Please wait a minute...
Information
  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
01 November 2006, Volume 49 Issue 5
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Establishment and characterization of an embryo cell line of Bombyx mori, BmE-SWU2
    PAN Min-Hui, CHEN Min, DING Yu-Bin, HONG Xi-Jun, LU Cheng
    2006, 49(5):  719-725. 
    Abstract ( 3275 )   PDF (5576KB) ( 1611 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    An embryo cell line of Bombyx mori, named BmE-SWU2, was established after one year primary culture. The cells are relatively single, short shuttle-like or round, and very small in shape. The cell line belongs to adhesive-type epithelium. The cell doubling time was 51.8 h. The ratio of duple cells was 89.76%. Thus, the cell line belongs to duple cell line. The chromosomes of BmE-SWU2 was typical of Lepidoptera, namely the chromosomes in metaphase were short pole-like or granule-like and the centromeres dispersed-type. BmE-SWU2 was more sensitive to BmNPV. The 50% tissue culture infection dose (TCID50) was 1.581×10-7.
    Cloning and sequence analysis of a novel transcription-associated zinc ribbon protein gene from silkworm, Bombyx mori
    FENG Shan, ZHANG Yao-Zhou
    2006, 49(5):  726-732. 
    Abstract ( 3101 )   PDF (303KB) ( 1326 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The zinc ribbons are one group of diverse zinc finger proteins. Most zinc-ribbon domain is actually folded as three-stranded antiparallel β-sheets in their structure instead of finger-like helices. The zinc ribbon is a domain that functions as interaction modules binding to nucleic acids. The zinc ribbon proteins perform a broad range of functions such as replication and repair, transcription and translation as a transcriptional repressor.Through searching cDNA bank of silkworm pupae, a unique EST (GenBank accession no. DY230964) encoding the zinc ribbon protein was identified. In order to obtain full-length cDNA in Bombyx mori, we used this sequence as a probe and performed in silico cloning based on the B. mori EST database. A contig was thus assembled on the basis of several ESTs. It was also verified by RT-PCR. PCR product was purified and ligated intopGEM-T-easy vector. The recombinant clones were sequenced, which had the same sequence as the contig. We nominated this novel gene encoding zinc ribbon domain containing protein as BmZNRD1 (GenBank accession no. DQ432055). The full-length of the gene is 675 bp. It contains an ORF of 363 bp, 10 bp nucleotide sequence in 5′ UTR (untranslated region) and 302 bp nucleotide sequence in 3′ UTR (untranslated region). It encodes 120 amino acids and is highly homologous to those of eukaryotic organisms previously reported (about 60%), with their predicted mass 13.54 kD and isoelectric point 6.8. The deduced amino acid sequence is one of zinc ribbon proteins with two putative functional domains, the N-terminal domain Cx2Cx14Cx2C and the C-terminal domain Cx2Cx24Cx2C. The highly conserved amino acid sequence within the C-terminal domain is Cx2Cx6Yx3QxRSADEx2TxFx2Cx2C, which is well conserved through evolution,in organisms such as yeasts, Drosophila, nematodes, amphibians and mammals, and highly homologous to the yeast RNA polymerase A subunit 9 and transcription-associated proteins. An alignment of the cDNA sequence with the silkworm genome sequences revealed that there were 3 exons and 2 introns in the gene of  BmZNRD1, and all of them conformed the canonical GT-AG rules.
    Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding pheromone binding protein 3 from the Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) and its expression in Escherichia coli
    LIU Xiao-Guang, AN Shi-Heng, LUO Mei-Hao, GUO Xian-Ru, YUAN Guo-Hui
    2006, 49(5):  733-739. 
    Abstract ( 3316 )   PDF (568KB) ( 1562 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A cDNA clone encoding a pheromone binding protein 3 from antenna of Helicoverpa assulta (named HassPBP3) was isolated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cloning and sequencing results showed that the full length of HassPBP3 open reading frame (ORF) was 495 bp, encoding 164 amino acid residues, and the predicted molecular weight (MW) was 18.5 kD. The N-terminus hydrophobic region predicted containing of 22 amino acid residues within the HassPBP3 displayed the characteristic features of a signal peptide. Thus, the mature protein should consist of 142 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight (MW) of 16.1 kD and isoelectric point (IP) of 5.44. The gene was then constructed into expression vector pGEX-4T-2 for over expression in prokaryotic cells. The SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that induced by IPTG, the PBP3 proteins in H. assultawas expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, and its MW was found to be about 42 kD by checking with SDS-PAGE, nearly equal to the predicted.
    Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding a chemosensory protein in the antenna of Helicoverpa assulta and its expression in Escherichia coli
    JIANG Jin-Wei, GAO Su-Xia, AN Shi-Heng, WANG Chen-Zhu
    2006, 49(5):  740-746. 
    Abstract ( 3309 )   PDF (729KB) ( 1264 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The full-length cDNA encoding a chemosensory protein (CSP) was isolated from the antenna of Helicoverpa assulta by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).This PCR fragment was further cloned and sequenced. The results showed that the CSP gene in H. assulta was 384 bp in size (registered in GenBank with the accession number DQ285667) and encoded 127 amino acid residues. The N-terminus hydrophobic region predicted containing of 16 amino acid residues within the Has-CSP displayed the characteristic features of a signal peptide. Thus the predicted mature weight (MW) is 12.97 kD and isoelectric point (IP) 5.32. The CSP gene was then constructed into the expression vector pGEX-4T2 for overexpression in prokaryotic cells. The SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the CSP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The Western blot further confirmed this result. The expressed fusion protein in BL21 was found to be about 39 kD, consistent with the predicted result.
    Soluble expression of the antifungal peptide genes, Drs and Drs-lC, of Drosophila melanogaster in the prokaryote and the detection of their antifungal activity
    DUAN Yun, DENG Xiao-Juan, YE Ming-Qiang, YANG Wan-Ying, HUANG Ya-Dong, WEN Shuo-Yang, CAO Yang
    2006, 49(5):  747-753. 
    Abstract ( 3723 )   PDF (676KB) ( 1326 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Drosomycin (Drs) is the first insect antifungal peptide from Drosophila melanogaster which showed a broad activity against filamentous fungi but no activity to bacteria. Besides the Drs, there are six gene sequences of Drs isoforms in the genome of D. melanogaster. Among them, only the activity of Drosomycin-like C (Drs-lC) was close to Drs. The soluble expression of the antifungal peptide genes Drs and Drs-lC may be applied in the preservation of agricultural products such as fruits and vegetables. In this paper, the genes of Drs and Drs-lC were respectively inserted into the fusion vector pThiohis A containing thioredoxin (Trx) and solubly expressed after the recombinant vectors were transformed into TOP10. The conditions of the expression including the starting concentration of the bacteria induced, the inductive concentration of IPTG and the incubation time after induction were optimized. The results showed that the fusion proteins, Trx-Drs and Trx-Drs-lC, were expressed as soluble proteins. The soluble expression level of Trx-Drs in the supernate amounted to 22% of the total proteins of bacteria. The expressed products of fusion proteins were purified by Ni-NTA. The results of antifungal activity detection indicated that the fusion proteins, Trx-Drs and Trx-Drs-lC, showed obvious activity against five of the eight tested fungi.
    Cloning and sequencing of cytochrome oxidase Ⅱ gene of Aphis glycines and its application in detecting natural enemies
    GAO Hong-Xiu, HAN Lan-Lan, ZHAO Kui-Jun, FAN Dong, LIU Jian
    2006, 49(5):  754-758. 
    Abstract ( 3573 )   PDF (390KB) ( 1362 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Cytochrome oxidase subunit gene segment of Aphis glycines was cloned and sequenced. The length of the sequence was 810 bp (GenBank accession no. DQ265743). The sequence was contrasted with other aphids registered at GenBank to identify their molecular homology. One pair of sequence-characterized primer was developed, and its amplified single band was about 270 bp. The specificity tests performed with this pair of primer showed the presence of the band only in A. glycines. Molecular identification of the natural enemies fed on A. glycines was tested with the specific primer. The results indicated that  the target DNA fragment of A. glycines was detected in guts of the predatory insects Harmonia axyridis, Propylaea japonica, Chrysopa septempunctata, and Orius similes, but not detected in the above predatory insects without feeding A. glycines.
    Effects of plant volatiles on the EAG response and behavior of the grey tiger longicorn, Xylotrechus rusticus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
    YAN Shan-Chun, CHENG Hong, YANG Hui, YUAN Hong-E, ZHANG Jian, CHI De-Fu
    2006, 49(5):  759-767. 
