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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 December 2015, Volume 58 Issue 12
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    RNA interference of pyridoxal kinase gene decreases the expression of aminotransferase gene in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    YAO Li-Li, YANG Huan-Huan, ZHANG Jian-Yun, HUANG Long-Quan
    2015, 58(12):  1273-1277. 
    Abstract ( 1354 )   PDF (1540KB) ( 638 )     
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    【Aim】 Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) functions as a coenzyme in many cellular processes including the interconversion and catabolism of amino acids. Pyridoxal kinase (PLK) is a key enzyme related to VB6 metabolism. This study aims to reveal the relationship of transcription regulation between the kinase of PLP and the apo-B6 enzymes. 【Methods】 Three siRNAs (siRNA1, siRNA2 and siRNA3) based on PLK gene sequence were designed and synthesized, and injected to the day-3 5th instar larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The expression levels of phosphoserine aminotransferase (SerB) and asparate aminotransferase (AST) genes were detected by real-time quantitative PCR, to explore their interference effects on PLK replication. 【Results】 The best interference efficiency was achieved at 48 h after injection. The interference efficiency of the three fragments from high to low was siRNA1, siRNA2 and siRNA3. The interference efficiency was different in different tissues, and that in the midgut was the highest with the relative expression level of the PLK gene decreased by 55%. The relative expression levels of SerB and AST genes were also decreased by 90% and 29%, respectively, after RNA interference of PLK gene. 【Conclusion】 This study successfully down-regulated the PLK gene in B. mori  larvae. The results further demonstrate that phosphoserine aminotransferase (SerB) and asparate aminotransferase (AST) genes are related to the pyridoxal kinase gene.
    Molecular cloning and expression profiling of an estrogen-related receptor gene in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    SHEN Guan-Wang, HU Shi-Yuan, WANG Yong, WU Jin-Xin, LIN Ying, XIA Qing-You
    2015, 58(12):  1278-1284. 
    Abstract ( 1739 )   PDF (6704KB) ( 597 )     
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    【Aim】 The estrogen-related receptor (ERR) via regulating the glycolytic cyclecan control the energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. Based on the cloning of ERR gene (BmERR) from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, its molecular property and phylogeny were bioinformatically analyzed, and the expression of the ERR gene in the silkworm was detected. This study may lay the foundation for further research on the function of ERR in Lepidoptera and provide ideas for pest control. 【Methods】 PCR technique was used to clone the cDNA sequence of BmERR gene, and the sequence was bioinformatically analyzed with online resources. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR was further applied to analyze its expression profiles in gonads of B. mori larvae stopping feeding. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA of BmERR has a 1 296 bp open reading frame, which encodes a 431-amino-acid-residue protein with a typical structural domain feature of the ERR protein family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the BmERR protein shows high amino acid sequence identity with the ERR proteins from other insects. RT-PCR detection showed that BmERR was expressed in both testis and ovary in wandering to pupal B. mori, and possessed apparent time specificity, with a peak expression at the first day after pupation. 【Conclusion】 The cloned ERR encoding sequence is reported for the first time in Lepidoptera. The expression of the ERR gene in the silkworm gonads has no significant gender difference, but with developmental stage specificity.
    Changes in the transcriptional levels of pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine-5′-phosphate oxidase post exogenous hormone treatment in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    YANG Huan-Huan, YAO Li-Li, ZHANG Jian-Yun, HUANG Long-Quan
    2015, 58(12):  1285-1290. 
