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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
27 December 2006, Volume 49 Issue 6
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Antifungal activity and the immunogenicity of antifungal peptide Drosomycin and its isoforms from Drosophila melanogaster.
    YANG Wan-Ying, LIU Wen-Quan, DENG Xiao-Juan, DUAN Yun, HUANG Ya-Dong, WEN Shuo-Yang, XIA Qing-You, CAO Yang
    2006, 49(6):  887-894. 
    Abstract ( 3771 )   PDF (725KB) ( 1974 )     
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    In order to analyze the antifungal activity and immunogenicity of antifungal peptide DrosomycinDrs and its isoforms, Drs-lC and Drs-lE, from Drosophila melanogaster, their antibodies were prepared by two ways. In the first way, Drs, Drs-lC and Drs-lE were respectively fused with afgf gene. In the second way, Drs and Drs-lE were respectively linked into multi-copy genes of Drs and Drs-lE tandem in the same direction. The recombinant plasmids pET-afgf-Drs, pET-afgf-C and pET-afgf-E were constructed through the first way, while pRSET-2Drs, -4Drs, -6Drs and pRSET-2E, -4E, -6E were constructed through the second way. They were then transformed into E. coli BL21DE3plysS. After purification, the fused proteins afgf-Drs, afgf-C, afgf-E and the concatamer proteins of 4 Drs, 4 Drs-lE were used for preparation of the antiserums by immunizing mice. The results of Western-blot immunogenicity showed that Drs and its isoforms had strong antigen immune reactions with their according antiserums. Cross-reactions between them were also found. These results suggested that they might have the similar main antigen sites. We so inferred that there is no relationship between the main antigen sites and activity sites. The small difference of their structures may be the main  mechanism causing the functional divergence of their antifungal activity.

    Influences of starvation on the first day after emergence on ovarian development and flight potential in adults of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidopterea: Noctuidae).
    ZHANG Lei, LUO Li-Zhi, JIANG Xing-Fu,HU Yi
    2006, 49(6):  895-902. 
    Abstract ( 4091 )   PDF (263KB) ( 1525 )     
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    In order to elucidate the effects of starvation treatment to the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) within 24 h after emergence on the reproduction system and flight system, the ovarian development grade, preoviposition period, thoracic dorsal-longitudinal muscle weight and flight potential of thetreatment moths (starved for 24 h only on day 1 of post-emergence) and the control moths (accessed to honey water throughout adult period) of the oriental armyworm were studied systematically. The results showed that the ovarian development grade of the treatment moths was significantly higher than that of the control. The preoviposition period of the starved moths was significantly shorter than that of the control. Dry weight of the thoracic dorsal-longitudinal muscle in the starved female moths (5.1 mg) was also significantly lower than that in the control (5.86 mg) at 120 h after starvation. The starved moths exhibited lower flight potential than the control. Though the difference was not significant during 72 h after treatment, the flight potential variables in the starved moths were significantly lower than those in the control since 96 h after treatment. At 96 h after treatment, flight distance of the starved moths (22.03 km in average) was significantly less than that of the control moths (42.3 km in average); the flight duration of the starved moths (4.07 h in average) was significantly shorter than that of the control moths (7.99 h in average). All these results indicated that starvation for 24 h on the first day after emergence suppressed the development of flight muscle and accelerated the change from the flight system to the reproduction system in adults of the oriental armyworm.
    Variation in ovariole number of diverse lines and its relationship with egg productivity in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    DAI Fang-Yin, WANG Xian-Yan, TAN Duan, LU Cheng, XIANG Zhong-Huai
    2006, 49(6):  903-907. 
