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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 January 2007, Volume 50 Issue 1
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Effect of low temperature treatment on larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    FENG Cong-Jing, LU Wen-Jing, DONG Qiu-An, CHEN Jun, FU Wen-Jun
    2007, 50(1):  1-6. 
    Abstract ( 3064 )   PDF (340KB) ( 1463 )     
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    The larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), were treated for 2 h in the laboratory under the temperature 5℃ (LT1) and 0℃ (LT2), respectively. The discriminating temperature, survival rate, cold tolerance, super-cooling point, and the rates of water and lipid in the Asian corn borer larvae after low temperature treatment were determined, respectively. The special antifreeze protein in the serum of the 5th instar larvae of O. furnacalis after low temperature treatment was analyzed with SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the discriminating temperatures for the 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae were -13.5℃, -16.5℃ and -18.5℃, respectively. The survival rates of 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae all showed the tendency of LT2>LT1> the control group after low temperature treatment (P<0.05). With the increase of instar, the cold tolerance of the larvae increased gradually, and the rates of water and lipid in the larvae also increased significantly (P<0.05). The super-cooling point of the larvae was not effected significantly by low temperature (P>0.05). The rates of water and lipid in larval body showed the tendency of LT2>LT1>the control group after low temperature treatment. A special antifreeze protein with the molecular weight about 29.0 kD was detected in the 5th instar larvae. It was so concluded that low temperature treatment could increase the cold tolerance in the Asian corn borer larvae. 19 Refs. In Chinese.
    Cloning and expression of sensory neuron membrane protein in Helicoverpa armigera.
    SU Hong-Hua,WANG Gui-Rong, ZHANG Yong-Jun, LIANG Ge-Mei, WU Kong-Ming, GUO Yu-Yuan
    2007, 50(1):  7-13. 
    Abstract ( 3062 )   PDF (1767KB) ( 1256 )     
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    The larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), were treated for 2 h in the laboratory under the temperature 5℃ (LT1) and 0℃ (LT2), respectively. The discriminating temperature, survival rate, cold tolerance, super-cooling point, and the rates of water and lipid in the Asian corn borer larvae after low temperature treatment were determined, respectively. The special antifreeze protein in the serum of the 5th instar larvae of O. furnacalis after low temperature treatment was analyzed with SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the discriminating temperatures for the 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae were -13.5℃, -16.5℃ and -18.5℃, respectively. The survival rates of 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae all showed the tendency of LT2>LT1> the control group after low temperature treatment (P<0.05). With the increase of instar, the cold tolerance of the larvae increased gradually, and the rates of water and lipid in the larvae also increased significantly (P<0.05). The super-cooling point of the larvae was not effected significantly by low temperature (P>0.05). The rates of water and lipid in larval body showed the tendency of LT2>LT1>the control group after low temperature treatment. A special antifreeze protein with the molecular weight about 29.0 kD was detected in the 5th instar larvae. It was so concluded that low temperature treatment could increase the cold tolerance in the Asian corn borer larvae. 19 Refs. In Chinese.
    Identification and induction by Metarhizium anisopliae infection of family 4 cytochrome P450 in Brontispa longissima
    WANG Jiu-Hui,HUANG Jun-Sheng, FANG Xiao-Dong
    2007, 50(1):  14-19. 
    Abstract ( 2897 )   PDF (540KB) ( 1224 )     
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    In order to obtain cDNA clones coding for CYP4 proteins in Brontispa longissima, degenerate primers were designed using the conserved sequences of known CYP4s and used to amplify partial cDNA fragments from adults B. longissima. Five genes were identified (GenBank accession numbers: DQ238840 DQ238844), and the 3-end of BLWH4 was cloned by 3-RACE. The deduced amino acid sequence of BLWH4 has CYP conserved domains of helix K and heme-binding motif. The RT-PCR analysis indicated that the BLWH4 mRNA expression in adults was more than in larvae, and increased when adults and 5th instar larvae were infected with Metarhizium anisopliae MA-3 and MA-4. The results suggested that BLWH4 should play a role in protection against pathogenic fungus.
    Laboratorial rearing of Anomala corpulenta Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea)
    WANG Rong-Yan, WANG Jin-Yao, SONG Jian, CAO Wei-Ping, DU Li-Xin
    2007, 50(1):  20-24. 