    Abstract ( 1467 )   PDF (2365KB) ( 610 )     
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    【Aim】 To further research the hormone regulation of nutrition metabolism, we analyzed the transcription levels of pyridoxal kinase (PLK) and pyridoxine-5′-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, treated with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) and juvenile hormone analogue (JHA). 【Methods】 The day-1, day-3 and day-5 5th instar larvae of B. mori were fed with 20-E or JHA, and those fed on distilled water were used as the control. We assayed the transcriptional levels of PLK and PNPO in silk glands of the treated larvae at 24 and 48 h post treatment by using real-time quantitative PCR.【Results】 In the day-1 5th instar larvae treated with 20-E for 24 and 48 h, respectively, the transcriptional levels of PLK and PNPO significantly increased compared with the control (P<0.01). In the day-3 5th instar larvae treated by 20-E, the transcriptional level of PLK decreased compared with the control at 48 h after treatment (P<0.05), whereas the transcriptional level of PNPO significantly increased compared with the control at 24 and 48 h after treatment (P<0.01). In the day-5 5th instar larvae treated with 20-E, the transcriptional levels of PLK and PNPO had no apparent change. In the day-1 5th instar larvae treated with JHA, the transcriptional levels of PLK and PNPO had no change; in the day-3 5th instar larvae treated with JHA, however, the transcriptional level of PLK decreased compared with the control at 48 h after treatment (P<0.05), and the transcriptional level of PNPO decreased compared with the control at 24 and 48 h after treatment (P<0.01). In the day-5 5th instar larvae treated with JHA for 24 and 48 h, respectively, the transcriptional levels of PLK and PNPO significantly decreased compared with the control (P<0.01). 【Conclusion】 The transcriptional expression of PLK and PNPO is influenced by 20-E and JHA, 20-E promotes them in the early stage of the 5th instar larvae while JHA represses them in late stages of the 5th instar larvae. These results lay the foundation for further research on hormone regulation of VB6.
    Solexa sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of microRNA in the queen head of the bumblebee Bombus lantschouensis
    SUN Dong-Ting, DONG Jie, HUANG Jia-Xing, HE Shao-Yu, WU Jie
    2015, 58(12):  1291-1299. 
    Abstract ( 1402 )   PDF (1662KB) ( 549 )     
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    【Aim】 The head is the centre controlling physiological behavior in bumblebees, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of this behavior. We compared the miRNA expression between the heads of egg-laying and non-egg-laying queens of the bumblebee Bombus lantschouensis so as to clarify the roles of miRNAs in queen head during oviposition.【Methods】 miRNAs in heads of egg-laying and non-egg-laying queens of B. lantschouensis were sequenced by Solexa. Bioinformatics software was used to identify the miRNA and its target genes. qPCR was used to verify the significantly differentially【Results】 Cleaned data showed 14 228 864 reads from heads of egg-laying queens and 21 431 031 reads from heads of non-egg-laying queens. The length of the reads ranged from 19 to 24 nt, and the 22 nt sequences of miRNAs were the most abundant in egg-laying and non-egg-laying queen heads, accounting for 45.8% and 45.1% of their samples, respectively. A total of 297 miRNA sequences were identified from the queen heads. Among them, 270 miRNAs were known and 27 were novel by comparison with the miRBase database. Of the known sequences, 92 miRNAs were known from the honeybee, and 178 miRNAs known from other animals. Within the known 92 miRNAs from the honeybee, there were 91 miRNAs in the head of egg-laying queens and 90 in the head of non-egg-laying queens. For the novel miRNAs, there were 22 miRNAs in the head of egg-laying queens and 25 in the head of non-egg-laying queens, respectively. Expression analysis showed that eight miRNAs reached significantly different expression levels in the heads of egg-laying and non-egg-laying queens (P<0.01). qPCR demonstrated that the eight significantly differentially expressed miRNAs existed in the bumblebee. The target genes for the top three miRNAs with significantly different expression levels were predicted, and it was found that nine target genes were co-regulated by the three miRNAs. All of the target genes are related to GTP binding and transcriptional regulation. 【Conclusion】 This is the first exploration of miRNA within bumblebees by high-throughput sequencing technology. Different miRNA expression levels are demonstrated between the heads of egg-laying and non-egg-laying queens. Our results may contribute to understanding the function of miRNAs and their roles in bumblebees.
    Effects of differently induced plant resistance on the developmental performances of larval Spodoptera exigua(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
    HUANG Juan-Juan, ZHANG Qing-Wei, SHU Xiao-Han, LIU Ya-Hui
    2015, 58(12):  1300-1306. 