    Abstract ( 4599 )   PDF (334KB) ( 2042 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of female and male beetles of Xylotrechus rusticus (L.) to 10 volatiles were tested, including salicylaldehyde (0.95 μmol/μL) from poplar, the host plant, and phytol (0.3 μmol/μL), R-(-)-α-phellandrene (0.4 μmol/μL), (1R)-(+)-α-pinene, (1S)-(-)-α-pinene, (1S)-(-)-β-pinene, (+)-3-carene, ocimene, β-myrcene and turpentine (0.6 μmol/μL) from non-host plant. The results showed that the 10 volatiles could evoke very significant EAG responses (P<0.01) of the adults compared with the control, paraffin. The females exhibited stronger EAG responses to turpentine, salicylaldehyde, (1R)-(+)-α-pinene, (1S)-(-)-α-pinene, while (1R)-(+)-α-pinene and turpentine could induce stronger EAG responses to males. The EAG responses of female and male adults to salicylaldehyde, (1R)-(+) -α-pinene and ocimene had no significant differences (P>0.05), but to the rest 7 volatiles had remarkable difference (P<0.01). The responses and behaviors of females to different doses of turpentine, (1R)-(+)-α-pinene, (1S)-(-)-α-pinene and salicylaldehyde, were further tested. The tested concentrations of salicylaldehyde were 0.000095, 0.00095, 0.0095, 0.095, 0.95, and 0.19 μmol/μL; the rest compounds with the same concentrations of 0.00006, 0.0006, 0.006, 0.06, 0.6, and 0.12 μmol/μL. With the concentration increased, the female EAG response to turpentine, salicylaldehyde and (1R)-(+)-α-pinene increased accordingly and kept steady when the concentration of salicylaldehyde reached 0.95 μmol/μL and those of turpentine and (1R)-(+)-α-pinene reached 0.6 μmol/μL. When the concentration were less than or equal to 0.6 μmol/μL, turpentine  exhibited repellent effect to females and had the best effect at 0.6 μmol/μL (P<0.01); whereas, it showed lure effect at 0.12 μmol/μL (P>0.05). When the concentration were lower than 0.095 μmol/μL, salicylaldehyde had no obvious directional action to female (P>0.05); while higher than 0.095 μmol/μL, it exhibited repellent action (P<0.05). The females showed no distinct directional behavior to (1R)-(+)-α-pinene and (1S)-(-)-α-pinene.
    Identification, activity and function determination of several salivary enzymes secreted by Macrosiphum avenae
    GUO Guang-Xi, LIU Yong, YANG Jing-Juan, MA Xiang-Zhen
    2006, 49(5):  768-774. 
    Abstract ( 3962 )   PDF (5864KB) ( 1513 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Parafilm method was adopted for feeding the third instar nymphs of Macrosiphum avenae on two liquid diets (20% sucrose and redistilled water). Their saliva after feeding for 24 h was collected and assayed identifying salivary enzymes and determining their activities. The results showed that pectinase, polyphenol oxidase and cellulase were identified in 20% sucrose diet; cellulase was identified in redistilled water diet; peroxidase was not identified in both diets. The activities of pectinase, polyphenol oxidase and cellulase secreted into 20% sucrose diet by 30 aphids were 2.59×10-3 U/g, 7×10-3 U/g and 7.89×10-3 U/g, respectively; and cellulase activity secreted into redistilled water diet by 30 aphids was 3.68×10-3 U/g. In the behavioral response test, the predator Coccinella septempunctata and parasitoid Aphidius avenae of M. avenae showed much preference for the volatiles in wheat seedlings treated by pectinase. It was so concluded that pectinase secreted by M. avenae play an important role in wheat plant indirect defense induced by aphid feeding.
     
    Effect of sublethal concentration of insecticides and SlNPV on the activities of SOD, CAT and POD in Spodoptera litura
    ZHANG Hui, WANG Xiao-Rong, KUANG Shi-Zi, WU Jie-Fang, LU Zuo-Zhou
    2006, 49(5):  775-779. 
    Abstract ( 3814 )   PDF (171KB) ( 1373 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The sublethal effect of insecticides and SlNPV on the activities of superoxide (SOD),catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in Spodoptera litura was investigated under 28℃. The results showed that the SOD activity in the treatment of chlorpyrifos and SlNPV mixture was significantly higher than those in the treatments of chlorpyrifos, SlNPV and the water control. It was 1.18, 1.35 and 1.25 times that of the water control at 12, 24 and 36 h, respectively. The SOD activity in the treatment of chlorfenapyr and SlNPV mixture was lower than those in the treatments of chlorfenapyr, SlNPV and the water control after 12 h. The CAT activity in the treatment of chlorpyrifos and SlNPV mixture was significantly higher than those in the treatments of  chlorpyrifos, SlNPV and the water control. It was 2.79, 1.09 and 1.53 times that of the water control at 12, 24 and 36 h, respectively. The CAT activity in the treatment of chlorfenapyr and SlNPV mixture was lower than those of the water control except at 12 h. POD activity could not be investigated in S. litura. It was obvious that there was a great difference in the activity of CAT mostly after treatment of the mixture of insecticides and SlNPV.