    Abstract ( 3103 )   PDF (1115KB) ( 1801 )     
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    The female moths of 157 bred and hybrid lines of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which are maintained in the gene pool of Southwest University, China, were dissected, and the diversity in their ovariole number was investigated. Variation in ovariole number of the ovaries of female moths was detected in 87 of the 157 (55.4%) bred/hybrid lines, and 11 mutant types of ovariole number were found. The proportion of individuals with atypical ovariole number showed significant differences among the bred/hybrid lines surveyed. The highest proportion (60.19%) was found in the mutant lines and the lowest (37.50%) in the hybrid lines. In the mutant lines with different ovariole numbers of the ovaries of female moths, the proportions ranged from 2% to 50%. Observations on some bred/hybrid lines revealed that the increase in ovariole number in the line was not necessarily accompanied by an increase in total eggs produced and that the average egg number per ovariole was always lower than that of the normal type (4, 4). The results of analysis on the variation in ovariole number of three successive generations of the commercially reared bred line 21-871 and the mutant line 06-051 suggested that variation in ovariole number is inheritable.
    Effects of parasitization by three endoparasitoids on spermatogenesis in their hosts, Plutella xylostella larvae
    CAI Dong-Zhang, BAI Su-Fen, LI Xin, CHEN Xue-Xin
    2006, 49(6):  908-917. 
    Abstract ( 3909 )   PDF (3201KB) ( 1705 )     
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    Parasitic castration often takes place in host insects parasitized by endoparasitoids. Using the morphological method and protein technology, we studied the effects of parasitization on the testicular development of Plutella xylostella parasitized by Oomyzus sokolowskii Kurdumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Diadegma semiclausum Hellén (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) or Cotesia plutellae (Kurdj.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), respectively. The results showed that neither the testicular appearance and structure of the host larvae, nor the content and categories of proteins extracted from its host testes changed compared with the control when the host larvae were parasitized by O. sokolowskii. However, when parasitized by D. semiclausum, the testicular development of P. xylostella larvae was adversely affected with deformed nuclei and condensation of chromatin observed in germ cells, but some elongated sperms could still come into being in the testes of parasitized larvae; the content of proteins in a pair of testes decreased significantly after parasitization, but the constitution of proteins had no alteration compared with that of the control. The most pronounced parasitic castration was observed in the host larvae parasitized by C. plutellae, spermatogenesis in the parasitized larvae was inhibited completely, many degenerated testicular cells and the debris of sperm were found in the atrophic testes, and the content of total proteins in these testes sharply declined. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE profiles of testicular total proteins revealed that a protein of an approximate molecular mass of 63.4 kD was absent in testes of P. xylostella larvae parasitized by C. plutellae compared with the non-parasitized host larvae.
    Biochemical characteristics of the antibacterial peptides in secretion of Musca domestica larvae
    GUO Guo, WU Jian-Wei, FU Ping, ZHANG Yong, SONG Yu-Zhu, SONG Zhi-Kui
    2006, 49(6):  918-923. 
    Abstract ( 3542 )   PDF (2003KB) ( 1943 )     
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    The influences of temperature, proteinases on antibacterial activity of the antibacterial peptides soaked out from living housefly (Musca domestica) larvae were investigated. Mean while, the blood clotting activity, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and the molecular weight of these peptides were examined. The results showed that the antibacterial peptides had high heat stability, proteolytic stability and antibacterial activity but without blood clotting activity. The MIC and MBC of these peptides were 37 μg/mL and 75 μg/mL, respectively. Their molecular weight was about 10 kD.
    Characteristics of inducible extracellular proteases expressed by Zoophthora radicans original and host-adapted strains under different culture conditions
    DENG Mi-Xia, XU Jun-Huan
    2006, 49(6):  924-929. 
    Abstract ( 2886 )   PDF (685KB) ( 1553 )     
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    A high level of protease activities were expressed both by Zoophthora radicans original strain (R0) and host-adapted strains (R1 and R5) when they grew in MS medium containing insect cuticle or gelatin. On the contrary, very low level of protease activities were detected in extremely poor nutrient medium (MS) or rich nutrient medium (Sabouraud's dexteose broth, SDB). A 37 kD band belonging to serine protease was found to be induced in any cultural condition, suggesting it is a conservative sequence coding protease for three strains. On the other hand, a 46 kD band belonging to metalloprotease was expressed only in MS medium containing gelatin; however, its expression could be inhibited by MS medium containing glucose. Interestingly, a protease band with molecular weight of 67 kD disappeared, whereas the bands of 46 kD and 117 kD became more obvious for isolates after several infection cycles through Plutella xylostella when isolates grew in SDB medium. The results indicated that inducible high substrate-specific extracellular protease was greatly expressed to adapt to new host during passages of subculture through P. xylostella.
