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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
26 September 2006, Volume 49 Issue 4
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Inheritance analysis of red color egg systems preserved in silkworm gene bank in China
    FAN Xiao-Dong,DAI Fang-Yin,TONG Xiao-Ling,LU Cheng,XIANG Zhong-Huai
    2006, 49(4):  543-549. 
    Abstract ( 3269 )   PDF (210KB) ( 1124 )     
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    The known marker systems of red egg ( re ), white egg (w2pe), the fourth brown egg ( b-4 ) and the normal type-black egg of silkworm Bombyx mori were crossed with 20 red egg systems of unknown genes preserved in silkworm gene bank in China, and cis-trans complementary test was conducted to identify the genes controlling their egg color and to study their inheritance. A new mutant gene, pink like egg, an allele of re, designated as rep, was isolated from 03-310 system. Phenotypically, this mutant was found to be characterized by pink eggs and pink eyes of the moth. Six systems appeared to be homozygous for the genotype of re/re. Five systems had additional genes controlling the white egg, light red egg or orange red egg besides the genotype of re/re. Two systems were confirmed to be homozygotes of the fourth brown egg (b-4). Redbrown egg occurred in the other 6 systems and was controlled by maternal inheritance. The two egg color controlling genes b-4 and re were found to be complementary, and the homozygote (b-4/b-4 re/re), a new egg color mutant, appeared as orange egg. 13 Refs. In Chinese.
    Polymorphsim distribution of hemolymph chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI) in Bombyx mori
    LI Juan, ZHAO Ping, DAI Fang-Yin, SUN Quan, XIA Qing-You, XIANG Zhong-Huai
    2006, 49(4):  550-555. 
    Abstract ( 3069 )   PDF (544KB) ( 1531 )     
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    Chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI) in Bombyx mori may play important roles in its normal development and growth with rich polymorphsim. In the experiment the distribution of CI polymorphsim in hemolymph among 425 silkworm strains was investigated by nativepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE). The results indicated that three genes  Ict-EIct-Dand Ict-Aexpressed in every strain, suggesting that these genes should be necessary for the development of silkworm, and the products of genes Ict-H and Ict-B were not found in 9 strains, which had no distinct deficiency in development. The polymorphsim distribution of CI exhibited the similar pattern in both the Japanese and Chinese strains. Finally, the cluster analysis of the CI polymorphsim distribution in 52 pure strains showed that the clustered groups were not correlative to the strain system, moltinism or voltinism. It was so concluded that CI existed commonly n different strains of silkworm, and the characteristics of CI polymorphsim distribution suggest that differentiation of their function may have occurred in evolution.

    Isolation of antifeeding components from wild rice Oryza punctata and their effect on digestive enzymes of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    FENG Guo-Zhong, WAN Shu-Qing, PAN Da-Jian
    2006, 49(4):  556-561. 
    Abstract ( 3011 )   PDF (199KB) ( 1269 )     
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    For evaluating the insect resistance property of a wild rice Oryza punctata, five extracts of the wild rice plants with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water were tested for their antifeedant activity against Spodoptera litura larvae. The results showed that chloroform extract was the most effective one among the five extracts. In 24 h and 48 h of treatment, the antifeedant rate of the chloroform extract against 3rd instar larvae of S. litura at 2.5 mg/mL was 55.62% and 52.66%, respectively. The chloroform extract was further separated through silica gel column and the fractions were  monitored with analytical thin layer chromatography (TLC). Fourteen fractions were obtained and also tested for their antifeedant activity against S. litura larvae. The bioassay results showed that fraction 4 and 10 at 1 mg/mL had higher antifeedant activity to 3rd instar larvae of S. litura than other fractions. The antifeedant rate of fraction 4 was 56.01% in 24 h of treatment and 38.06% in 48 h of treatment, while that of fraction 10 was 51.56% in 24 h of treatment and 64.30% in 48 h of treatment. The inhibiting activity of the two fractions against two digestive enzymes lipase and α-amylase from the midgut of S. litura was tested. The results showed that the activity of both enzymes was inhibited effectively by the two fractions. The inhibiting rates of fraction 4 and 10 at 1 mg/mL against α-amylase activity of 3rd instar larvae of S. litura were 25.06% and 27.40% in 72 h of treatment, respectively. Fraction 10 could inhibit the activity of lipase of 3rd instar larvae of S. litura significantly, with the inhibiting rate 19.82% in 48 h of treatment and 34.60% in 72 h of treatment, respectively. The results of assay suggested that the digestive enzymes of the midgut of S. litura might be the action targets of the active ingredients fromO. punctata.
    Effects of transgenic Bt corn expressing Cry1Ab toxin on activities of some enzy mes in larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepido ptera: Pyralidae)
    XU Yan-Ling , WANG Zhen-Ying , HE Kang-Lai , BAI Shu-Xiong
    2006, 49(4):  562-567. 