     
     
    Resistance of transgenic Xiaohei poplars with fusion protein gene of the spider insecticidal peptide and Bt-toxin C-peptide to Clostera anachoreta (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae)
    FAN Hai-Juan, HU Chun-Xiang, WANG Zhi-Ying, LIU Gui-Feng
    2006, 49(5):  780-785. 
    Abstract ( 3835 )   PDF (181KB) ( 1362 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    For evaluating the resistance of transgenic Xiaohei poplar with fusion protein gene of the spider insecticidal peptide and Bt-toxin C-peptide to Clostera anachoreta(Fabricius), the development and death of C. anachoreta larvae feeding on different transgenic Xiahei poplars (the 1st transgenic clone, TT1; the 3rd transgenic clone, TT3) or their non-transgenic control (CK) and the histological change in their midgets were investigated in the laboratory through the cage feeding method and oparaffin method. The results indicated that for the larvae fed respectively on TT3, TT1 and CK, the total duration of 5 instars were 35.63 d, 30.39 d and 28.74 d, respectively; the percentages of pupation were 12.1%, 29.3% and 44.3%, respectively; and the mean weights of pupae were 0.1077 g, 0.1714 g and 0.1893 g, respectively. Feeding on the transgenic plantlets prolonged the larval developmental duration and decreased the pupation rate and pupal weight. At the same time, feeding on transgenic plantlets restrained the ecdyses of larvae, increased their mortality, and resulted in deformation of pupae. Histological examination showed that the midguts of larvae feeding on transgenic plantlets were somewhat damaged, for example, loosing cellular arrangement and decreasing food in midguts and distorting structure, and the damage was more serious with the extension of time. Generally speaking, various effects of TT3 on C. anachoreta were stronger than those of TT1.
     
    Effects of transgenic cry1Ab rice on population development of the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera(Horvath) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)
    ZHOU Xia, CHENG Jia-An, LOU Yong-Gen
    2006, 49(5):  786-791. 
    Abstract ( 3561 )   PDF (207KB) ( 1282 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    For assessing impacts of Bt rice on the non-target insects, the population parameters of the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) fed on transgenic cry1Ab rice varieties KMD1 and KMD2 and their parent rice variety XS11 were assayed in the laboratory. The results showed that the innate capacity for increase of S. furcifera on KMD2 was lower than that on XS11 due to the significant reduction of oviposition duration (7.6 d on KMD2 and 12.7 d on XS11, respectively) and the number of eggs laid per female (95.0 on KMD2 and 167.5 on XS11, respectively). The chemical analysis indicated that this might be resulted from the significant difference of contents of total free amino acids, particularly two free amino acids (Ala and Glu) between KMD2 and XS11. But the effect of KMD1 was not the same as that of KMD2 except that there was also a significant reduction of oviposition duration (8.6 d on KMD1). The results suggested that feeding on different rice varieties might have different effects on population development of S. furcifera.
    Survival and development of the wolf spider Alopecosa pulverulenta feeding on cotton aphid Aphis gossypii propagated on transgenic cotton
    GUO Jian-Ying, Gabor L. LÖVEI2, WAN Fang-Hao, HAN Zhao-Jun
    2006, 49(5):  792-799. 
    Abstract ( 3483 )   PDF (268KB) ( 1150 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Prey-mediated effects of genetically manipulated (GM) plants on polyphagous natural enemies were studied. Transgenic cotton cv. SGK321 (with inserted genes of Cry1Ac and CpTI) was used as the GM, the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii as the model pest, and the wolf spider Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck) as the generalist natural enemy. Aphids reared on GM vs. non-GM cotton were both poor quality food for A. pulverulenta spiderlings, in terms of growth and mortality. But the spiderlings showed higher survival and developed better when they were fed with aphids and fruit flies alternatively. When fed with aphids only, there were no differences in impact whether prey aphids were from GM or non-GM cotton, both in the limited feeding and unlimited feeding regimes. In the unlimited feeding experiment, the spiderlings showed higher survival when they were fed with aphids from GM cotton and fruit flies alternatively, compared with those fed with aphids from non-GM cotton and fruit flies alternatively, but body mass of the spiderlings did not differ between these two treatments. In the limited and mixed feeding experiment, there were no differences in impact whether prey aphids were from GM or non-GM cotton. The results indicate that transgenic cotton cv. SGK321 has no significant adverse effects on the survival and development of the wolf spider through non-target prey cotton aphid.