    Abstract ( 4138 )   PDF (816KB) ( 1607 )     
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    Rearing of Anomala corpulenta Motschulsky were conducted in the laboratory condition and the main influencing factors were evaluted. The results showed that it took 274.3 days for the beetle to complete a life cycle in the laboratory conditions. The duration of the 3rd instar reared in the laboratory was 101.8 days shorter than that in fields. The growth of larvae was influenced by such factors as soil humidity, food and pathogens. The average survival rate of eggs was 86.0% while those of the 1st instar, 2nd instar and 3rd instar larvae were 82.0%, 76.0% and 60.0%, respectively. The mortalities of the 10 day-old and 15 day-old larvae reared in the soil with potato as food for 14 days were 8.8%±1.6% and 4.0%±1.6% respectively, significantly lower than those for the newly hatched larvae and 5 day-old larvae. This result suggested that the larval age of 1015 day-old was the optimum stage for bioassay of Bt. The larvae grew normally in the UV-irradiated loam and sandy loam soil, with their mortalities lower than that in the untreated and sterilized loam and sandy loam soil.
    Estimated frequency of resistance alleles to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in the field populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) from Northern China
    CHEN Hai-Yan, YANG Yi-Hua, WU Shu-Wen, YANG Ya-Jun, WU Yi-Dong
    2007, 50(1):  25-30. 
    Abstract ( 2905 )   PDF (196KB) ( 1323 )     
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    An improved F1 screen technique was used to estimate the frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Bt cotton producing the Cry1Ac toxin in field populations of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) collected from Northern China in 2005. Eggs were collected from Bt cotton in Anyang of Henan Province and Cangxian of Hebei Province, respectively. The collected eggs were reared with artificial diet in the laboratory. The 2nd instar larvae were subjected to a primary selection with 1 μg/cm2 activated Cry1Ac, and the survivors were individually mated with moths from a laboratory-selected resistant GYBT strain. After screening F1 with a discriminating dose of 2.5 μg/cm2 activated Cry1Ac, we estimated the field resistance frequency of 1.4×10-3 for Anyang population from Henan Province, and 1.5×10-3 for Cangxian population from Hebei Province. Susceptibility of five field populations of H. armigera collected from Northern China cotton area and Xinjiang cotton area during 2004-2005 was investigated using a surface contamination bioassay. Geographic variations (<8-fold) were found between these populations. In general, the field populations of H. armigera in Northern China have not evolved prominent resistance to Cry1Ac, and their resistance frequency to Cry1Ac is at a normal level. But Bt resistance risk still exists, and the early resistance detection and alarming system should be initiated in China as early as possible.
    Diversity and stability of the arthropod communities in different forest types of the bamboo Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens
    ZHANG Fei-Ping,YOU Min-Sheng
    2007, 50(1):  31-37. 
    Abstract ( 4037 )   PDF (199KB) ( 1219 )     
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    Through systematic location and surveys in four representative field sites in Sanming City, Fujian Province from 2001 to 2002, the diversity and stability of the arthropod communities in the pure and three different mixed types of the bamboo Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. Pubescens forests were compared and analyzed, aiming to explore the relationships between types of the bamboo forests and outbreaks of the major leaf pests such as phytophagous mites, Pantana phyllostachysae and Kuwanaspis vermiformis which heavily infested the bamboo in South China in recent years. The results showed that the arthropod richness in the bamboo forest mixed with broadleaf trees was higher than in the pure bamboo forest and in the bamboo forests mixed with Cunninghamia lanceolata or Pinus massoniana. Significantly more predatory and phytophagous arthropod species were found in the bamboo forest mixed with broadleaf trees, which mainly belong to the arthropod orders of Homoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Diptera in the lower layer of the forest and Acarina, Homoptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera in the canopy of the forest. However, overall the species diversity, evenness and dominant concentration of the communities in the four forest types of the bamboo showed no significant differences. The common species in the predatory and phytophagous guilds between in the lower layers and the canopies of the three types of mixed forests were all more than those in the pure forest, which resulted in higher similarity of species composition between the two layers of the mixed forests. The measurements of the community stability in the four forest types showed significant differences. The stability of the canopy both in the bamboo forest mixed with broadleaf and in the pure bamboo forest was lower than in the other two mixed forests; the control effects of the natural enemies to the pests in the former two forest types were also lower, and the numbers of individuals of phytophagous mites and Kuwanaspis vermiformis on the bamboo leaves were also higher. We so suggested that in the bamboo forests hurt seriously by the two pests above, such measures as rebuilding of the bamboo forests mixed with Cunninghamia lanceolata or Pinus massoniana should be considered. 21 Refs.
    opulation dynamics of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Liuku, Yunnan with an analysis of the influencing factors
    CHEN Peng,YE Hui
    2007, 50(1):  38-45. 