    Cloning and differential expression of Bombyx mori carboxylesterase gene
    GAO Gui-Tian, CHEN Ke-Ping, YAO Qin, WANG Lin-Ling, CHEN Hui-Qing
    2006, 49(6):  930-937. 
    Abstract ( 5714 )   PDF (515KB) ( 1926 )     
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    Total RNA was isolated from the fully resistant silkworm (Bombyx mori) strain Qiufeng against BmDNV-Z, the highly susceptible silkworm strain Huaba and near-isogenic line BC8 which was bred by using Qiufeng to cross with Huaba followed by successive backcrossing to Huaba till the eighth generation, respectively, and then subjected to fluorescent differential display reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR). A full-length cDNA of B. mori carboxylesterase was obtained. Its expression in the midgut of the susceptible strain and the resistant strain against BmDNV-Z was analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR at 12 h, 36 h and 72 h after administration with BmDNV-Z. The results showed that: (1) cDNA quantity of carboxylesterase in the midguts of the resistant strains reached the peak 12 h after infection. The cDNA quantity in the resistant strains BC8 and Qiufeng were 17.714 and 3.602 times respectively that in the susceptible strain Huaba. (2) Within the same strain, there existed a remarkable difference in the detected carboxylesterase cDNA quantity at 12 h between the infected group and the control group. The expression in the resistant strains BC8and Qiufeng were 15.08 and 3.39 times respectively that of the control group. On the other hand, the expression of carboxylesterase was quite low in the susceptible strain Huaba of both the infected group and the control group. (3) The expression of carboxylesterase varied at different time after infection. Expression in the resistant strains BC8 and Qiufeng reached its peaks 12 h after infection, remarkably higher than those at 36 h and 72 h. There was no significant difference of the expression in the susceptible strain Huaba infected for 12 h, 36 h and 72 h. The results suggested that the expression of carboxylesterase in B. mori might be related to its resistance against DNV.
     
    Effects of transgenic Bt cotton on the susceptibility to insecticides and detoxification enzyme activities of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover)
    ZHANG Ju-Hong, GUO Jian-Ying, WAN Fang-Hao, XIA Jing-Yuan
    2006, 49(6):  938-943. 
    Abstract ( 3883 )   PDF (190KB) ( 1447 )     
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    The toxicities of imidacloprid and phoxim against cotton aphids fed on transgenic Bt cotton for different generations were measured by leafdip bioassay in the laboratory and compared with those on parental cotton variety. Activities of esterase, carboxylesterase and acetylcholinesterase of cotton aphids fed on Bt cotton were detected with microtiter plate reader. The results indicated that the susceptibility of cotton aphids to either imidacloprid or phoxim was not affected by Bt cotton. For both kinds of insecticides, there was no significant difference of LC50 among cotton aphids fed on Bt cotton for 1 generation, on Bt cotton for over 60 generations, and on parental cotton continuously. For all three detoxification enzymes tested, there was no significant difference of enzyme activities among cotton aphids fed on Bt cotton for 1 and 21 generations, and those on parental cotton. It was so concluded that transgenic Bt cotton had no significant effects on the susceptibility to insecticides and detoxification enzyme activities of cotton aphids.
    Cloning and fusion expression of CYP6B7 gene from Helicoverpa armigera
    MA Cai-Xia,LI Mei, QIU Xing-Hui, HE Feng-Qin, LIU Hui-Xia
    2006, 49(6):  944-949. 