    Abstract ( 3300 )   PDF (191KB) ( 1862 )     
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    The activities of three detoxification enzymes (α-naphthyl acetate esterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase), two protective enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and midgut proteases (total protease, trypsin-like enzyme and chymotrypsin-like enzyme) in 3rd instar larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis after feeding on Bt-transgenic corn were evaluated in the laboratory. The results showed that the activities of α-naphthylacetate esterase, glutathioneS-transferase in the larvae fed on Bt corn leaf for 48 h were greatly lower than that of the control fed on the nontransgenic corn. However, the acetylcholinesterase activity of the larvae fed on Bt corn for 48 h, 60 h and 72 h increased markedly, being 2.00-, 1.50- and 2.50-fold higher than that of the control, respectively. The activities of protective enzymes, total protease, weak trypsin-like enzyme and chymotrypsin-like enzyme in the larvae fed on Bt corn for 48 h were also significantly lower than that of the control. However, the activities of the active alkaline trypsin-like enzyme were obviously higher than those of the control. The active alkaline trypsin-like enzyme activities of the larvae fed on Bt corn for 48 h, 60 h and 72 h were 4.00, 1.67 and 1.33-fold higher than that of the control. The results suggest that acetylcholinesterase and active alkaline trypsin-like enzyme may be associated with Asian corn borer resistance to Bt.

    Effects of endoparasitism by Encarsia bimaculata on the titers of juvenile hormones and 20-hydroxyecdysone in Bemisia tabaci nymphs
    QIAN Ming-Hui, REN Shun-Xiang, HU Qiong-Bo
    2006, 49(4):  568-573. 
    Abstract ( 3513 )   PDF (205KB) ( 1581 )     
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    The juvenile hormones (JHs) and molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) from Bemisia tabaci nymphs and adults un-parasitized or parasitized by Encarsia bimaculata  were measured with RP-HPLC. The results indicated that the parasitized older nymphs had significantly higher titer of JHs (P<0.05) but sign ificantly lower titer of 20-E (P<0.05) than those un-parasitized older nymphs (CK), which had similar titers of JHs and 20-E with the un-parasitized younger nymphs. This suggested that E. bimaculata could modulate its host metamorphosis hormone level, and prolong the nymph stage of its host. JH titers between adults,‘pupae' and CK, and 20-E titers between‘pupae' and CK of  B. tabaci, however, were not significantly different (P>0.05). 22Refs. In Chinese.
    Regulation and utilization of the host (Plutella xylostella) nutrients by the endoparasitoid Cotesia plutellae
    WANG Hai-Yan, YU Hong, WAN Zhi-Wei, XU Peng, CHEN Xue-Xin
    2006, 49(4):  574-581. 
    Abstract ( 3556 )   PDF (1481KB) ( 1357 )     
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    Parasitized by the endoparasitoid Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), the feeding, development and nutrition metabolism of the host Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were changed dramatically as the immature parasitoid developed inside. These changes were brought about by the impact of various parasitoidassociated-factors. Teratocyte as one factor plays an important role. By comparing the changes of proteins in parasitized host and un-parasitized host haemolymphs and the culture mediums of 2nd instar parasitoid larvae using these two kinds of haemolymph in vitro, we found that the protein concentration in the hemolymph of the parasitized host was only slightly (not significantly) lower than that of the un-parasitized host, but that of the culture medium using unparasitized host hemolymph was significantly lower than that of parasitized host, suggesting that the teratocytes have the ability to secret proteins. The body weight of parasitized host was greater than that of un-parasitized host while the reverse was true for the weight of fat body in the late stage of parasitization. Microscopic observation revealed that the moniliform fat body was broken into granules, which was induced by teratocytes attached the fat body tissue; correspondingly, the soluble protein and lipid concentrations of fat body decreased rapidly, much lower compared to those of un-parasitized host. At the same time parasitoid larva grew rapidly, its midgut became mature and absorbed a large amount of the host nutrients, the esterase activity in the midgut of parasitoid larvae increased accordingly and the amount of total lipid in the parasitoid larva increased up to its highest level. In conclusion, in the late stage of parasitization, the parasitoid larva, with the help of teratocytes, utilized up most of the host nutrients for its own development and growth.
    Antibacterial activities of chitosans obtained from cuticle of Musca domestica larvae and affecting factors
    JING Ying-Jun, SHAN Ying, LI De-Sen, DU Rong-Qian
    2006, 49(4):  582-587. 
    Abstract ( 3009 )   PDF (191KB) ( 1387 )     
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    In order to study the antibacterial activities of chitosans obtained from cuticle of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae and affecting factors, chitosans with different molecular weights prepared from cuticle of housefly larvae were examined against six bacteria at different conditions. The results showed that chitosans  with the molecular weights of 21-251 kD had stronger antibacterial activities. Chitosans showed higher antibacterial activities at low pH value. The minimum inhibitory concentration of chitosans ranged from 0.03%-0.06%. Ca2+ and Mg2+ could reduce the antibacterial activity of chitosans remarkably. Molecular weight of chitosans, pH value and ion were the factors strongly affecting the antibacterial activities of chitosan, which was also significantly related to the strain of the bacteria. Chitosan could increase  cell membrane penetrability of the bacteria and cause the leakage of cytoplasm.