    Abstract ( 1558 )   PDF (1960KB) ( 628 )     
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    【Aim】 To identify the effects of induced plant resistance on the development of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and its endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael).【Methods】 The plants of Brassica campestris were induced by herbivory damage (HD), mechanical damage (MD), or spraying 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mmol/L exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and used to feed the newly-hatched larvae of S. exigua, which then were exposed to the parasitism of M. pulchricornis. The developmental performances of the host and its parasitoid were observed. 【Results】 The survival rate of S. exigua larvae fed on plants treated by HD and MeJA treatments decreased significantly, and the survival rate of S. exigua larvae had a negative correlation with MeJA concentration. The larval body weight of S. exigua fed on the plants subjected to 0.1 mmol/L MeJA treatment was significantly lower than that of the control. When S. exigua larvae fed on the plants subjected to HD and 0.1 mmol/L MeJA treatments, the mortality of the larval parasitoid M. pulchricornis increased as compared with the control and its pupation rate reduced, and the body weight of adult parasitoid under 0.1 mmol/L MeJA treatment was lower than that of the control. The ovarian development of M. pulchricornis did not differ between treatments, and each ovary consisted of 8-10 ovarioles with 7-10 mature eggs, each 350 μm long and 78 μm wide, at 24 h post eclosion. 【Conclusion】 These results suggest that the resistance inB. campestris plants induced by HD and MeJA has negative impacts on the survival and body size of S. exigua larvae, which consequently has negative effects on the development of its parasitoid M. pulchricornis.
    Seed production and seed size and their relationship with insect infestation in Quercus glandulifera and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata in the south slopes of the Qinling Mountains
    WANG Jing, ZHANG Bo, HOU Xiang, CHEN Xiao-Ning, HAN Ning, CHANG Gang
    2015, 58(12):  1307-1314. 
    Abstract ( 1436 )   PDF (1643KB) ( 562 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to understand the relationship between insect infestation and seed production and seed size of Quercus glandulifera and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata . 【Methods】 The seed production of Q. glandulifera and Q. aliena  var. acuteserrata and insect infestation characteristics on their seeds in Foping National Natural Reserve, Qinling Mountains were investigated in 2011 and 2012. 【Results】 The seed rain density and seed production of Q. glandulifera and Q. aliena  var. acuteserrata were obviously different between 2011 and 2012. The seed rain density and seed production of Q. glanduliferain 2011 were 145.76±24.56 nuts/m2 and 74.97±11.56 nuts/m2, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in 2012 (64.09±9.61 nuts/m2 and 34.30±3.51 nuts/m2, respectively). The seed rain density and seed production of Q. aliena  var. acuteserrata  in 2011 were 238.88±43.97 nuts/m2 and 117.34±18.76 nuts/m2, respectively, which were also significantly higher than those in 2012 (112.00±19.20 nuts/m2 and 55.96±19.20 nuts/m2, respectively). The proportions of intact seeds of Q. glandulifera and Q. aliena  var. acuteserrata in 2011 were 49.73% and 50.73%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in 2012 (38.69% and 44.28%, respectively). The proportions of insect-infested seeds of Q. glandulifera and Q. aliena  var. acuteserrata  in 2011 were 28.05% and 19.31%, respectively, which were lower than those in 2012 (39.77% and 26.63%, respectively), but the difference was not significant between 2011 and 2012. The seed size of the two insect-infested seed species was significantly larger than that of their intact seeds in 2011 and 2012. There were significant correlations between the number of insect larvae infesting seeds and seed size of Q. glandulifera and Q. aliena  var. acuteserrata  in 2011, but the correlations were not significant in 2012. 【Conclusion】 Our study demonstrated that there is a certain relationship between the insect infestation rate and the seed production of Q. glandulifera and Q. aliena  var. acuteserrata in the lower seed production year, i.e., the insect infestation rate of seeds has a rising trend in the lower seed production year, and vice versa. Insects prefer to larger seeds of the two oaks for oviposition, and there is also a certain relationship between the number of insect larvae infesting seeds and the seed size, i.e., larger infested seeds contain more larvae.
