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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 February 2007, Volume 50 Issue 2
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Effects of Monochamus alternatus Hope feeding and artificial damage on the contents of several chemicals in needles of Pinus massoniana.
    LI Shui-Qing, ZHANG Zhong-Ning
    2007, 50(2):  95-100. 
    Abstract ( 3610 )   PDF (218KB) ( 1232 )     
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    The concentrations of nutritional chemicals and secondary metabolites in new and old needles of Pinus massoniana following attack by Monochamus alternatus Hope and artificial damage were assayed. The results indicated that the levels of soluble sugars and rough polysaccharides in new and old needles fluctuated after treatments, but the concentrations in needles of P. massoniana fed by M. alternatus were less than those in needles injured by artificial damage. Treatments of both ways caused the decrease of protein and the increase of tannin and flavonoid in needles. The contents of protein decreaed at first after treatments of both ways, and began restoring to the control level 10 d after treatments. But the effects of feeding by M. alternatus were stronger than the treatment of artificial damage. Feeding by M. alternatus influenced strongly the content of tannin in new and old needles, whereas artificial damage had no influence on the content of tannin in old needles. After treatments by feeding and artificial damage, the contents of flavonoid in new and old needles were higher than that in the control, but the effect of feeding damage was stronger. These results suggested that the host P. massoniana had evolved special defense mechanism against the damage by M. alternatus.
    Analysis, purification and identification of the 30 kD specific allergen of Bombyx mori using mass spectrometry
    LIU Zhi-Gang, ZHANG Jie, LIN Ge
    2007, 50(2):  101-105. 
    Abstract ( 3118 )   PDF (666KB) ( 1253 )     
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    To analyse, identify and primarily purify Bombyx mori specific allergen using mass spectrometry, we made the crude extracts of different growing stages of the silkworm by Coca's extracts, identified its specific allergens by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, purified the 30 kD specific allergenby DEAE-52 ion exchange chromatography and gel isolation, and analysed the data through website-searching after MALDI-TOF-MS online analysis. The results indicated that the silkworms at different growing stages had about 20 protein bands, and the 5th instar larvae had 23 protein bands. The molecular weights of the 11 major bands were 82, 79, 60, 51, 46, 38, 32, 30, 28, 24 and 18 kD, respectively. The results of Western blotting with the positive serum of anaphylactic patients showed that the 1st4th instar larvae all had the specific allergens whose molecular weights were 82 and 79 kD, respectively; only the 5th instar larvae all had the specific allergen of 30 kD. We purified the protein of 30 kD by ion exchange chromatography and gel isolation and identified it as ectoblast protein by MALDI-TOF-MS. The reults suggest that the antigen changes with different stages and the protein of 30 kD appeared newly at the 5th instar larva is stage-specific.
    Optimization of extraction technique for antibacterial peptides from Musca domestica larvae
    LU Jie, ZHONG Ya, LIU Lin, FU Kang, CHEN Zheng-Wang
    2007, 50(2):  106-112. 
    Abstract ( 4879 )   PDF (409KB) ( 2214 )     
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    It is not good enough to produce antibacterial peptides by genetic engineering because of much technology troubles involved and the mono-kind of peptide with narrow antimicrobial spectrum. It is very significant and valuable to isolate antibacterial peptides from abundant crude resource. Antibacterial peptides extracted from Musca larvae, which have multi-functions such as antibacterial and antitumor activities, are good natural medicine resources, but the product development research is few for the lower extracting ratio. Using natural material of dried Musca domestica larvae, by comparing the activities and characteristics of antibacterial peptides extracted by two methods such as heat-chromatography and alginic-acid-absorption, it had been proved that heat-chromatography was a quick, simple method with 0.26% peptides extracting ratio which was 5.2-fold to that of alginic-acid-absorption. The major antibacterial peptides extracted by heat-chromatography were determined having Mw 6.217.2 kD with TricineSDS-PAGE and pI 5.595.91 with IEF-PAGE. The peptides were very thermo-stable and had antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis. Besides maintaining the stability of bioactive peptides by removing the exotic proteases, the heat-chromatography could also extract non-peptides with antibacterial activity. This technique may be used to exploit the resource of houseflies sufficiently and develop the antibacterial products with high additional value supplying to medical treatment and health protection.