    Insemination potential of male Trichogramma ostriniae Pang et Chen (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)
    CHEN Ke-Wei, LU Yan-Qing, PAN Xue-Hong, HE Yu-Rong
    2006, 49(5):  800-804. 
    Abstract ( 3765 )   PDF (188KB) ( 1335 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Based on the sex determination of Hymenoptera parasitic wasps that unfertilized egg develops into a male while fertilized egg develops into a female, the insemination potential of male Trichogramma ostriniae and its relationship with body size, age and the number of copulations were studied. The results showed that spermary of T. ostriniae had been set before the eclosion and no sperm was produced in the adult stage. A male adult could inseminate 8-23 females during its lifetime, and approximately breed 346.15 female progenies. Males exhausted their sperms or seminal fluid in 24 hours after emergence when provided with unlimited virgin females. Though male adults would continue to copulate with females afterwards, no female offspring had been observed. The insemination potential of a male T. ostriniae was closely linked with the number of copulations, and sperm quantity gradually decreased as more copulations performed. The male adult could provide more sperms to females in its initial copulation, and approximately fathered 58.85 female progenies. However, with the increase of the number of copulations and consumption of sperms, fewer and fewer sperms could be transmitted to females. A male could father no more than 10 female progenies after 10 copulations. The insemination potential also showed that it was positively related to body size. Bigger males could copulate more and breed more female progenies.
    Spatial distribution pattern of Agrilus auriventris Saunders (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)
    ZHENG Hong-Hai, WEI Shu-Jun, HUANGFU Wei-Guo, SHI Zu-Hua, CHEN Xue-Xin
    2006, 49(5):  805-809. 
    Abstract ( 3800 )   PDF (167KB) ( 1240 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    In order to examine the interaction between pest population and environment as well as biology and ecology of the citrus flat-headed borer, Agrilus auriventris Saunders, spatial distribution pattern of the borer was studied by investigating the distribution of adult emergence holes in citrus plants. The results showed that the emergence holes of the borer were distributed in crowds both in trees and in orchards. The fitting tests for spatial distribution pattern, analysis of the aggregative indexes and the Taylar's law showed that the emergence holes revealed an aggregative negative-binomial distribution pattern in died trees, negative-binomial distribution or Neyman type A distribution in half died trees, and negative-binomial distribution in orchards. Based on Iwao regression, the basic element for the distribution was clusters of individuals both within trees and within orchards, and the individuals attracted each other. Trees with low growth vigor were vulnerable to the pest, while healthy trees could kill the larvae by gummosis. Therefore, aggregative multi-attacking strategy was used by the pest to conquer the host plants. In general, the beetle attacked in crowds a part of the trees in the orchards and the middle or basal part of the trunks in trees, and then next generations attacked the wounded trees again and again as the growth vigor of citrus trees descended, where larvae could succeed in completing development, and finally conquered the host plants.
    Relationship between host plant preference of Liriomyza huidobrensis(Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and secondary plant compounds and trichomes of host foliage
    PANG Bao-Ping, GAO Jun-Ping, ZHOU Xiao-Rong, WANG Juan
    2006, 49(5):  810-815. 
    Abstract ( 4027 )   PDF (179KB) ( 1499 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    With no-free choice means, the host plant preference of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) was examined according to the number of stipples (oviposition and/or feeding punctures) as a preference index on 22 vegetable varieties of 16 species of 6 families in the laboratory. The results showed that the host preference for feeding and oviposition was significantly different among the hosts tested. The preference levels decreased from Leguminosae, Compositae, Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae, Umbelliferae to Cruciferae. Kidney bean and garland chrysanthemum were the most preferred, and cabbage and tomato were the least. Chemical analysis and microscopical investigation showed that the content of tannin and flavorne in foliages and the density of leaf trichomes differed significantly among the vegetable varieties tested. The content of tannin was the highest in balsam pear, less in pea, tomato and green pepper, and the least in Cucurbita maschata var. medullosa, garland chrysanthemum, kidney bean and American celery. The content of flavone was the highest in cabbage and tomato, less in balsam pear, and the least in garland chrysanthemum, kidney bean and American celery. The density of leaf trichomes was the highest in C. maschata and Chinese cabbage, less in C. pepo, C. maschata var. medullosa and cabbage, and the lowest in green pepper, lettuce and balsam pear. The correlative analysis indicated that the host preference of L. huidobrensis was significantly negatively correlated with the content of tannin and flavone in foliages, and correlation coefficients were -0.4425 P=0.0392and -0.5728P=0.0053, respectively, but it was not significantly correlated with the density of leaf trichomes(R-0.1807, P=0.4211. These results indicated that tannin and flavorne might play an important role in restraining feeding and oviposition of the pea leafminer.