    Abstract ( 3158 )   PDF (522KB) ( 1815 )     
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    Although it has been suggested that CYP6B7 in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is probably responsible for resistance to pyrethroids, there is no direct evidence showing that CYP6B7 is involved in the metabolism of pyrethroid pesticides. To explore the function of CYP6B7 gene, we attempted to produce CYP6B7 enzyme through heterologous expression of the CYP6B7 gene. The open reading frame of CYP6B7 gene was isolated by PCR with genomic DNA as the template and using a pair of CYP6B7 gene specific primers, followed by reverse PCR aiming at deleting the intron sequence of 321 bp. A fusion plasmid (CYP6B7-pMAL) was constructed by inserting the CYP6B7 gene into the BamH-Sal restriction sites of pMAL-c2X vector. CYP6B7 pMAL plasmid was transformed into E. coli TB1. A fusion protein (CYP6B7 fused with maltose binding protein) was expressed after induction by IPTG..SDS-PAGE pure fusion protein was isolated with an amylose column.
    Cloning and expression of cry1Ac20 gene from Bacillus thuringiensis strain Rpp02
    TAN Fu-Rong, LI Ping, ZHENG Ai-Ping, ZHOU Hua-Qiang, ZHENG Xiu-Li
    2006, 49(6):  950-954. 
    Abstract ( 3421 )   PDF (260KB) ( 1369 )     
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    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Morrisoni strain Rpp02 isolated by researchers in our laboratory was highly toxic to several kinds of insect pests. Results of PCR analysis indicated that strain Rpp02 contained the cry1Ac gene, and subsequently a novel cry1Ac gene was cloned from this strain by PCR techniques. The results of sequence analysis showed that the novel gene cry1Ac20, named by B.thuringiensis Pesticidal Crystal Protein Nomenclature Committee, contained an open reading frame of 3 534 nucleotides encoding a protein of 1 177 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 133.144 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.952. Compared with other known cry1Ac genes, cry1Ac20 has shown as high as 99% nucleotide sequence homology. Bioassay showed that the toxic protein appeared high insecticidal activity against Pieris rapae L., and the corrected mortality was 88.78% 48 h after feeding with leaves immersed in cultures containing transformants.
    Evaluation of the effects of insect resistant cry1Ac/sck transgenic rice on the parasitoid communities in paddy fields
    LIU Yu-Fang, HE Ling, WANG Qiong, HU Si-Qin, LIU Wen-Hai, CHEN Kang-Gui, YOU Min-Sheng
    2006, 49(6):  955-962. 
    Abstract ( 4122 )   PDF (312KB) ( 1666 )     
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    Effects of three transgenic rice lines (MSA, MSB and MSA4) and one transgenic hybrid rice line (KF6-304) with a fused double genes of cry1Ac and sck (cry1Ac/sck rice) on the parasitoid communities in paddy fields were investigated, and the ecological safety of these cry1Ac/sck rice lines were evaluated. Untransformed rice MH86 was used as the control for MSA, MSA and MSA4, while -YM86 as the control for KF6-304. The results showed that no significant differences were found both in overall situation and temporal dynamics of species richness, diversity, evenness and dominance indices of the parasitoid communities in paddy fields of different rice lines between the transgenic rice lines and their control rice lines, and the same when evaluated with the total number of individuals. However, cry1Ac/sck rice lines decreased the number of individuals of parasitoids at the middle stage of rice growth. The data of the function groups of parasitoids revealed that MSA and MSA4 increased the number of individuals of egg parasitoids at the beginning of late stage of rice growth, and all cry1Ac/sck rice lines markedly decreased the number of individuals of the function group of parasitoids which attacked the target pest Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, but had no significant negative effects on other function groups of parasitoids on no-target pest insects.
    Resistance of wheat varieties (lines) to Sitobion miscanthi (Takahashi) (Aphidoidea: Aphididae)
    LI Xian-Qing, GUO Xian-Ru, LI Ke-Bin, YIN Jiao, CAO Ya-Zhong
    2006, 49(6):  963-968. 
