LUO Wen-Hua1, CHENG Shang1, CAO Lan, SHAO You-Quan, ZHANG Xu-Feng, GAO Li-Jiao, GUO Jun, DAI Rong-Guo, WANG Rui-Sheng, LIU Jia-Lin
    2015, 58(6):  665-672. 
    Abstract ( 1665 )   PDF (1452KB) ( 1032 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this research is to reveal the odour preference and pollinating behavior characteristics of the Italian honeybee, Apis mellifera ligustica for two rapes, Brassica napus cv. Shengli and B. juncea cv. Mawei. 【Methods】 We conducted the field test of foraging preference, the odour preference test in colonies outdoors, and the olfactory response test with “Y” olfactometer and learning-memory test in the laboratory to evaluate the selective preference of A. mellifera ligustica colonies and foragers for flowers of the two rapes and analyze the memory and learning ability of A. mellifera ligustica foragers by proboscis extension response in training and after training. 【Results】 The number of A. mellifera ligustica bees visiting B. napus cv. Shengli flowers was significantly higher than that visiting B. juncea cv. Mawei during 12:00-13:00 in the field test (P<0.05), but the odour memory ofA. mellifera ligustica bees to B. napus cv. Shengli was significantly higher than that to B. juncea cv. Mawei in the 24 h memory test. 【Conclusion】 This research suggests that A. mellifera ligustica has a preference for visiting B. napus cv. Shengli. The odour of flowers is an important factor affecting foraging preference of A. mellifera ligustica. The test of odour response can be used for the quantitative analysis of olfactory sensitivity in honeybees.
    Biochemical response of green poplar induced by exogenous jasmonic acid and its effects on food utilization of larval Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)
    WANG Yu-Tong, YUE Hui-Fang, WANG Xiao-Li, LI Hai-Ping, LIU Li-Mei, DUAN Li-Qing
    2015, 58(6):  673-679. 
    Abstract ( 1508 )   PDF (1802KB) ( 855 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to make clear whether the exogenous jasmonic acid (JA)-induced resistance in green poplar, Populus cathayana Rehd., influences food utilization of larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.). 【Methods】 JA solution at the concentrations of 0.001 mmol/L and 0.1 mmol/L (diluted with 99.5% acetone first and then with distilled water) was sprayed onto green poplar seedlings, while the control was sprayed with the 0.2% acetone solution. The changes in the contents of primary and secondary metabolites, mainly proteins, soluble sugars, phenols, lignins, flavones and tannins, were tested on the 1st, 5th and 10th day post treatment. To assess the food utilization of L. dispar larvae, other green poplar seedlings sprayed with 0.1 mmol/L JA solution were used to rear the newly molted 2nd instar larvae, and the body weight, food consumption, feces and the duration of the 2nd instar larvae were measured. 【Results】 Compared to the control, the contents of proteins and soluble sugars in green poplar seedlings sprayed with exogenous JA solution decreased, but the contents of phenols,lignins, flavones and tannins increased significantly. The contents of soluble sugars and proteins in green poplar leaves decreased to the lowest level on the 10th day post JA treatment, and reduced by 46.5% and 49.1% in the high-concentration JA treatment group, and 30.6% and 22.8% in the the low-oncentration JA treatment group, respectively, compared to the control. The total content of phenols in green poplar leaves was at the highest level on the 10th day post JA treatment and increased by 102% in the high-concentration JA treatment group compared to the control. The contents of lignins, tannins and flavones in green poplar leaves reached a peak on the 5th day post JA treatment and increased by 113%, 75% and 57% compared to the control, respectively. The approximate digestibility, conversion rate, utilization rate of food for L. dispar larvae fed on the JA-induced green poplar leaves all decreased compared with the larvae fed on the normal leaves (not induced by JA). The food utilization rate of larvae fed on leaves induced for 1, 5 and 10 d by JA decreased by 29.4%, 27.6% and 28.2%, respectively. The larval body weight decreased and the developmental duration was prolonged after the larvae fed on the JA-induced green poplar leaves. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that the biochemical resistance of green poplar to  L. dispar is induced by exogenous jasmonic acid, and this could be adopted in controlling the damage of the gypsy moth.
    Induction of defense signal molecules in response to Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) infestation in Zea mays
    ZHU Yu-Xi, YANG Qun-Fang, HUANG Yu-Bi, LI Qing, LIU Ying-Hong, JIANG Chun-Xian, WANG Hai-Jian
    2015, 58(6):  680-687. 
    Abstract ( 1635 )   PDF (2411KB) ( 811 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to investigate how infestation of Tetranychus cinnabarinus induces the generation of six defense signal molecules, including jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), nitricoxide (NO), abscisic acid (ABA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in leaves of Zea mays seedlings. 【Methods】 We measured the contents of the signal molecules in leaves of corn seedlings at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after inoculation of T. cinnabarinus (10, 20 and 30 individuals per leaf) by using spectrophotometry (SP), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 【Results】 Our data demonstrated that the contents of JA, ABA and H2O2 in leaves of corn seedlings infected by T. cinnabarinus increased rapidly within 24 h after infestation, and peaked at 24 h after inoculation of 30 individuals per leaf, which were 4.13, 3.84 and 3.20-fold as high as those of the un-inoculated control, respectively. Subsequently, the contents of JA, ABA and H2O2 in the infected group descended sharply from 24 to 48 h after infestation. The contents of ABA and H2O2 in the infected group stayed at a low level from 48 to 96 h after infestation, whereas the JAcontent in the infected group reached another peak at 96 h after infestation. The NO content in the infected group rose up from 24 to 48 h after infestation, peaked at 48 h after inoculation of 30 individuals per leaf, which was 5.09-fold as high as that of the control. The contents of SA and ET in the infected group had been increasing during the whole time of infestation, and peaked at 96 h after inoculation of 30 individuals per leaf, which were 5.17 and 2.99-fold as high as those of the control, respectively. The contents of the six signal molecules in leaves of corn seedlings infested by 30 individuals per leaf were significantly higher than those in the un-inoculated control. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus induces the accumulation of JA, SA, ET, NO, ABA and H2O2 in leaves of corn seedlings, which are activated sequentially during infestation process.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Research progress in the structure and function of insect olfactory systems
    WAN Xin-Long, DU Yong-Jun
    2015, 58(6):  688-698. 
    Abstract ( 1995 )   PDF (1733KB) ( 1549 )     
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    The insect brain is composed of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum. The protocerebrum contains advanced sensory centers, such as mushroom body and central complex, controlling the advanced neural activities of insects, such as learning, memory and mobility. The deutocerebrum includes antennal lobe, which is the center of olfactory systems, while the tritocerebrum, which usually is not developed well, includes endocrine and mobile neurons. Unlike other organisms, the auditory and visual systems of insects are relatively degenerated because of their special biological characteristics. They prey, communicate and call mainly depending on the olfactory system, and thus their olfactory systems have been delicately developed. We here reviewed the research progress in the neuronal structure and function of insect brain (central complex, mushroom body and antennal lobe) and the genetic variation of the brain structures (sex dimorphism, differences between developmental stages, insects, and insects and other animals), and summarized the revealed mechanisms that insect brains process and identify odor signals.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 58 Issue 6
    2015, 58(6):  699. 
    Abstract ( 1245 )   PDF (667KB) ( 612 )     
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