    Isolation and identification of West Nile virus from experimentally infected Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Leghorn chicken
    JIANG Shu-Fang,ZHAO Tong-Yan,DONG Yan-De, GUO Xiao-Xia,ZHANG Ying-Mei,LI Chun-Xiao,ZHANG Xiao-Long, XING Dan
    2006, 49(4):  588-592. 
    Abstract ( 3416 )   PDF (459KB) ( 1374 )     
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    C6/36 culture isolation test, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and reverse transcription PCR and sequencing of the PCR products were carried out to isolate and identify the West Nile virus WNV from experimentally infected Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Leghorn chicken. The cell pathological effects such as cell fusion and cavitation were observed in C6/36 inoculated experimentally infected samples. The antigen of WNV was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Three specific PCR bands with expected size (408 bp, 498 bp, and 559 bp, respectively) were found, and the sequences of these PCR products were concordant with those of WNV Chin-01 strain. Henceit was confirmed that the WNV from experimentally infected Cx. Tritaeniorhynchus and Leghorn chicken was same as WNV Chin-01 strain used in our experiments.
    Transformation of spider neurotoxin gene with prospective insecticidal properties into hybrid poplar Populus simonii × P. nigra (In English)
    LIN Tong,WANG Zhi-Ying, LIU Kuan-Yu, JING Tian-Zhong, ZHANG Chuan-Xi
    2006, 49(4):  593-598. 
    Abstract ( 3312 )   PDF (2522KB) ( 1324 )     
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    In recent years, the pest insects on hybrid poplar Populus simonii×P. nigra broke out heavily, which caused great losses in forestry. In order to improve insect resistance of P. simonii×P. nigra and avoid pollution due to insecticides, the fused BGT gene consisting of the insecticidal toxin gene from the spider, Atrax robustus, and the C terminal of CryⅠA(b)gene from Bacillus thuringiensis was transferred into P. simonii×P. nigra by Agrobacteriumm-mediated transformation system. The results of  PCR and Southern blotting analyses showed that the insecticidal gene of BGT was integrated into the genome of  P. simonii×P. nigra. The corrected mortality of the second instar of Lymantria dispar in 6 days and 9 days after they were fed with the transgenic poplars was 37.0% and 92.6%, respectively. Analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference in body weight between L. dispar larvae fed with the transformed poplars and those fed with untransformed poplars. The results indicated that the growth rate of L. dispar fed with the transgenic poplars was affected negatively.
    Selective toxicity of chlorfenapyr to silkworm and mulberry pests
    MA Hui, WANG Kai-Yun, WANG Hong-Yan, SI Shu-Ding
    2006, 49(4):  599-603. 
    Abstract ( 4960 )   PDF (169KB) ( 1896 )     
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    For comparing the selective toxicity of chlorfenapyr between silkworm and mulberry silkworms and mulberry pests, the toxicity of chlorfenapyr, diazinon, dichlorvos, phoxim and triazophos was determined using food intake method, the toxicity of the five insecticides to Phthonandria atrilineata Butler, Diaphania pyloalis Walker and Porthesia xanthocampa Dyer was assayed in room using leaf dipping method, the period of residual toxicity of chlorfenapyr on mulberry to silkworm was tested by spraying pesticide in mulberry field, and the effect to growth and development of silkworm was investigated using food intake method. The results indicated that the toxicity of diazinon, dichlorvos, phoxim and triazophos in 72 h after treatment was 15.5, 93.3, 154.0 and 188.5 times higher than that of chlorfenapyr, respectively. The LC50 of chlorfenapyr, triazophos, phoxim and dichlorvos in 48 h after treatment to P. atrilineata was 49.1, 3.2, 2.3 and 1.4 times higher than that of diazinon, to D. pyloalis was 79.4, 3.6, 2.4 and 1.8 times higher than that of diazinon, and to E. similis was 67.2, 3.2, 2.2 and 1.7 times higher than that of diazinon, respectively. The period of residual toxicity of 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 mg/L of chlorfenapyr sprayed on mulberry field was 3, 0, 0 and 0 days, respectively. The developmental duration of survival larvae, the weight of dormant silkworm, the weight of mature silkworm, cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, pupa weight and pupation rate in treatments of 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 mg/L of chlorfenapyr showed no significant difference compared with the control. The results suggest that chlorfenapyr is an insecticide suitable to control pests in mulberry field and safe to silkworm.
    Analysis on atmospheric dynamical mechanisms for the great immigration events of the rice leaf roller Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee in 2003
    WANG Cui-Hua, BAO Yun-Xuan, WANG Jian-Qiang, XIANG Yong, ZHAI Bao-Ping
    2006, 49(4):  604-612. 