    Abstract ( 3944 )   PDF (203KB) ( 1877 )     
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    The behavior of Sitobion miscanthi (Takahashi) on 15 different tolerant varieties was observed and the antixenosis and antibiosis of these wheat varieties in seedling were tested by using aphids confinement test. Selected five characteristic varieties, we recorded the fecundity of aphids in field during anthesis, assayed the content of quercetin and tannin in flag leave and ear, and detected the activity of carboxylesterase (CarE) and glutathione S transferase (GST) of the aphids on these varieties. The results indicated the effects of the five selected wheat varieties in seedling and anthesis on the fecundity of aphids were significantly positively correlated (r= 0.956*). The correlation between quercetin in ear of wheat and the fecundity of aphids on different wheat varieties was significantly negative (r=-0.941*). The tannin contents of different wheat varieties were significantly different, but showed no significant correlation with the fecundity of aphids. The contents of carboxylesterase (CarE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) of aphids feeding on different wheat varieties were significantly different. We concluded that different varieties had strong inhibiting effects on the fecundity of S. miscanthi, especially with the effects of Zhong 4 wumang and Jibao No.1 stronger.
    The adult longevity of Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura under field conditions and its influencing factors
    DONG Jie, XU Chang-Xin, WU Xiao-Yun, ZHANG Qing-Wen, JIN Xiao-Hua, DING Jian-Yun, LIU Su-Feng, WANG Yong-Xiang
    2006, 49(6):  969-975. 
    Abstract ( 3904 )   PDF (284KB) ( 1563 )     
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    Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are widely used as inundative controls of Lepidopteran crop pests, and their adult longevity after emergence in the field is a significant factor for the success of Trichogramma inundation. Survival time of female Trichogramma dendrolimi, which were held in ventilated plastic tubes (5 cm in diameter and 10 cm long) attached to peach tree branches, were investigated directly under field conditions, and the influencing factors (food availability and climatic factors) were analyzed. The results showed that the median survival time of the parasitoid was significantly different in different cover crops (lucerne and natural weeds) and different trial dates (31 May, 5 June, 17 July, 24 July, 24 August and 30 August). The median survival time of female T. dendrolimi in the area covered by lucerne was significantly longer than that in the area covered by natural weeds. In all trial dates, the median survival time of the trials on 31 May and 5 June was the longest, and that on 17 July and 24 July was the shortest. The median survival time was inversely correlated with the mean temperature and relative humidity for all treatments, and it was influenced more greatly by the mean temperature. The median survival time of honey-fed parasitoids was significantly longer than that of the parasitoids not fed with honey. The presence of a peach leaf within the tube also increased survival time of honey-fed parasitoids but did not increase adult longevity of the parasitoids not fed with honey. It is so concluded that temperature and food availability are the main factors influencing longevity of female T. dendrolimi under field conditions.
    Behavioral responses of Anastatus japonicus (Hymenoptera:Eupelmidae) to litchi plants damaged by the litchi stink bug, Tessaratoma papillosa
    CHI Guo-Liang, XU Tao, WANG Jian-Wu
    2006, 49(6):  976-981. 
    Abstract ( 4118 )   PDF (197KB) ( 1506 )     
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    The behavioral responses of Anastatus japonicus to Nuo Mi-Ci, Gui Wei and San Yue-Hong, the litchi varieties damaged by the litchi stink bug, Tessaratoma papillosa adults, were tested by Y-tube olfactometer. The results indicated that only if a Nuo Mi-Ci plant was harmed by more than 3 adults of T. papillosa, the attraction to A. japonicus was notable. While the attraction produced by healthy San Yue-Hong plants was per se distinct, the effect, however, could be boosted up to a higher extent after the plant was mechanically damaged by pests. The responses of A. japonicus to healthy Gui Wei plants, mechanical damaged ones and pests damaged ones were similar. The above-mentioned three varieties showed the  highest attraction to A. japonicus in the second day after they were damaged by T. papillosa adults, and then the effects declined gradually. The defensive reaction of pests damaged San Yue-Hong was much faster than the others, while the taxis of A. japonicus to Gui Wei was always at a relatively low level.
    Molecular phylogeny of some subfamilies of Catantopidae (Orthoptera: Caelifera: Acridoidea) in China based on partial sequence of mitochondrial COⅡ gene
    MA Lan, HUANG Yuan
    2006, 49(6):  982-990. 