    Effect of oil from Chrysomyia megacephala (Fabricius) larvae in reducing blood lipids of mice
    ZHAO Fu, WANG Jun-Gang, TIAN Jun-Peng, NIU Chang-Ying, LEI Chao-Liang
    2007, 50(2):  113-117. 
    Abstract ( 3189 )   PDF (374KB) ( 1379 )     
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    Effect of larval oil of Chrysomyia megacephala (Fabricius) on hyperlipemia was studied. Hyperlipemia model was established in mice. The oil in different dose was garaged to the mice for 5 weeks. Blood samples were sampled. The levels of blood lipids were detected. The pathological changes in the liver were observed microscopically. The results showed that larval oil of C. megacephala could obviously reduce contents of triglyceride (TC), TG, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared to the concentration of total cholesterin (TG) in HFD group model, the concentration of TG in low dose group, medium dose group and high dose group decreased by 20.70%, 48.98% and 56.06%, respectively. The concentration of TC in serum in HFD group model was 4.59 mmol/L. The concentration of TC in larva oil of C. megacephala in low dose group, medium dose group, and high dose group decreased by 16.99%, 23.52% and 25.49% compared with that of TC in HFD group model respectively. HDL-C increased significantly (P<0.05): the concentrations of HDL-C in low dose group, medium dose group and high dose group increased by 11.74%, 18.04% and 18.95% compared with that of HDL-C in HFD group model, respectively. The increase of HDL-C (P<0.05) in serum showed a relationship between the quantity and the effect. Successfully feeding the mice with larva oil of C. megacephala had a protection effect to the liver cells. The results suggest that larval oil of C. megacephala may have a therapeutic effect on hyperlipemia.
    Contact and repellency activities of ethanol extracts from twenty medicinal plants against Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)
    HUANG Yan-Zhang, YANG Chang-Ju, XUE Dong, Rotimi Oluwafemi AKINKUROLERE, YAO Ying-Juan
    2007, 50(2):  118-124. 
    Abstract ( 3729 )   PDF (252KB) ( 1645 )     
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    In this paper we reported the bioactivities of ethanol extracts from 20 medicinal plants against Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.) using drug-film method and filter paper diffusion method. The results of the contact tests showed that the extract of Trigonelia foenum-graecum was most effective on the pest, followed by Cnidium monnieri and Acorus gramineous respectively. At 0.39 mg/cm2 treatment, T. foenum-graecum extract showed 100% mortality at 48 h post-treatment. C. monnieri and Aconitum carmichaeli had marked repellence effect against R. dominica. C. monnieri extract had better contact and repellence efficacy. The LD50 of T. foenum-graecum plant extract against R. dominica after 72 h treatment was 19.94 μg/cm2.
    Feeding preference of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker (Lepidoptera:Lasiocampidae) on pines Pinus massoniana and P. elliottii
    HE Zhong, CAO Hong-Zhen, ZENG Ju-Ping,LIANG Yu-Yong, HAN Rui-Dong, GE Feng
    2007, 50(2):  125-135. 
    Abstract ( 3368 )   PDF (402KB) ( 1275 )     
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    Larvae of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker (LepidopteraLasiocampidae) were fed with young needles, old needles and β-pinene-treated (20% and 40% in concentration) young needles of masson pine (Pinus massoniana) and slash pine (P. elliottii) respectively in the laboratory. The survival rates of the larvae among these needle groups were observed. The masson pine old needle group had the highest survival rate (44), followed by the masson pine young needle group (32.67) and the slash pine old needle group (4), while all larvae feeding on slash pine young needles died. The analysis of the amino acid content and β-pinene showed the content of amino acid was highest but the content of β-pinene was lowest in masson pine old needles. In contrast, the content of amino acid was lowest but the content of β-pinene was highest in slash pine young needles. Also, the mortality rate of the larvae feeding on the β-pinene-treated needles was higher than that of the control. We speculated that the high content of β-pinene and the low content of amino acid could lead to high mortality of D. punctatus larvae feeding on slash pine needles. The content level of β-pinene should be considered as a standard for the resistance ability to D. punctatus, which prefers to feed on masson pine but not slash pine in the wild.
    The main climate factors affecting wax excretion of Ericerus pela Chavannes(Homopetera: Coccidae)and an analysis of its ecological adaptability
    CHEN Xiao-Ming, WANG Zi-Li, CHEN Yong, WANG Shao-Yun, FENG Ying
    2007, 50(2):  136-143. 