    Abstract ( 3158 )   PDF (1770KB) ( 1308 )     
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    In order to explore the atmospheric dynamic mechanisms of the rice leaf roller Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee catastrophic immigrations, the tempo-spatial patterns of its populations occurred in China in 2003 was analyzed topographically under the assistance of ArcGIS. Based on this analysis, two typical great immigrating events were selected. The observational meteorological data and T213 numerical simulation products covering these processes were extracted from the data received by a PCVSATTM (PC Very Small Aperture Terminal). These data were input into the model MM5 32 (The Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model for version 3.2), and a set of atmospheric dynamical fields during these migrating and landing processes were simulated numerically and analyzed objectively. The results were as follows: (1) It was feasible to use the directions of air streams on the 850 hPa (approximately 1 500 m) and 925 hPa(around 750 m) to describe the flight directions of rice leaf rollers in the main migrant layers during the northward and southward migrations of their populations, respectively. There were relatively coincident air streams with a northern exposure during the migration northward of rice leaf rollers and there were concurrent airflows with a southern exposure during the migration southward. The regions with cyclonic curvatures were advantageous to taking-off and emigration of the leaf rollers, and the areas with anticyclonic curvatures were favorable to immigration and landing. (2) The driving effect of the subsiding airflow on the vertical velocity field was most direct atmospheric dynamical mechanism for immigration and landing of rice leaf rollers. When they immigrated into the endangered regions, on the 850 hPa over these regions in 36-12 hours before landing, there were relative strong and wide subsiding airflows. (3) On the divergence fields of 850 hPa and 925 hPa in 36-12 hours before the pest immigrated into the endangered areas, there were conformably positive and high divergence values over the landing regions. This indicated that there were obvious strong sinking airflows over these regions, and these airflows were available for the pest's landing. (4) The diagnostic distributions of horizontal air stream field, vertical velocity field and divergence field on 850 hPa and 925 hPa would provide with good indicative significance for the forecast of rice leaf rollers' immigration and landing.
    Distribution pattern and dynamics of Apocheima cinerarius Erschoff populations studied with GS and GIS
    LOU Guo-Qiang, LU Wen-Yan, YU Hao, WANG Deng-Yuan, WANG Yun-Bing
    2006, 49(4):  613-618. 
    Abstract ( 3459 )   PDF (693KB) ( 1505 )     
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    The geostatistics method combined with RS and GIS technique was used to study the spatial distribution pattern and dynamics of Apocheima cinerarius(Erschoff ) populations in 2001-2003 based on the data ofA. cinerarius adults collected in light traps in Hetian, Xinjiang in these three years. The results showed that theA. cinerarius populations were in aggregated pattern of distribution during the three years in this district, but the aggregation degree as well as the spatial and quantitative distribution varied dynamically. Through interpreting the TM images and extracting the forest coverage of Hetian district, the cutting of simulation maps was completed with the help of ARCGIS software, and the A. cinerarius population distribution in concrete forest patchs was thus displayed. These results may serve as the basis for further studying the outbreak mechanism and integrated control strategies of A. cinerarius populations in Xinjiang.
    Migratory and sedentary strains of Aphis gossypii Glover and the flight characteristics of their hybridized offspring
    LIU Xiang-Dong, ZHAI Bao-Ping, LIANG Sheng-Ai, XU Xin-Hua, GONG Qun-Hui
    2006, 49(4):  619-624. 
    Abstract ( 3109 )   PDF (193KB) ( 1396 )     
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    In order to confirm the genetic background of the population differentiation in light capacity of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, the selective tests for the taking-off behavior, sexual aphid inducement, and hybridized inheritance of taking-off characteristics were studied. The results showed that the selected response of the taking-off angle and taking-off rate were strong, and the migratory strain (M) with large taking-off angle and the sedentary strain (S) with high non-taking-off rate were screened through four and two successive selections, respectively. The conditions of sexuales producing, mating and egg hatching in the laboratory were found. The taking-off performances of the migratory strain (M), sedentary strain (S), hybridized offsprings of M and S (M♀×S, S♀×M), and the aphids stayed on the summer hibiscus tree (H) were compared. The results showed that the taking-off rates of the M, M♀×S and S♀×M were significantly higher than that of the S strain, and the taking-off angle of the M♀×S was significantly larger than that of the S strain and the H aphids. The alate rate produced by the S was lower than those produced by the M, M♀×S and S♀×M. These results indicated that the inheritance effect of the taking-off performance was strong. The time waiting for taking-off of M♀×S was significant shorter than that of the M♂×S offspring and H aphids, but there was no difference between the M strain and the S strain, indicating that the inheritance effect of the time waiting for taking-off was very weak.
    Probing and feeding behaviors of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B biotype on three host plants
    YUE Mei, LUO Chen, GUO Xiao-Jun, ZHANG Zhi-Li
    2006, 49(4):  625-629. 