    Effect of temperature and relative humidity on development and reproduction of the tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici(Massee) (Acarina, Eriophyidae)
    XU Xiang, LI Lin-Yi, WANG Dong-Sheng, HONG Xiao-Yue, WU Juan, YUAN Yong-Da, XIE Xian-Chuan
    2006, 49(5):  816-821. 
    Abstract ( 3677 )   PDF (185KB) ( 1335 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The effect of constant temperature and relative humidity on the development and reproduction of the tomato russet mite (TRM), Aculops lycopersici (Massee) was investigated. The results showed that the survival rate of TRM were highly effected by rearing temperature and relative humidity, the highest was 89.9% at 23℃ (53%RH) and 87.1% at 75.5%RH (26℃). The developmental duration of TRM decreased as rearing temperature increased from 14℃ to 35℃, and increased as relative humidity increased from 30% to 100%. The developmental zero of egg nymph and from egg to adult of TRM were 10.51℃, 9.02℃, and 9.15℃, respectively. A total of 105.56 degree-days above a developmental zero of 9.15℃ were required to complete development from egg to adult emergence. The obvious effect of temperature and humidity on the reproductive rate of TRM was observed. It was found that the duration of oviposition decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing humidity. Fecundity was highest at 26℃ (53%RH) and 53%RH (26℃) with 44.3 eggs and 42.2 eggs laid per female, respectively. The highest intrinsic rate of natural increase was observed at 26℃ (53%RH) and 53%RH (26℃) as 0.2645 and 0.2669, respectively. The results showed that the optimal temperature interval for its development should be within 26-29℃ and the optimal humidity interval be within 53%-75%RH.
    Genetic variation and relatedness in Tunisian wheat midges of the genus Mayetiola (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), inferred from biological and molecular data
    Dhia BOUKTILA, Maha MEZGHANI, Mohamed MARRAKCHI, Hanem MAKNI
    2006, 49(5):  822-828. 
    Abstract ( 3513 )   PDF (453KB) ( 1680 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor Say and the barley stem gall midge Mayetiola hordei Kieffer are two sibling phytophageous species causing, annually, important losses to cereals in Tunisia. Damage to wheat has usually been attributed to Mayetiola destructor but there is no strict association between the cereal species (wheat or barley) and the Mayetiola species ( destructor or hordei ). An effective pest management program requires an accurate analysis of the midges' genotypes. In the present study, we used the RAPD technique in conjunction with mating bioassays and mitochondrial DNA typing, to assess the extent of genetic variability and taxonomic relatedness, within a Mayetiola population infesting wheat in the North of Tunisia. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from the RAPD showed that the studied population had a variable genetic background that could be due to a complex epidemiological situation where wheat samples would be co-infested by both M. destructor and M. hordei. Although mating assays did not result in oviposition in a few cases (2/14), mitochondrial typing based on the Cyt b gene restriction analysis showed that all samples were M. destructor ones. Our results are additional evidence that RAPD variability is not a reliable criterion for taxonomical inference and provide support for allopatric distribution of M. destructor and M. hordei species, in Tunisia.
    Two new cicada species from Shaanxi, China(Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadidae)
    Allen F. SANBORN
    2006, 49(5):  829-834. 
    Abstract ( 3000 )   PDF (3902KB) ( 1327 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor Say and the barley stem gall midge Mayetiola hordei Kieffer are two sibling phytophageous species causing, annually, important losses to cereals in Tunisia. Damage to wheat has usually been attributed to Mayetiola destructor but there is no strict association between the cereal species (wheat or barley) and the Mayetiola species ( destructor or hordei ). An effective pest management program requires an accurate analysis of the midges' genotypes. In the present study, we used the RAPD technique in conjunction with mating bioassays and mitochondrial DNA typing, to assess the extent of genetic variability and taxonomic relatedness, within a Mayetiola population infesting wheat in the North of Tunisia. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from the RAPD showed that the studied population had a variable genetic background that could be due to a complex epidemiological situation where wheat samples would be co-infested by both M. destructor and M. hordei. Although mating assays did not result in oviposition in a few cases (2/14), mitochondrial typing based on the Cyt b gene restriction analysis showed that all samples were M. destructor ones. Our results are additional evidence that RAPD variability is not a reliable criterion for taxonomical inference and provide support for allopatric distribution of M. destructor and M. hordei species, in Tunisia.