    Abstract ( 3343 )   PDF (240KB) ( 1304 )     
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    Chinese white wax scaleEricerus pela Chavannes, is an important resource insect that excretes white wax with economic value. The ecological adaptability of this scale has been disputed for a long time. In this paper, the wax excretion mechanism of E. pela was studied depending on the wax excretion and ecological observation of this scale in Emei mountain of Sichuan province, and Kunming and Zhaotong of Yunnan province. The results showed that both the wax excretion amount and the mortality of E. pela in severe environment were higher than those in normal environment. So wax excretion amount was not a appropriate index for evaluating the ecological adaptability of the scale as traditionally considered. The reasons of breeding reproductive females in high mountain areas and producing white wax in low mountain areas were analyzed also in this paper. The areas suitable for the growth of the scale had the following climatic conditions: the annual average temperature was 11-16, the annual rain fall 800-1 200 mm/a, the annual relative humidity about 75 and the annual light hour 1 900-2 500 h/a. The results suggested that wax excretion of E. pela was an ecological strategy and a protective response to severe environment.
    AFLP analysis of genetic diversity of Apis cerana Fabricius distributed in different geographic areas in China
    JIANG Yu-Suo, LIU Wen-Zhong, ZHANG Chun-Xiang, QIAO Li-Ying,ZHU Wen-Jin, ZHANG Gui-Xian, GUO Chuan-Jia
    2007, 50(2):  144-152. 
    Abstract ( 3340 )   PDF (929KB) ( 1518 )     
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    The genetic variation and differentiation among 11 populations of Apis cerana Fabricius and one population of Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola from 9 provinces (cities) of China were analysed by a total of 22 AFLP primer combinations. The genetic similarity coefficients among 39 individuals, and Nei's distance, Reynolds distance, pairwise Fst among the populations were calculated from AFLP data. Dendrogram trees among individuals and/or populations were constructed based on UPGMA clustering analysis. The results indicated that AFLP analysis had high assaying efficiency and provided a valuable tool for studying genetic diversity and breed characterization in honeybees. Remarkable genetic differentiation, indicated by the genetic similarity coefficients, was found between A. cerana and A. mellifera. Extensive genetic variation was also existed among the nine populations of A. cerana, indicating that A. cerana was rich in genetic diversity. The UPGMA tree suggested that the honeybees of Hainan province had evolved into a unique subspecies because of island isolation, which supported the results based on morphological research.
    A phylogeny of the subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) based on 28S rDNA D2 gene sequence and morphological characters
    SHI Min, CHEN Xue-Xin, MA Yun, HE Jun-Hua
    2007, 50(2):  153-164. 
    Abstract ( 3104 )   PDF (1241KB) ( 1559 )     
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    This study is the first attempt to combine gene sequences with morphological characters to provide a phylogenetic reconstruction of the subfamily Doryctinae (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Eighteen species belonging to 6 tribes 15 genera of the subfamily were involved, and 11 species of 11 genera belonging to 7 subfamilies of Braconidae were used as outgroups with Microgasterinae (Cotesia flavipes) used as “root” to testify the monophyletic nature of the subfamily. The DNA sequences of D2 region of 28S ribosomal DNA were downloaded from the GenBank. One hundred characters of morphology and anatomy were selected and analyzed in a cladistic manner for this study. The evolutionary relationships were investigated by comparing the results from molecular data alone or molecular data combined morphological characters, using two different analysis methods: maximum parsimony (MP) by PAUP* 4.0 and Bayesian inference by MrBayes 3.0B4. Base composition and ti/tv of 28S rDNA D2 regions were analyzed by PAUP* 4.0. The results showed that GC content of the 28S rDNA D2 gene sequences of subfamily Doryctinae ranged from 39.33% to 48.28%. Transversion frequency of sequence variable sites among species of Doryctinae was higher than that of transition. The subfamily Doryctinae was proved to be a well-defined naturally monophyletic group; within the subfamily, evidences were found to support that only tribe Siragrini was monophyletic group, and the other tribes, tribe Doryctini and tribe Hecabolini, were paraphyletic groups. There was no consistency between the topologies of phylogenetic trees generated by different analysis methods with different data, in accordance with the results of morphological and biological research of the subfamily, suggesting that more work should be done to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among genera and tribes of the subfamily Doryctinae.