    Abstract ( 3562 )   PDF (313KB) ( 1739 )     
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    A total of 22 species (representing 10 subfamilies and 16 genera) and an outgroup species, Filchnerella sunanensis, were sampled in this study. A 585 bp sequence of COⅡ gene was amplified using PCR, and then sequenced directly through cycling sequencing method. Several statistical approaches were used to test the phylogenetic signal in the DNA sequence data sets and three partition data sets, which were defined based on different codon positions. Phylogenetic analyses by the Neighbor Joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) were employed to reconstruct the phylogeny. The results indicated that the COⅡ gene sequences of 22 species were highly A+T biased. All of the different data sets contained strong phylogenetic signal. It can be found from the consensus tree that: (1) the relationships among Calliptaminae, Cyrtacanthacridinae, Eyprepocnemisinae and Catantopinae are close. (2) The relationship between Caryandinae and Oxyinae is also close. It is so reasonable to include the subfamily Caryandinae into the subfamily Oxyinae, with Spathosterninae as sister group. (3) Melanoplinae should merge with Podisminae into one subfamily. (4) The relationships of species and genera within Coptacrinae, as well as its relationships with other subfamilies were not resolved. (5) The relationship between Melanoplinae and Podisminae is close, and both are distant to other subfamilies here studied. The results prove that COⅡ gene is a useful marker to infer phylogenetic relationships among species and genera within a subfamily.
    Morphometric variation of eight aphid species feeding on the leaves of bamboos
    FANG Yan, QIAO Ge-Xia, ZHANG Guang-Xue
    2006, 49(6):  991-1001. 
    Abstract ( 4060 )   PDF (1279KB) ( 1701 )     
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    Morphological variation of eight aphid species feeding on the leaves of bamboos, viz. Astegopteryx bambusifoliae (Takahashi), Astegopteryx minuta (van der Goot), Cerataphis bambusifoliae Takahashi, Ceratovacuna silvestrii (Takahashi) and Chaitoregma tattakana (Takahashi) of Hormaphididae, Melanaphis bambusae (Fullaway) of Aphididae, and Takecallis arundinariae(Essig) and Takecallis taiwanus (Takahashi) of Drepanosiphidae, were studied based on morphometric data of 34 morphological characters, of which 28 characters were statistically analysed. The results indicated that some characters, such as body, siphunculi and antennae, were very different among the three families, but some others, such as the ultimate rostral segments, tarsal segmentsⅠ, tarsal segmentsⅡ and claws, were similar. The variations of the following characters within species were quite small: ultimate rostral segments (CV=3.73%-7.59%), tarsal segmentsⅠ(CV=4.16%-12.05%), tarsal segmentsⅡ (CV=3.10%-8.39%) and claws (CV=2.60%-11.68%). Principal component analysis filtered the first principal component, which included the characters of ultimate rostral segments, tarsal segmentsⅠ, tarsal segmentsⅡ and claws. The bivariate plots (ovals in plots were 95% confident elipses for every species) of these characters showed steady ranges. The results showed that the characters, such as ultimate rostral segments, tarsi and claws, which are related to aphid feeding behavior and adhesion on the surfaces of plants, were obviously similar among different taxa. These suggested that convergent adaptation occurred in these characters of the aphid species on the leaves' surfaces of bamboos. Combined with biological data of these aphids, the mechanism of morphological adaptation in these species was tentatively discussed.
    A taxonomic study on the genus Xenapatidea Malaise (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) from China
    WEI Mei-Cai
    2006, 49(6):  1002-1008. 
    Abstract ( 3111 )   PDF (1036KB) ( 1448 )     
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    The genus Xenapatidea Malaise, 1957 is reviewed and 6 species are recorded in China. Among them, X. reticulata sp. nov. is described as new to science and X. rufoscutellata Koch, 1996 is firstly recorded from China. The unknown female of X. rufoscutellata Koch, 1996 is reported and described. A key to the eight known species of the genus is provided. Type specimens of the new species are deposited in Insect Collection of Central South Forestry University.