    Abstract ( 3402 )   PDF (236KB) ( 1263 )     
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    Annual monitoring was conducted on the population dynamics of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) through methyl eugenol-baited traps in Liuku, Yunnan from 2003 to 2005 respectively. Temperature, rainfall and host-plant species were analyzed in relation to population fluctuation of the fly. The results indicated that during the study periods, adults of the fruit fly occurred seasonally from March to December. The population fluctuation was single peaked, with the peak in July. There were close relationships between the fluctuation of B. dorsalis male adult abundance and such environmental factors as temperature, rainfall, and raining days in Liuku, Yunnan. Decision coefficient and path analyses indicated that the monthly rainfall was the major decision factor, and the monthly mean temperature and the monthly mean minimum temperature were the crucial limiting factors, of which the monthly mean minimum temperature was the most important factor indirectly negatively influencing population increasing. The principal component analysis screened out the first principal components, all representing the low temperature condition, whose cumulative variance proportion was 77.65%. The results of stepwise regression analysis also indicated that the monthly mean temperature and the monthly mean minimum temperature were the major climatic factors influencing the population fluctuation. In conclusion, the lower temperature condition was the key factor resulting in the seasonal population fluctuation of B. dorsalis in Liuku, Yunnan.
    Bionomics of the erythrina gall wasp, Quadristichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)
    JIAO Yi, CHEN Zhi-Lin, YU Dao-Jian, KANG Lin, YANG Wei-Dong, CHEN Zhi-Nan, CHEN Xiao-Ying
    2007, 50(1):  46-50. 
    Abstract ( 3372 )   PDF (149KB) ( 2228 )     
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    The erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim, is an important quarantine pest. It has caused severe damage in Singapore, Mauritius, Reunion, American Hawaii, Chinese Taiwan, and recently in Chinese continental Shenzhen. The bionomics of the erythrina gall wasp was systematically observed and studied both in field and in the laboratory. The results indicated that adult activity, longevity, mating and oviposition of the wasp were related significantly to temperature and light, in which they were living. The female longevity was prolonged by supplementary nutrition, but the male not. The sex ratio also changed with environmental temperature. The average number of eggs born per female were 275.8. The fecundity and the oviposition rate, highest at 30, were 203.63 eggs and 73.83%, respectively. The thermal threshold and the effective accumulated temperature for the development were 13.37 and 458.27 degree-days respectively. The developmental duration was interrelated negatively with temperature (r**=-0.9161).
    The bracing and fusing pattern of longitudinal veins at base in living mayflies (Insecta: Ephemeroptera)
    ZHOU Chang-Fa
    2007, 50(1):  51-56. 
    Abstract ( 3448 )   PDF (2392KB) ( 1823 )     
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    The bracing and merging pattern of basal longitudinal veins plays an important role in phylogeny reconstruction within Pterygota. Unfortunately, the basal venation pattern of living mayflies has changed from the ancestral state in most species, but in very rare cases, the origins of some longitudinal vein bases are preserved and visible. The wing base of Siphluriscus chinensis has an independent subcostal brace, partial stem of the media, visible stem of the cubitus, and indications of the origins of MA and Rs. This kind of wing base plus those of Ephemera rufomaculata and Chromarcys magnifica show the venation groundplan of modern Ephemeroptera (stem of M parallel to or fused with R basally, MA and Rs fused together for certain distance then separate, Cu independent at base). This pattern seems close to that of Neoptera while different from Odonata. In the latter, the M fused with Cu basally. The hypothesized function of subcostal brace in mayflies is to strengthen the connection between distantly separated longitudinal veins because of sclerite plate at radius vein base. This hypothesis also can be used to explain complicated and unique venation of dragonfly.