    A review of Parablatticida Girault (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from China, with description of two new species
    ZHANG Yan-Zhou, HUANG Da-Wei
    2007, 50(2):  165-171. 
    Abstract ( 2997 )   PDF (817KB) ( 1362 )     
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    Six species of Parablatticida Girault are reported from China, of which two species, P. orientalis sp. nov. and P. scapata sp. nov., are described as new to science. Parablatticida brevicornis (Dalman), P. magniclava Hayat and P. terebrata (Trjapitzin) are recorded from China for the first time. A key to Chinese species of Parablatticida is provided and characters of the species are illustrated. The type specimens are deposited in the Zoological Collection of the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Studies on numerical taxonomy for medical gamasid mites of Yunnan
    LUO Li-Pu, GUO Xian-Guo
    2007, 50(2):  172-177. 
    Abstract ( 3455 )   PDF (255KB) ( 1370 )     
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    The aim of this paper is to determine the taxonomic position of medical gamasid mites and further explore the difference between numerical taxonomy and the traditional morphological taxonomy for medical gamasid mites. Based on hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis (PCA), the numerical taxonomy on 57 species of medical gamasid mites was carried on. The results of clustering analysis based on squared Euclidean distance showed that the 57 species of medical gamasid mites were divided into the five families in the dendrogram: Laelapidae, Parasitidae, Dermanyssidae, Hirstionyssidae and Aceosejidae. Differed from the traditional taxonomic views, Hirstionyssus and Echinonyssus were separated from Laelapidae and formed an independent family-Hirstionyssidae; Ornithonyssus bacoti was assigned to Dermanyssidae instead of Macronyssidae. The classifications of the remained species were the same as those in the traditional taxonomy. The results of PCA showed that the cumulative variance of the front 14 principal components reached 85.681%. The results in the three-dimension ordination of PCA were consistent with the results in the hierarchical clustering analysis. The results of clustering analysis were consistent with those of traditional morphological taxonomy for medical gamasid mites. It was so concluded that the results of numerical taxonomy could objectively reflect the taxonomic position and affinity between medical gamasid mites.
    Effects of heavy metal pollution on insects
    SUN Hong-Xia, LIU Ying, ZHANG Gu-Ren
    2007, 50(2):  178-185. 
    Abstract ( 5197 )   PDF (253KB) ( 2186 )     
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    Heavy metal pollution has become a global environmental problem and severely threatened the biological diversity and people's health. More and more attention has been paid to the potential effects of heavy metal pollution on insects as one of the important groups of global biological diversity. The accumulation of heavy metals in insects may influence their development. It has been demonstrated that insects could be contaminated by respiration, ion absorbing through integument and food intake. Excessive metal accumulation in insects could not only cause cell ultrastructure variations and genetic homeostasis alteration, but also induce cell apoptosis and influence cell viability and proliferation. But, heavy metals can be stored in insect organs with digestive, storage or excretory function in form of “granules”, and be transported into lysosomes to detoxify. Moreover, metallothionein and antioxidant enzymes also play important roles in the process of detoxification.
    Effects of deoxypodophyllotoxin on metabolizing enzymes in Mythimna separata Walker
    MA Zhi-Qing, LI Guang-Ze, FENG Jun-Tao, ZHANG Xing
    2007, 50(2):  186-190. 
    Abstract ( 3297 )   PDF (156KB) ( 1228 )     
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    Deoxypodophyllotoxin is the main insecticidal composition in Sabina vulgaris Ant., an insecticidal plant. In order to study its insecticidal mechanism, the effect of deoxypodophyllotoxin on activities of carboxyl esterases (CarE), phosphatase, glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) and microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) in larvae of Mythimna separata Walker were assayed. The results showed that the activities of CarE in tested larvae had no distinct change; with extending of treatment time, the activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) in tested larvae were gradually inhibited by deoxypodophyllotoxin; the change of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity was very complex; the activity of GSTs had no distinct change in 12 h, was inhibited in 24 h, but was activated in 36 h; the O-demethylase activity of cytochrome P450 was inhibited by deoxypodophyllotoxin.
    Change in hemolymph proteins of silkworm after hemopoietic organs being damaged
    TU Zhen-Li, SHI Mei-Xing, KOBAYASHI Yasuhiko
    2007, 50(2):  191-196. 