    Agromyzidae (Diptera) from Hong Kong
    Mitsuhiro SASAKAWA
    2006, 49(5):  835-842. 
    Abstract ( 3305 )   PDF (496KB) ( 1603 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The 22 species of the Agromyzidae are recorded from Hong Kong, of which 5 species are new to science and 6 are new to Chinese fauna. Type specimens of Melanagromyza squamifera sp. nov., Ophiomyia imparispina sp. nov., and Phytomyza redunca sp. nov. are deposited in the National Science Museum, Tokyo, Japan and those of Melanagromyza dipetala sp. nov. and Ophiomyia vasta sp. nov. are deposited in the Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
    Roles of insect salivary components in insect-plant interactions
    YIN Hai-Di, HUANG Cui-Hong, XUE Kun, WANG Rong-Jiang, YAN Feng-Ming
    2006, 49(5):  843-849. 
    Abstract ( 5151 )   PDF (210KB) ( 2428 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Researches on herbivory insect saliva in recent years have revealed that insect salivary components play important roles in relationships and coevolution between insects and plants. A variety of enzymes and organic components in saliva of herbivory insects can induce series of biochemical responses in damaged plants which could be very specific to species or even to larval instars of the feeding insects. It has been demonstrated that enzymes, such as  β-glucosidase, glucose oxidase, etc., and organic chemicals, such as volicitin, can trigger induced defense responses in plants. However, there have been no direct evidences that salivary components of piercing_sucking insects play roles in induced plant chemical defenses even though plants also responded to feeding by these insects. Salivary components of herbivory insects are variable with host plant species most likely due to biochemical or physiological adaptation of insects to nutrients and toxins in different plants. Insect protein analyses indicated that similar salivary components were found in insects with the same types of mouth parts and similar food resources. Researches in salivary components of herbivory insects may elucidate mechanisms in insect-plant coevolution, formation of insect biotypes, outbreaks and damage of insect pests, and may also have significance in guiding insect pest management.
    Recent advances on lepidopterous (moths) sex pheromones
    WEI Wei, ZHAO Li-Lin, SUN Jiang-Hua
    2006, 49(5):  850-858. 
    Abstract ( 4030 )   PDF (489KB) ( 2462 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Among many kinds of insect semiochemicals, lepidopterous sex pheromones have been studied at the most depth and identified from females of more than 565 species in the world. However, scientists continue to be surprised at the diversity of the chemical structures of the pheromone components and their elaborate blending to produce species-specific communication systems, which play an important role in the reproductive isolation of sympatric insects. The studies of lepidopterous sex pheromones are related with ecology, biochemistry and genetics. In this paper we briefly reviewed and discussed the advances in moths' sex pheromone diversity, sex pheromone molecule structure identification, microcomponent function, application of synthetical sex pheromones, sex pheromone product enzymes, sex pheromone product regulative mechanism and sex pheromone receipt mechanism.
    Phenotypic plasticity of aphids and its genetic basis
    CHEN Qian, SHEN Zuo-Rui, Wang Yong-Mo
    2006, 49(5):  859-866. 
    Abstract ( 4002 )   PDF (218KB) ( 2173 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an organism to express different phenotypes based on genetic basis under different biotic or abiotic environment. Aphids are small herbivorous insects, renowned as pests of economic significance in agriculture, horticulture and forestry. Aphids often exhibit diverse phenotypes, corresponding to the change of environmental factors, such as host plants, temperature, light and natural enemies. For example, phenotypic plasticity of aphids can be influenced by such factors of host plants as species and varieties, growth stages, and even amino acids composting of the host plants. High or low temperature can influence survival, fecundity and longevity, and determine the form of winged or wingless morphs of aphids. It had been proved by RAPD-PCR, SSR or other molecular markers that those phenomena were the integrated results of the host plants, temperature, species and clones of aphids. There were biological, ecological and genetic differences among the clones of different colours and among seasonal populations of aphids. It is helpful to analyze impacts of the above-mentioned factors either in research on the evolution or the control of aphids. In addition, issues that may be needed to study in the future are discussed at the last paragraph, including epigenetic regulation (DNA methylation, histone code, X-inactivation, genomic imprinting), the importance to study the winged aphids, and effects of global climate change on the evolution of aphids.