    Abstract ( 3901 )   PDF (162KB) ( 1521 )     
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    Probing and feeding behaviors of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. caqitata), summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) and hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) were recorded respectively using electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. The results showed that the adaptability of the whitefly varied with plant species, i.e., cabbage>summer squash>hot pepper. Out of 25 individuals recorded on each host plant species, 24, 19 and 15 individuals reached phloem while 22, 10 and 1 individual(s) had sustained sap ingestion on cabbage, summer squash and hot pepper, respectively. Before they reached the phloem (the first period), the percentage of whitefly non-probing were 9.59%, 23.55% and 36.97% respectively on host plant species in the same order as above. After they reached the phloem (the second period), whiteflies behaved similarly in terms of four parameters on cabbage and summer squash. In the third period, new probes after 1st sustained ingestion on cabbage leaves (4.73) were obviously less than on summer squash (13.40). Observations on the probing and feeding behaviors of free whiteflies confirmed the EPG results as above:  the percentages of whiteflies stayed on leaves within 60 min were 100%, 88% and 28% on cabbage, summer squash and hot pepper, respectively.  
    Quantitative measurement of influence of herbicides on food intake of Ummeliata insecticeps by the fluorescence labeling method
    XIAO Yong-Hong, HE Yi-Yuan, LIU Feng, YANG Hai-Ming
    2006, 49(4):  630-635. 
    Abstract ( 3485 )   PDF (285KB) ( 1280 )     
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    This paper focuses on studying the influence of herbicides on the food intake of Ummeliata insecticeps(Bosenberg et Strand) by a novel quantitative method-the fluorescence labeling method. Europium, the lanthanide chosen for the experiment, was dissolved in the soil and then absorbed by the rice plants. Sogatella furcifera eats the plants and U. insecticepspreys on S. furcifera for food. Thus, by applying a series of chemical analytical methods of extracting and invert extracting on the tested fly louse and spider samples, the food intake of  U. insecticepscould be known. The results showed that each surviving spider individual sprayed with Simetryne preyed on 1.784 S. furcifera individuals per day over the course of 12 days. If sprayed with Starane, spiders preyed on 2.678 S. furcifera individuals/d, and with Gallant S, 2.856 individuals/d, on average. The individual food intakes of the three test groups were all less than that of the control group, which preyed on 3.321 S. furcifera individuals/d. The curves of the food intakes of the spiders in the different groups are all inverted parabolas, which can be fitted by quadratic equations. If mortality is taken into account, for the first 8 days after the application of herbicides, the population food intakes of the test groups are all much less than that of the control group. The average predatory ratios of the three test groups in the 2nd day, the 5th day and the 8th day are 52.11%, 36.45% and 50.27% of the control group's population food intake, respectively. In the 12th day, however, the population food intake of the test groups is 131.84% of that of the control group. It could be concluded that all of the herbicides tested do harm to the spiders' food intake capacity within 8 days of exposure. Therefore, it is unadvisable to apply herbicides when the paddy field is rife with pests because the herbicides would weaken the spiders' control over the pests. It is also unadvisable to apply herbicides during the harvest season because the spiders migrate at this time and the lethality of the herbicides will disturb the rebuilding of the spider communities.
    Effects of temperature and host density on parasitizing and host-feeding of Theocolax elegans (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Sitophilus oryzae(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in stored wheat (In English)
    GAO Yan, ZHANG Zhong-Run, XU Zai-Fu
    2006, 49(4):  636-642. 
    Abstract ( 3657 )   PDF (261KB) ( 1442 )     
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    The larval-pupa parasitoid Theocolax elegans was evaluated as a biological control agent against the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae, in stored wheat. The parasitization and host-feeding of the parasitoid at six constant temperatures (17-32℃) were determined in the laboratory. The functional response of T. elegans parasitizing S. oryzae was examined over a range of temperatures and host densities. A functional response equation was fitted to each temperature regime. Within the temperature range of 17℃ to 29℃, the handling time was inversely proportional to temperature, and ranged from 0.333 d at 17℃ to 0.063 d at 29℃. Instantaneous search rate also changed with temperature and was the lowest at 17℃ and highest at 26℃. But over 29℃, the instantaneous search rate decreased significantly as the temperature increased. A temperature-mediated functional response equation was fitted to the data, in which handing time was a quadratic function of temperature. T. elegans can parasitize greater numbers of hosts within the temperature range of 26℃ to 29℃.
    Biological characteristics of Tetrastichus brontispae Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae)
    LU Bao-Qian, PENG Zheng-Qiang, XU Chun-Ai, TANG Chao, FU Yue-Guan, Du Yu-Zhou, WAN Fang-Hao
    2006, 49(4):  643-649. 
    Abstract ( 3893 )   PDF (1343KB) ( 2393 )     
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    Tetrastichus brontispae Ferrière, an important endoparasitoid of the coconut leaf beetle Brontispa longissima(Gestro) at pupal stage, was introduced into Hainan from Taiwan in 2004 Morphology, behavior, development, survival and reproduction of the parasitoid were studied under laboratory conditions. The results showed that T. brontispae female was bigger than male in body size, with obvious ovipositor. The number of parasitoid emerged from each host was averaged 21.5 with 77.4% females. The wasps could mate soon after emerging, and the mating behavior last 1-2 min. The peak of oviposition occurred 24 h after mating, and the temperature could affect the oviposition in the wasp. Sweet resources such as honey, sucrose, and glucose, especially honey, could prolong the longevity of adults, increase the fecundity and parasitism of females effectively. Laboratory experiments showed that the optimal temperature for development, survival, and reproduction of the parasitoid ranged from 20℃ to 28℃, and the temperatures below 16℃ or above 30℃ were unfavorable for its survival. The developmental threshold and the effective accumulated temperature of T. brontispae were 9.6℃ and 324.9 daydegrees, respectively.