    Abstract ( 3343 )   PDF (676KB) ( 1052 )     
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    To study the change of proteins in hemolymph after hemopoietic organs of silkworm (Bombyx mori) being damaged, heavy ion beams (12C5+, 18.3 MeV/μ, range = 1.1 mm, 100 Gy) were used to locally irradiate the hemopoietic organs-wing disc complex at the premolting stage of the 4th instar. The total hemolymph proteins and bacterial challenge-related proteins induced by E. coli were investigated during the 5th instar. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in hemolymph proteins between irradiated individuals and the controls. Only the concentration of 70 kD proteins in irradiated silkworms were observed higher at day 0 of the 5th instar and lower at the later stage of the 5th instar than those of the respective controls. The content of storage protein in fat body showed the similar change tendency with that in hemolymph. The storage proteins were analyzed by Western blotting, and the results showed the 1st protein band near 70 kD was storage protein SP-1, the below two were storage proteins SP-2. Additionally 24 kD proteins in irradiated individuals also changed: it was lower than that of the controls at early days, hardly detected at the 3rd day of 5th instar. Similar effects were also observed in the larvae generally irradiated with heavy ion beams. For irradiated individuals the quantity of bacterial challenge-related proteins in hemolymph induced by E. coli significantly decreased. It was so concluded that silkworm hemopoietic organs were related to the formation of hemolymph proteins, and due to the decrease of hemocytes caused by functional disruption of hemopoietic organs, synthesis of protein in fat body was affected and protein components in hemolymph changed.
    Effect of resistant wheat attacked by previous aphids on biological characteristics of subsequent aphids
    LI Jun,ZHAO Hui-Yan, Udo HEIMBACH, Thomas THIEME
    2007, 50(2):  197-201. 
    Abstract ( 3142 )   PDF (163KB) ( 1489 )     
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    Accumulated evidence shows that penetration insect attack may induce changes in host plant quality, and this will affect the normal growth and development of crops. With the change of crops resistance and insect variety, in turn, crops will cause positive or negative impact on insects. However, few studies have investigated the consequences of induced plant response due to previous insect attack on phloem-feeding insects. Herein we address whether the feeding behaviour and growth of a phloem-feeding insect are affected by host plant changes with scientific research methods using three varieties resistant wheat 98-10-30, Amigo and Batis, which are from three different countries. We measured respectively the development duration (DD), weight difference (dW) and mean relative gowth rate (MRGR) of Sitobion avenae Fab. and Schizaphis graminum (Rondani). The results showed that the aphids were either restrained or promoted when they fed on different treatment crops, compared with the control not fed by aphids and the corresponding treatment previously fed by different aphid species. S.avenae restrained the growth of S.graminum (MRGR=0.0974±0.0071) on 98-10-30, but S. graminum promoted the growth of S.avenae (MRGR=0.1614±0.0048) on 98-10-30. Penetrations of aphids promoted the growth of S. avenae on Amigo, while promoted growth of S. graminum on Batis. In addition this study suggested that the wheat variety 98-10-30 and Batis had the same resistance when no aphids fed on them. However, the variety 98-10-30 had better resistance for S. graminum, and the variety Batis had better resistance for S. avenae when they were fed by aphids. The variety Amigo had better resistance for S. graminum under all situations.
    Invasive processes of Pandora nouryi (Remaudière & Hennebert) Humber in green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) observed with scanning electronic microscopy
    LI Wei, GAN Ya-Ling, SHENG Cheng-Fa
    2007, 50(2):  202-206. 
    Abstract ( 3394 )   PDF (398KB) ( 1119 )     
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    The invasive processes of Pandora nouryi (Remaudière & Hennebert) Humber in the host aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was observed with scanning electronic microscopy. It was found that the conidia attached to the surface of aphid germinated rapidly. About 60% conidia germinated to germ tube or globose appressorium for invasion within 35 h after attachment. By 12 h after attachment almost all conidia had germinated and invaded into the host successfully. By 60 h postinoculation the digital rhizoids were the first structures to emerge from the breast region of aphid body, attaching the host to the plant. Few pseudocystidia were found and just distributed at the two sides of aphid body, which may explain why existence of more moisture conditions is necessary for free discharge of conidial sporulation from cadavers killed by P. nouryi.