    Foraging preference of the honeybee Apis mellifera and the bumblebee  Bombus lantschouensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in peach greenhouse
    ZHOU Zhi-Yong, ZHANG Hong, LIANG Cheng, ZOU Yu, DONG Jie, YUAN Xiao-Long, HUANG Jia-Xing, AN Jian-Dong
    2015, 58(12):  1315-1321. 
    Abstract ( 1431 )   PDF (1736KB) ( 565 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to compare the foraging preferences of the honeybee Apis mellifera and the bumblebee Bombus lantschouensis  when visiting greenhouse peach flowers in relation to the viability of pollen and the pollen/nectar collection rates of the two bee species. 【Methods】 The frequency of visits by the two bee species to flowers at the early, peak and late stages was recorded in greenhouses. The viability of pollen from flowers at different stages was tested, together with the viability of pollen carried by the two bee species, and the collection rate of pollen foragers and nectar foragers was counted. The numbers of trees and of branches visited by the two bee species were also recorded. 【Results】 Pollen viability varied widely among flowers of different stages, no pollen was released from flowers at the early stage, and the viability of pollen in flowers at the peak stage (58.3%) was significantly higher than that in flowers at the late stage (34.2%)(P<0.01). A. mellifera specialized more in a high frequency of visits to flowers at the peak stage (75.3%). B. lantschouensis also had a preference for flowers at the peak stage, but its frequency of visits (49.2%) was lower than that of A. mellifera(P<0.01). Viability of pollen carriedby A. mellifera (92.1%) was significantly higher than that of pollen carried by B.lantschouensis(72.9%), but A.mellifera had a lower collection rate both for pollen foragers and for nectar foragers than B. lantschouensis (P<0.01). When visiting a fixed number of peach flowers, B.lantschouensis was distributed more widely (visiting more branches and more trees) than A.mellifera in the greenhouse (P<0.01). 【Conclusion】 Compared with the bumblebee B.lantschouensis, the honeybee A. mellifera prefers foraging from flowers with pollen with higher viability, but this greater specialization reduces its pollen and nectar collection rate during visits.
    A study of the three-dimensional morphological complexity of insect hindwing articulation based on four scarab species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea)
    YANG Hai-Dong,BAI Ming, LI Sha, LU Yuan-Yuan, MA De-Ying
    2015, 58(12):  1322-1330. 
    Abstract ( 1627 )   PDF (5362KB) ( 736 )     
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    【Aim】 Insect wings are very delicate and flexible. The morphology and function of veins and wing articulation has long aroused wide concern of scientists in many fields. Due to limitation of historical conditions, the studies of insect wings mainly focused on vein morphology. Even the small amount of wing articulation morphology studies mainly stayed on the analysis of two-dimensional data. Furthermore, there is no report on the internal structures of the sclerites of insect wing articulations. The aim of this study isto reconstruct the internal and external three-dimensional morphology of the sclerites of insect wing articulations. The entire morphological information of the very complicated three-dimensional structures will be gained which is impossible to be demonstrated using traditional research methods. Thus, the relationships between the insect wing morphology and function could be inferred. 【Methods】 Four scarab beetle species from four families of Scarabaeoidea were scanned using Micro CT. The three-dimensional morphology of sclerites of wing articulations including the 1st, 2nd and 3rd axillary plates and median plate was reconstructed and analyzed. 【Results】 The morphological complexity of sclerites of wing articulations was demonstrated with the rendering and virtual cut of the three-dimensional models. The uneven curvature changes of external surface and the overlap of some parts of sclerites were found. The former mainly includes the protrusion, groove, and bend of external surface. The latter mainly includes the contact of some parts forming a tubular structure and some structure is concealed. Furthermore, the double-layer structures of the sclerites of wing articulations were found. The external layer is highly dense and solid, while the internal is a sponge-like structure. The relative spatial positions of folded and unfolded states of the sclerites were displayed in a three-dimensional way. The morphology of wing articulations of four species was compared. 【Conclusion】 Insect wing articulations are complex in internal and external morphology. Double-layer structure and the sponge-like internal structure may be related to the morphological adaptation strategy on minimizing the weight, saving energy in the movement and maintaining a rigid structure at the same time. Such morphological adaptations may have bionics significance for materials science, aerodynamics and some other fields.