    The reproductive strategies of non-pollinating fig wasps in Ficus cyrtophylla and their effects on the fig wasp mutualism
    SHI Zhang-Hong, YANG Da-Rong, PENG Yan-Qiong
    2006, 49(4):  650-655. 
    Abstract ( 3317 )   PDF (179KB) ( 1523 )     
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    Through extensive collecting, behavioral observation and test of obstructing fig wasps from entering figs, the community structure of fig wasps, the reproductive strategies of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW) and the effects of non-pollinating fig wasps on the figwasp mutualism of Ficus cyrtophylla,  an understory fig species in the tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna, were studied. Except the obligate pollinator-Blastophaga sp. for F. cyrtophylla, there were three non-pollinating fig wasp species in its syconia, i.e., Platyneura sp., Philotrypesis sp. and Sycoscapter sp. In the fig wasp community, Blastophaga sp., as the dominant species, accounted for 92.21% of the total fig wasps, while Sycoscapter  sp. accounted for only 5.78%, Philotrypesis  sp. 1.84% and Platyneurasp. 0.17% of the total fig wasps. Sycoscaptersp. was the primary non-pollinating fig wasp. All these non-pollinators oviposited outside the figs, and they produced their offsprings through co-inhabiting and competing with pollinators for reproductive sites or food resources. Platyneura sp. was the gall-maker while Philotrypesissp. and Sycoscaptersp. were both inquilines. If no pollinators entered the figs,all the non-pollinators would fail to produce their offsprings. The non-pollinators performed some significantly negative effects on the pollinator population size and the number of female pollinators, but not on the number of male pollinating fig wasps, and thus resulted in a significant increase of the ratio of males to the total number of the pollinators. These results show that non-pollinators usually prefer the galls of female pollinators to the galls of male pollinating fig wasps when they oviposit. Because the female pollinators are the only vectors for figs, the non-pollinators may negatively affect the stable existence and development of the fig-wasp mutualism.
    Life tables of immature stages of two coexisting melitaeine butterflies Melitaea phoebe and Euphydryas aurinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
    LIU Wen-Hua, WANG Yi-Fei, XU Ru-Mei
    2006, 49(4):  656-663. 
    Abstract ( 3823 )   PDF (211KB) ( 1335 )     
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    From 2002 to 2004, in Dahaitou National Natural Reserve, Chi Cheng county, Hebei province, mortality was surveyed for all immature stages of the two coexisting melitaeine butterflies Melitaea phoebe and Euphydryas aurinia for two generations in the same habitat network. Life tables were constructed to explore the effects of the main mortality factors on population dynamics. The results showed that the total mortalities of two generations of M. phoebe (89% in the 2002-2003 generation, and 80% in the 2003-2004 generation) were higher than those of E. aurinia (59% and 72% respectively). For M. phoebe, mortality due to grazing was the most important factor, especially during the post-hibernating larval period. The k  value for grazing was 0.559 and 0.167 respectively during the two generations. Even in the small populations, the parasitoids caused some post-diapause larvae (4% and 9% for the two generations respectively) and pupae (13% and 24%) to death. For E. aurinia, mortality during hibernation was the highest and the k value for the two generations was 0.073 and 0.199 respectively, which was influenced by host plant quality. In contrast, parasitoids had little effect on the population regulation, because only 4% of the post-diapause larvae and 7% of the pupae were dead due to parasitoids in the 2003-2004 generation. These results suggested that different conservation strategies should be taken for the two butterflies. For M. phoebe, to decrease grazing, especially its effects on the source population during the post-hibernating larval group stage, is crucial for its population restoration and growth. For E. aurinia, however, improvement of the host plant quality by habitat managements in breeding areas, which could increase the survivorship during the hibernation period, is helpful for its long-term persistence and conservation. 
    A review of the genus Pseudohedya Falkovitch from China, with description of two new species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae) (In English)
    YU Hai-Li, LI Hou-Hun
    2006, 49(4):  664-670. 
    Abstract ( 3092 )   PDF (737KB) ( 1344 )     
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    The genus Pseudohedya is reviewed from China. Two new species, i.e., Pseudohedyafanjingica sp. nov. from Mt. Fanjing, Guizhou Province and P. liui sp. nov. from Mt. Wangwu, Henan Province, China, are described. One species, Pseudohedya retractaFalkovitch, is recorded for the first time from this country. The diagnostic characters of the two previously known species in China, P. gradanaChristoph and P. cincinna Falkovitch, are discussed. The genus previously known only in the Palaearctic region is recorded for the first time from the Oriental Region (Guangdong, Guizhou, Sichuan and Hubei, China). A key to all the known species of the genus is given based on the male genitalia. Photos of adults and genitalia are provided.