    Advances in research on molecular structure and function of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) receptors in insects
    WANG Li, LI Xue-Feng, XU Bao-Ren, WU Qing-Jun, ZHANG You-Jun
    2006, 49(6):  1009-1016. 
    Abstract ( 3425 )   PDF (253KB) ( 2031 )     
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    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) receptor is very important to the toxicity expression of Bt in insects. Change in binding ability between this receptor and Bt insecticidal proteins may be the main mechanism of Bt resistance. In this paper, the types, structure, binding characteristics of the insect receptors, including aminopeptidase N, cadherin-like protein, alkaline phosphatase and glycolipids, the expression of genes of insect receptors in endogenous cells, and the relationships between Bt resistance and receptor are reviewed.
    Research status and trends in Aphidology
    HUANG Xiao-Lei, QIAO Ge-Xia
    2006, 49(6):  1017-1026. 
    Abstract ( 4153 )   PDF (283KB) ( 2625 )     
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    Due to their unique characters, such as the cyclic parthenogenesis, multiple life cycles, oviparous or oviparous/viviparous, diverse galls, and differentiation of behavior, aphids always attract much attention of entomologists and evolutionary biologists. Aphids are good models for resolving many significant problems in biology. Integrated the new fruits in Aphidology, this paper reviewed the research status of Aphidology and discussed the problems in such aspects as aphid systematics, aphid biogeography and diversity, behavioural science of aphids, aphid-plant interactions, biology and ecology of aphids, aphid-symbiont interactions and aphid functional genomics. Finally, the future hot topics in Aphidology were suggested.
    Hox genes and insect wing modification
    ZHAI Zong-Zhao, YANG Xing-Ke
    2006, 49(6):  1027-1033. 
    Abstract ( 4132 )   PDF (325KB) ( 2647 )     
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    Since 1978, characterization of the homeotic bithorax mutations of Drosophila has led E.B. Lewis to presage the growth of work on comparative developmental genetics, which focuses mainly on Hox genes, and afterward greatly adds to our understanding of the genetic basis of morphological evolution. Here, we reviewed the latest progress in the origin of insect wing and work on developmental genetics underlying wing modification. According to fossil records, primary insects bear appendages (including wings) on all thoracic and abdominal segments, while modern insects evolve to bear only two pairs of wings on T2 and T3, due to Hox suppression to wing development in other segments. Of the ten arthropod Hox genes known, Ubx has hindwing identity, and regulates its targets to make the fore-and hind-wing different in morphology. We especially compared Hox expression pattern of insects with most modified wings in three orders: Coleoptera (forewing to elytra), Diptera (hindwing to haltere) and Strepsiptera (forewing to haltere). Recent studies show that function of Ubx in beetle hindwings represents a previously unknown mode of wing diversification in insects. However, more study on Strepsiptera is necessary.
    Molecular cloning and characterization of an acetylcholinesterase cDNA in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae)
    YANG Zhi-Fan, HE Guang-Cun
    2006, 49(6):  1034-1041. 
    Abstract ( 3500 )   PDF (1147KB) ( 1662 )     
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    A full cDNA encoding an acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC3.1.1.7) from the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae) was cloned and characterized. The complete cDNA (2 467 bp) contains a 1 938 bp open reading frame encoding 646 amino acid residues (GenBank accession no.AJ852420). The complete amino acid sequence of AChE deduced from the cDNA consists of 30 residues for the putative signal peptide and 616 residues for the mature protein with a predicted molecular weight of 69 418 D. The three residues (Ser242, Glu371 and His485) that putatively form the catalytic triad and six Cys that form intra-subunit disulfide bonds are completely conserved, and 10 out of the 14 aromatic residues lining the active site gorge of the AChE are also conserved. The deduced amino acid sequence is most similar to AChE of Nephotettix cincticeps with 83% amino acid identity. Phylogenetic analysis based on 30 AChEs from 23 insect species showed that the deduced AChE formed a cluster with 6 AChE2s. Additionally, the hypervariable region and amino acids specific to insect AChE2 also exist in N. lugens AChE. The results indicate that the AChE gene cloned in this work belongs to insect AChE2 subgroup, which are homologous to Drosophila AChE2.