    Recognition of lepidopteran species based on color name and OpponentSIFT features
    ZHU Le-Qing, ZHANG Da-Xing, ZHANG Zhen
    2015, 58(12):  1331-1337. 
    Abstract ( 2038 )   PDF (1531KB) ( 634 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to realize the automatic insect image recognition by exploring the state-of-art computer vision technology. 【Methods】 The captured insect image was first preprocessed to remove the background and get the foreground mask. The minimum bounding box of the foreground was computed and the valid foreground region was cut out accordingly. The features on this valid region were extracted. The color name feature was extracted firstly. The pixels on original RGB (Red-Green-Blue) image were mapped to 11 color name planes, where the value represented the probability of the RGB value belonging to particular color name. Each color name plane was divided into blocks of 3×3 pixels. The average probability in each block was calculated and 11 values from 11 color name planes formed the descriptor of the center pixel in the grid. Finally, the bag-of-visualword features for color name descriptors were generated by histogram statistics on spatial pyramid. For OpponentSIFT (Opponent Scale Invariant FeatureTransform) feature extraction, the image was first transformed from RGB space to opponent color space, SIFT descriptors from different channels were extracted and concatenated, and then were pooled into OpponentSIFT bag-of-visual-words with histogram statistics on spatial pyramid. Two types of bag-of-visual-word features were concatenated into feature vector of the insect image. SVM (Support Vector Machine) classifiers were trained with the feature vectors extracted from training set and were used to recognize lepidopteran species through classification. 【Results】 The proposed method was tested in a database with 576 insect images and the recognition accuracy reached 100%. 【Conclusion】 The experimental results prove that the lepidopteran images can be recognized efficiently by using color name and OpponentSIFT features.
    A method for image segmentation and recognition of spider mites based on K-means clustering algorithm
    LIU Guo-Cheng, ZHANG Yang, HUANG Jian-Hua, TANG Wen-Liang
    2015, 58(12):  1338-1343. 
    Abstract ( 1355 )   PDF (2063KB) ( 520 )     
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    【Aim】 The spider mites are the main pests of many crops. Traditional recognition methods for spider mites relied on the naked eyes, which wasted a lot of time and energy. In order to study the fast automatic recognition method for spider mites, a method using computer image analysis algorithm was developed. 【Methods】 The method based on the K-means clustering algorithm realized the segmentation and recognition of the spider mite images which were obtained from fields. 【Results】 In contrast to the traditional RGB color segmentation method, the K-means clustering algorithm method was able to separate the images of spider mites from leaf background effectively. The average recognition time based on the K-means clustering algorithm was 3.56 s, and the recognition accuracy was 93.95%. The recognition time (T) increased as the pixels of tested image (Pi) increased. 【Conclusion】 The method can be applied to the segmentation and recognition of spider mite images.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Research progress in cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by endosymbiont Wolbachia
    ZHANG Yan-Kai, ZHANG Kai-Jun, XIE Rong-Rong, ZHAO Dong-Xiao, HONG Xiao-Yue
    2015, 58(12):  1344-1355. 
    Abstract ( 1394 )   PDF (3258KB) ( 675 )     
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    Wolbachia is a group of maternal-transmitted endosymbionts which are widely spread in arthropods and nematodes. The fungi of this genus cause several reproductive manipulations in hosts such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), parthenogenesis, feminization and male-killing, among which CI means the crosses between infected males and either uninfected females (unidirectional CI) or females infected by different strains of Wolbachia (bidirectional CI) do not produce offspring or few offspring. The effect of CI makes the infected females have advantage of reproduction. In return, the advantage makes the fast spreading of Wolbachia happen in host populations. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the CI and most mechanisms concentrate at the cytological level. Among these mechanisms, the widely-accepted modification-rescue model states that Wolbachia in testis can modify sperm in hosts and make the fusion between paternal and maternal pronuclei abnormal, and that the fusion ecomes normal when the females have the same strain of Wolbachia which rescue the modified sperm. The exploration of molecular mechanisms of CI begins in the study of transcriptomes, genomes and miRNA of some insects. Factors influencing CI expression include host background, Wolbachia strain, Wolbachia genotype, density of endosymbionts, male age, environmental parameters and distribution of endosymbionts in reproductive organs of hosts. In recent years, attempts to use CI to control pests (mosquitoes in particular) and human diseases have been made and some promising progresses achieved.