    A revised taxonomy of Cirrospilus ambiguous based on molecular systematics with notes on notauli evolution in Eulophinae
    SHA Zhong-Li, ZHU Chao-Dong, Robert W. MURPHY, HUANG Da-Wei
    2007, 50(1):  57-66. 
    Abstract ( 3382 )   PDF (873KB) ( 1463 )     
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    Eulophids provide a valuable experimental model system to investigate a wide variety of questions in the evolution of parasitic wasps. Notauli, an important taxonomic character in the family Eulophidae, is used to differentiate subfamilies, tribes, genera and species. However, abundant morphological homoplasy in this family has made it difficult to confidently identify many eulophid taxa at specific level. Both Cirrospilus ambiguous and Diglyphus bimaculatus are considered to have notauli patterns that are intermediate between their respective genera. Determining the phylogenetic position of both species may facilitate studying the evolution of notauli patterns. We analyzed CO, ITS1 and 28S sequences using Bayesian method. C. ambiguous was transferred into the monophyletic Diglyphus, and the monophyly of Cirrospilus, however, was not supported. The types of notauli were examined in the context of the phylogeny based on 28S gene sequences. The complete notauli in the Eulophidae extending to the hind margin of the mesoscutum was inferred to represent the ancestral form. The complete notauli that curves to meet the apex of the axillae occurs independently in five clades. Each occurrence represents a unique independent evolution. The incomplete form of notauli occurred in four clades, indicating that the shape independently evolved four times.
    Progress in ecdysone receptor (EcR) and insecticidal mechanisms of ecdysteroids
    LIU Yong-Jie, XU Peng-Jun, LI Yan-Wei, SHU Huai-Rui, HUANG Da-Wei
    2007, 50(1):  67-73. 
    Abstract ( 4610 )   PDF (211KB) ( 1934 )     
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    Ecdysteroids, the steroid hormones, play a crucial role in coordinating molting, metamorphosis and reproduction in insects. The action of ecdysteroids, mainly 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is mediated by their binding to the ecdysone receptor (EcR), which requires a heterodimeric partner, ultraspiracle protein (USP). Upon binding the ligand, the EcR-USP heterodimer binds to a DNA ecdysone response element (EcRE) that is located in the promoter region of a series of ecdysteroid-responsive genes and thereafter triggers the expression of a cascade of genes involved in regulating some key developmental events in insects. The EcR has been an important target in designing new, environmentally safe insecticides against pest species. The differences in the ligand binding domains (LBD) of EcRs from insects belonging to different orders can be exploited to discover order-specific insecticides. The EcR also has been used to develop inducible gene switches for efficient regulation of foreign genes in applications such as gene therapy, protein production and functional genomics. The structural and function characteristics of EcRs, the mode of molecular action of ecdysteroid (PonA) and diacylhydrazine (BYI06830) with EcR/USP respectively, and EcR-based screening assays and gene switches were reviewed in this article.
    Effect of BmDNV1 infection on the biochemical parameters in Densonucleosis type1 resistant and susceptible breeds of silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
    Monir SIRAJ, Murikinati BALAVENKATASUBBAIAH,Kuniyil CHANDRASEKHARAN, Bhyrappa NATARAJU, Sudendra Dutta SHARMA,Thangasami SELVAKUMAR, Parimi SUDHAKARA RAO
    2007, 50(1):  74-78. 
    Abstract ( 3186 )   PDF (227KB) ( 1218 )     
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    Among silkworm diseases, viral diseases are the major and most common which damages the cocoon production. Viral flacherie is caused by BmIFV, BmDNV1 and BmDNV2. Resistant and susceptible silkworm breeds against BmDNV1 were identified among the Indian Germ plasm stock. The changes in major organic constituents viz., total protein, carbohydrate and lipid content during the progressive infection of BmDNV1 in susceptible and resistant breeds were estimated as per the standard methods. As the larval age increases, there was a consistent increase in the level of organic constituents viz., protein and carbohydrates in both control and treated batches, but the level of increase in treated batches were markedly less when compared to the respective control batches. After inoculation with BmDNV1, there was a significant decrease in total protein content in haemolymph and mid gut tissue in susceptible breeds when compared with control batches. In resistant breeds, there was a significant decrease in total protein content up to 4 day post inoculation (PI) but subsequently, the decrease was less compared to the respective controls. There was a slight decrease in total carbohydrate content in haemolymph and mid gut tissue in susceptible and resistant breeds. In case of lipid content, there was a significant increase in haemolymph and mid gut tissues in susceptible breeds and in resistant breeds the changes were not found significant. In susceptible silkworm breeds, the biochemical changes clearly indicated that the BmDNV1 infection depletes the major organic constituents viz., total protein and total carbohydrate contents which are the major sources energy. This depletion in these contents resulted in stunted growth in infected silkworms.