    Observation of infection process of Metarhizium anisopliae on Plutella xylostella larvae with transmission electron microscopy
    WANG Yin, LEI Zhong-Ren, ZHANG Qing-Wen, WEN Jin-Zeng
    2006, 49(6):  1042-1045. 
    Abstract ( 3333 )   PDF (1203KB) ( 1557 )     
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    The infection process of two isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae on Plutella xylostella larvae was studied using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the penetration of the integument of P. xylostella larva by M. anisopliaewhich was first observed in 22 h after inoculation, was the combination of mechanical pressure and enzymatic action. The penetrant hyphae produced lots of granule hyphal bodies by budding or septation, which became distributed throughout the body cavity of infected larva. Some filar hyphae were also seen in the hemocoel of infected larva.
    Three haplotypes found in populations of the red imported fire ant invading China
    HE Xiao-Fang, LU Yong-Yue, ZHANG Wei-Qiu, ZENG Ling
    2006, 49(6):  1046-1049. 
    Abstract ( 3650 )   PDF (170KB) ( 1690 )     
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    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is an invasive species of economic concern (primarily an agricultural and ecosystem pest). Such ant was found in some areas of Guangdong and Hong Kong at the end of 2004. By examining genetic variation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase(CO) gene, we analyzed the colony introduction of 13 populations of such ant. A 904 bp fragment of the CO gene was sequenced for 56 individuals from 28 nests. Three haplotypes were obtained. Using the uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence, we found that the divergence between haplotype and haplotype was smallest. All three haplotypes were observed in the Hong Kong population, while only one or two haplotypes were observed in the other populations. Such data of the highest genetic diversity in Hong Kong population suggested that Hong Kong may be the original place of the ant invading other areas in China. All of the three haplotypes observed in Hong Kong population were reported in Argentina, and it is so inferred that the Chinese fire ant may come from Argentina or South America.
    First discovery of an important invasive insect pest, Obolodiplosis robiniae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in China
    YANG Zhong-Qi, QIAO Xiu-Rong, BU Wen-Ju, YAO Yan-Xia, XIAO Yan, HAN Yi-Sheng
    2006, 49(6):  1050-1053. 
    Abstract ( 4032 )   PDF (1845KB) ( 1595 )     
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    An important invasive insect pest, locust gall midge Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldemann) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), was newly discovered from China. Native to North America, this species attacks leaf of black locust tree, Robinia pseudoacacia L. As one characteristic of infestation, its larvae (usually 3-8 individuals) gregariously feed inside the longitudinal rolling gall along the edges of leaf. In Qinhuangdao City of Hebei Province and Jinzhou, Anshan, Huludao and Chaoyang cities of Liaoning Province, its attacking rate on black locust trees were about 100%. The pest threats the health of R. pseudoacacia which has been planted in large areas in China. Strict quarantine, study on its biology and control measures are necessary in order to block its spread and damages.
    Antennal sensilla of Microplitis mediator observed with scanning electron microscope
    DONG Wen-Xia, ZHANG Zhong-Ning
    2006, 49(6):  1054-1059. 
    Abstract ( 3348 )   PDF (735KB) ( 1584 )     
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    The antennal sensory sensilla of the parasitoid, Microplitis mediator (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were observed with scanning electron microscopy. Six distinct types of sense receptors were observed, including sensilla trichodea, sensilla placodea, sensilla basiconica, sensilla chaetica, sensilla coeleoconica, and sensilla campaniformia. Two forms of sensilla trichodea and four forms of sensilla basiconica were found. Sensilla campaniformia were only found on female antennae, while sensilla basiconica and only on male antennae. Their functions were discussed in reference to their morphology, distribution, and the electroantennogram responses of the parasitoid previously reported.