    Research progress on caste differentiation in bumblebees
    XU Xi-Lian, WANG Feng-He, WANG Huan
    2015, 58(12):  1356-1361. 
    Abstract ( 1688 )   PDF (689KB) ( 575 )     
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    Bumblebees are effective pollinators for many natural plants and crops and have great value in economy and ecology. Bumblebees’ complex growth process and high eusociety make them become outstanding model organisms in sociobiology research. The reproductive division of labor based on caste differentiation in social insects is of great significance in evolution. Many important findings about honeybee caste differentiation have been obtained, and the mechanisms underpinning this process are well elucidated. Compared with honeybees, the system of bumblebees’ eusociety has not been thoroughly studied. Recently, it is evident that the feeding frequency or the feeding amount may induce bumblebee caste differentiation. Juvenile hormone and ecdysteroid are associated with the development of bumblebee larvae and play an important role in caste differentiation. Some genes involved in the regulation of honeybee caste differentiation were also found to be differentially expressed between bumblebee castes. In addition, the caste interaction and competition are found to be key factors causing bumblebee caste differentiation. In this article, we reviewed the mechanisms of bumblebee caste differentiation from nutrition, hormonal regulation, community development and interaction, and also proposed several directions for future studies in these areas.
    SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
    Culture of the primary cells of Apis cerana cerana larvae and the replication of Chinese sacbrood virus in the cultured cells
    LI Hui, FEI Dong-Liang, HU Ying, MA Ming-Xiao
    2015, 58(12):  1362-1367. 
    Abstract ( 1333 )   PDF (2441KB) ( 543 )     
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    【Aim】 To establish an applicable culture method for honeybee sourced cells and to lay the foundation for culture of honeybee cells and related virus research. 【Methods】 The premium culture medium and the corresponding fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentration were screened by comparing the growth status of the primary cells of the Chinese bee larvae cultured in Grace’s medium and WH2 medium, respectively. Then, the cultured primary cells were inoculated with Chinese acbrood virus (CSBV), and the virus replication was detected with real-time quantitative RT-PCR. 【Results】 Cells cultured in Grace’s medium were large and round, transparent, and regularly edged with no particulate matters, and had significant higher viability than those cultured in WH2 medium. The economical and applicable FBS concentration was determined to be 15% based on the comparison of the cell viability cultured in Grace’s medium with various concentrations of FBS. The inoculated CSBV virus could replicate and proliferate rapidly along with the division of the host cells. 【Conclusion】 The primary cells of Chinese bee larvae grow well in Grace’s medium with 15% FBS, in which the replication of CSBV can proceed.
    First discovery of the honeysuckle whitefly, Aleyrodes lonicerae Walker (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China
    YU Guo-Yue
    2015, 58(12):  1368-1372. 
    Abstract ( 1559 )   PDF (2686KB) ( 555 )     
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    The honeysuckle whitefly, Aleyrodes lonicerae Walker, was found on the back of leaves of the greater celandine, Chelidonium majus L., at Shangfangshan National Forest Park, Beijing. It is a new record to China. This paper describes its morphological characteristics of all developmental stages, presents the diagnosis differentiated from other related species, lists its 23 host plants of 11 families, and records two parasitoids (Encarsia sp. and Eretmocerus sp. nr. emiratus), supplemented with color pictures for the whitefly and parasitoids.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 58 Issue 12
    2015, 58(12):  1373. 
    Abstract ( 1009 )   PDF (714KB) ( 555 )     
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    General content of Volume 58(1-12)
    2015, 58(12):  1376. 
    Abstract ( 797 )   PDF (787KB) ( 452 )     
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