    Morphological observation on the immature stages of Agrilus auriventris Saunders (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)
    WEI Shu-Jun, ZHENG Hong-Hai, HUANGFU Wei-Guo, SHI Zu-Hua, CHEN Xue-Xin
    2007, 50(1):  79-84. 
    Abstract ( 3228 )   PDF (14467KB) ( 959 )     
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    Morphology of immature stages of the citrus borer (Agrilus auriventris Saunders) was studied in details both in field and in the laboratory using Leica MZ 16A stereo microscope with Leica IM 1000 system. The results showed that eggs were creamy white when first laid, but they became yellow and wizened with age. Before hatching, white and waxen outer layer and yellow inner layer were derived from the chorion; during hatching, the larva bored directly into phloem from the bottom part of the egg adhered to the bark with sawdust-like dejecta in the chorion. The shape of larval urogomphi and the width of peristoma varied with increase of instar, and the last-instar larva made a elliptic cell in the xylem with its body folded from head to tail with a ratio of 37. A prepupal stage appeared before pupation; when the pupae aged, their body turned yellow and compound eyes became rufous from creamy white, and then, a status with yellow body, rufous compound eyes and black mouthpart appeared. Before eclosion, the whole pupa became black; during eclosion, exuvia cracked as the expand the adult body. After the fore wings became black and the dorsal aspect of the abdomen blue, the adult gained all adult characters. This study further confirmed that the larvae of this beetle had 5 instars.
    Morphology of the digestive system in Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes)(Acariformes: Pyroglyphidae)
    ZHANG Ying-Ying, LIU Zhi-Gang, SUN Xin, BAO Ying, LI Meng
    2007, 50(1):  85-89. 
    Abstract ( 3662 )   PDF (6259KB) ( 1064 )     
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    The digestive system of Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes) was dissected and observed with light microscopy. The results show that the digestive system consists of prebuccal cavity, foregut, midgut, hindgut, anus and salivary gland. The prebuccal cavity is surrounded by gnathosoma; the foregut consists of a muscular pharynx and an esophagus which extends through the brain; the midgut is divided into the anterior midgut with a pair of caeca and the posterior midgut; the hindgut consists of a relative broad colon and a narrow rectum; the salivary gland is irregular in shape and located in the front of the brain. The ramus, configuration and dermal cell types of the alimentary canal were described.
    The RAPD analysis on the phylogeny of Pyemotes spp. on different hosts
    HAN Ji-Cheng, YU Li-Chen, HE Li-Min, HAO Bao-Feng, XU Chang-Xin
    2007, 50(1):  90-94. 
    Abstract ( 3664 )   PDF (6562KB) ( 1198 )     
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    The Pyemotes is one of the most important natural enemies of the bark pests, and spreads widely in China. It is difficult to identify the relationships among the Pyemotes populations on different hosts because of their belonging to closely related species undistinguishable by morphological characters. The RAPD analysis of 9 populations of Pyemotes on different hosts collected from Changli County, Hebei Province and Jixian County, Tianjin City were carried out to explore the relationships among these Pyemotes populations. Thirty-two primers with high polymorphic and steady bands were obtained after selecting in 100 primers repeatedly. The results of phylogeny analysis based on the genetic distances of the tested 9 populations indicated that the they could be divided into three groups (A, B and C). Group A contains Pyemotes dryas only; Group B contains P. scolyti and the Pyemotes parasitizing Scolytidae spp.; Group C are divided further into two subgroups, one is the Pyemotes parasitizing Pteromalidae spp., and another contains the Pyemotes parasitizing Phloeosinus aubei Perris, Dermestidae sp., Sinoxylon japonicum Lesne, and Cryphalus exignus, respectively. Reproductive isolation was found between the population of Pyemotes parasitizing Pteromalidae spp. and others, which suggests that the former should be a different new species.