    Behavioral change, physiological modification, and metabolic detoxification: mechanisms of insecticide resistance (In English)
    LIU Nan-Nan, ZHU Fang, XU Qiang, Julia W. PRIDGEON, GAO Xi-Wu
    2006, 49(4):  671-679. 
    Abstract ( 4286 )   PDF (315KB) ( 9491 )     
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    Insecticide resistance is “the development of an ability in a strain of some organisms to tolerate doses of a toxicant which would prove lethal to a majority of individuals in a normal population of the same species". Mechanisms of resistance, such as behavioral change, physiological modification or metabolic detoxification, decrease the effective dose available at the target site. Behavioral resistance is defined as any behavior that reduces an insect's exposure to toxic compounds or that allows an insect to survive in an environment that is harmful and/or fatal to the majority of insects. Physiological modification mechanisms permit insects to survive lethal doses of a toxicant through decreased penetration of insecticides, increased sequestration/storage of insecticides, and accelerated excretion of insecticides. Metabolic detoxification is conferred by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (cytochrome P450s), hydrolases, and glutathione transferases (GSTs). Cytochrome P450s constitute the largest gene superfamily and are critical for the detoxification and/or activation of xenobiotics and the metabolism of endogenous compounds. Increased P450-mediated detoxification has been found in many insect species, resulting in enhanced insecticide resistance. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are soluble dimeric proteins involved in the metabolism, detoxification, and excretion of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Elevated GST activities have been implicated in resistance in many insect species. Hydrolases or esterases, a group of heterogeneous enzymes, have been identified as the active agents promoting hydrolase-mediated resistance that protect insects by either binding and sequestering insecticides through overproduction of proteins, or enhancing the metabolism of insecticides through increased enzyme activities.
    Insect differential proteome: progress and prospects
    LIU Kai-Yu, QIU Bao-Guo, HONG Hua-Zhu, PENG Jian-Xin
    2006, 49(4):  680-686. 
    Abstract ( 3094 )   PDF (189KB) ( 1674 )     
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    With the completion of sequencing of the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori, Apis mellifera, Anopheles gambiae, etc., proteomic technology has been an important tool to clarify their functions. This article reviewed the achievements obtained by application of differential proteomic technology to the fields containing insect induced immunity, resistance mechanism and molecular pathology:  (1) Changes in protein expression files in insect hemolymph and hemocyte cell line induced by bacteria, fungi or injecting; (2) Differential proteins in brush board membrane between Bt-resistant and susceptible insects or in salivary gland between resistant and susceptible sand fly to Leishmania chagasi; (3) Alteration in proteins between the insect treated by chemical pesticide or the hemolymph of insect induced by polydnavirus and control insect.  Finally, the problems and strategies of insect differential proteomics have been discussed.
    Diversity of endosymbionts in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) complex and their biological implications
    CHU Dong, LIU Guo-Xia, TAO Yun-Li, ZHANG You-Jun
    2006, 49(4):  687-694. 
    Abstract ( 3943 )   PDF (269KB) ( 2580 )     
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    There are about 5 kinds of endosymbionts in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) complex including primary endosymbionts, secondary endosymbionts, Wolbachia, Candidatus Fritschea bemisiae and Cytophaga-like-organism. Phylogenetic analysis showed that primary endosymbionts in B. tabaci complex could be divided into two clades based on the 16S rDNA sequences. The phylogeny of primary endosymbionts in B. tabaci was not strictly congruent with that of their host B. tabaci. Secondary endosymbionts in B. tabaci complex could be divided into three clades based on the 16S rDNA sequences, and horizontal transmission and/or multiple infections might have occurred in these secondary endosymbionts. The distribution of the endosymbionts in B. tabaci biotypes was different, and some peculiar primary and secondary endosymbionts were found in B. tabaci Biotype B. Wolbachia, Candidatus Fritschea bemisiae and Cytophaga-like-organism were not found or scarcely found in B. tabaci Biotype B. Finally the biological implications of different endosymbionts for B. tabaci and future research directions are discussed.
    Cross-reactivity of allergens of house dust mites
    SUN Jin-Lu, CHEN Jun, ZHANG Hong-Yu
    2006, 49(4):  695-699. 
    Abstract ( 3537 )   PDF (139KB) ( 2074 )     
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    House dust mites are one of the most important sources of indoor allergens. The demand for higher quality of indoor environment strengthens as the modern life style becomes more popular, so people pay more and more attention to the allergic diseases caused by environmental factors. This paper reviewed allergenic cross-reactivity between house dust mites and other mites, mollusks (snail),  crustaceans (shrimp)and insects (cockroach, silverfish, non-biting midges,caddisflies,silverfish, non-biting midges, caddisflies, etc.). The review will be helpful for clinical diagnosis of allergy.