    Analysis of genetic diversity in different geographic populations of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with AFLP technique
    NIU Cheng-Wei, ZHANG Qing-Wen, YE Zhi-Hua, LUO Li-Zhi
    2006, 49(5):  867-873. 
    Abstract ( 3362 )   PDF (1217KB) ( 1372 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua(Hübner) is a serious insect pest and has caused serious economic losses in China in last decade. For further understanding the population dynamics and improving the forecast and control of this species, the DNA polymorphism of 7 geographic populations from various locations of mainland China was analyzed by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. The results showed that the maximum genetic similarity of S. exigua individuals between geographic populations was 0.824, and the minimum was 0.143;  the maximum genetic similarity of S. exigua individuals within geographic populations was 0.786 and the minimum was 0.250. The genetic similarity of some samples within geographic populations was lower than that of some samples between geographic populations. The genetic diversity of Jiangxi population was the lowest (the proportion of polymorphic bands was 80.7%) and that of Shandong population was the highest (the proportion of polymorphic bands was 88.6%). The genetic diversity of S. exigua from northern areas was higher than that from southern areas on the whole. The results of cluster analysis showed that 42 individuals of 7 populations did not relate to the geographic locations where they were collected, suggesting that the genetic differentiation is not obvious in all the populations studied. The northward and southward migration by the adult beet armyworm is the most possible explanation for these results, since other direct or indirect evidences has shown that it is a true migrant species in the country.
    Microsatellite DNA polymorphism in different pesticideresistant strains of the oriental fruitfly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tetriphitidae)
    PAN Zhi-Ping, ZENG Ling, WEN Shuo-Yang
    2006, 49(5):  874-877. 
    Abstract ( 3639 )   PDF (216KB) ( 1209 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
     In order to detect the genetic change in the pesticide-resistant strains of the oriental fruitfly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), the genomes of a sensitive strain and three pesticide-resistant strains (TrR-resistant strain, AlR-resistant strain and AbR-resistant strain) of the fruitfly were screened using two microsatellite DNA primers. Distinct microsatellite DNA polymorphism was detected in the four strains, revealing that genetic background had changed in the tested strains. The results may contribute to further understanding the mechanism of pesticide resistance of the fly and provide some guidance for the controlling and monitoring the appearance of pesticide resistance in the field.
    Activity changes of phenoloxidase in haemolymph of Helicoverpa armigera parasitized by Ovomermis sinensis and its purification
    LI Zhi-Qiang, WANG Mao-Xian, YUAN Jun-Lin, CHEN Guo-Sheng
    2006, 49(5):  878-881. 
    Abstract ( 3175 )   PDF (138KB) ( 1263 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The activity changes of phenoloxidase in haemolymph of Helicoverpa armigera larvae parasitized by Ovomermis sinensis were investigated. The results showed that on the first day of infection, the phenoloxidase activity of the infected group increased, which was 1.12 times that of the control group; but in the latter time of infection, the phenoloxidase activity of the infected group was inhibited by the nematodes. On the fifth day of infection, the inhibition reached the highest degree, and the phenoloxidase activity of control group was 1.52 times that of the infected group. Purified with 40% saturated (NH4)2SO4 and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration from the crude enzyme, the phenoloxidase with the purification factor of 41.5, the yield factor of 12.7% and the specific activity of 4 030.6 U/mg was obtained.
     
    Use of double standard deviation at family level of insect taxonomy
    DU Rui-Qing, WANG Qing-Lin, PANG Fa-Hu, WANG Ming-Wei
    2006, 49(5):  882-886. 
    Abstract ( 3384 )   PDF (153KB) ( 1321 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Double standard deviation analysis with 11 math-morphological features (MMFs) ( such as area, perimeter, etc. ) from the images of 23 species of insects of the Pentatomidae, Coreidae, Noctuoidea, Saturnijdae, Pieridae, Melolonthidae, Rulelidae and Cerarnbycidae families was made to assess its use in insect taxonomy at family level. The results indicate that the ranked reliability of MMF in the identification of insect families is, from high to low:  roundness likelihood, eccentricity, circularity>X-length, form parameter, lobation>area, perimeter, sphericity>Y-length, hole number. From the perspective of mathematical morphology, the kinship can be ranked as follows: Pentatomidae and Coreidae>Rulelidae, Cerarnbycidae and Melolonthidae>Noctuoidea, Saturnijdae and Pieridae. The results are similar to those of statistical hypothesis testing analysis.