    Effect of methamidophos on midgut proteinase activity in the wolf spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae) assayed with piezoelectric bulk acoustic wave impedance analysis method (In English)
    WANG Zhi, SONG Da-Xiang, FU Xiu-Qin, LI Yun-Long
    2006, 49(4):  700-704. 
    Abstract ( 3134 )   PDF (202KB) ( 1245 )     
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    The piezoelectric bulk acoustic wave (BAW) impedance analysis method was employed to monitor in situ the proteinase-catalyzed hydrolyzation of casein and the effect of methamidophos pesticide on the midgut proteinase activity of the wolf spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata, and its results were verified by ultraviolet spectroscopy. The results showed that hydrolyzation was significantly increased in the presence of low-dose methamidophos, whereas the hydrolyzation was significantly inhibited in the presence of high-dose methamidophos, and a correlation was found precisely between the enzyme activity reflected by the final frequency shift after the hydrolyzation and the concentration of methamidophos. The present work may have presented a novel method feasible for studying the mechanism of excitability of spiders under low-dose methamidophos pesticide and quick detection of proteinase activity.  
    A forecasting model for emergence and flight pattern of the overwintering generation of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) based on pheromone trapcatches and degree-days in northeastern China
    JIAO Xiao-Guo, XUAN Wei-Jian, SHENG Cheng-Fa
    2006, 49(4):  705-709. 
    Abstract ( 3344 )   PDF (208KB) ( 1686 )     
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    A linear forecasting model to monitor the spring emergence and flight pattern of the overwintering generation of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in northeastern China was developed.The model is based on the correlation between the pheromone trap catches and corresponding degree-days (DDs) calculated from 1 March above the threshold of 12.9℃ in Liuhe, Jilin in 1999-2000. Overwintering adults generally begin to appear in Liuhe rice fields after 126.995 cumulative DDs. The DD accumulations from 1 March corresponding to the capture of 10%, 50% and 90% of all male moths throughout the flight season were 238.323, 339.418 and 483.398, respectively. The comparison of the predicted results with the observed data in three years (2002-2004) in Changchun city verified the reliability of the log-probit line forecasting model,which indicated that the error of DDs varied from 3.882 to 26.943, and the corresponding error of dates (between the observed and predicted dates) was 0-3 days. In rice-producing regions in northeastern China, farmers could use the results of the forecasting model to help make decisions for the effective control of the rice stem borer.
    Comparative research on trap efficiency of different blends on rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    LI Wei-Zheng, WANG Hong-Tuo, YOU Xiu-Feng, XUAN Wei-Jian, SHENG Cheng-Fa
    2006, 49(4):  710-713. 
    Abstract ( 3415 )   PDF (136KB) ( 1390 )     
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    Season-long trapping tests during summers of 2004 and 2005 in the Yangtze-Huaihe rice-growing areas demonstrated that there were noticeable seasonal shifts for trapping Chilo suppressalis males. As for trapping the first generation, a four-component lure (162.3 μg Z-11-hexedecanal, 81.3 μg Z-9-hexedecanal, 56.4 μg hexedecanal, and 30.3 μg Z-13-octadecenal) produced approximately 5-fold trap catches as did the standard pheromone lure of C. suppressalis reported. This ratio was significantly different with the ratios of the over-wintered and the second generation ranging from 1.52 to 1.87.Trap catch depended on the ratio of Z11- and Z9-hexedecanal, but did not depend on either component dosage or the total dosage. The optimal ratio of Z11- and Z9-hexedecanal for field trapping might change with different night-temperatures, and the declining of trap catch in the first flights might be due to the inappropriate ratio of Z11- and Z9-hexedecanal contained in the standard pheromone lure of C. suppressalis.
    Development and growth of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acarina: Acaridae) bred under different temperatures with different nutriments
    LIU Ting, JIN Dao-Chao,GUO Jian-Jun, LI Li
    2006, 49(4):  714-718. 
    Abstract ( 3708 )   PDF (179KB) ( 1523 )     
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    The development and growth of every stage of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) bred with two different food (corn and yeast) under constant temperatures 12.5℃, 15℃, 20℃, 25℃ and 30℃, respectively, were studied. The developmental threshold temperature (DTT) and effective accumulated temperature (EAT) of different stage of T. putrescentiae were calculated. The results showed that the developmental period and the temperature were in negative correlation within the temperature range tested, i.e., with the increase of temperature the time needed for development was shortened. The developmental threshold temperature and effective accumulated temperature were different for the mites bred at the same constant temperature but with different food. For the mites bred with yeast, the whole generation took 48.04 d and 8.41d under 12.5℃ and 30℃, respectively; DTT was 10.18℃ and EAT 155.44 d·℃. While for the mites bred with corn, the whole generation lasted 78.79 d and 10.77 d under 12.5℃ and 30℃; DTT was 10.52℃ and EAT was 208.33 d·℃. The body length and width of the adult mites were used to compare influence of food and temperature on the mite development. The results showed that food ingredient played important role, while temperature had almost no effect on body size of the mite.