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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 March 2007, Volume 50 Issue 3
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Effect of Wolbachiainfection on longevity, fecundity and olfactory response of Trichogramma confusum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)
    PAN Xue-Hong, HE Yu-Rong, CHEN Ke-Wei, PAN Fei, PAN Mei
    2007, 50(3):  207-214. 
    Abstract ( 3297 )   PDF (243KB) ( 1358 )     
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    The effect of Wolbachia on biology and olfactory response of its new host, Trichogramma confusum, was studied after successful interspecific horizontal transfer of Wolbachia from T. pretiosum to uninfected T. confusum by sharing the same host egg. The results showed that Wolbachia infection could induce incomplete thelytokous parthenogenesis of T. confusum and therefore enhanced the female proportion of its new host, but meanwhile caused a physiological cost by curtailing longevity and reducing fecundity of its new host. The female percentage in progeny of the newly infected virgin female and its subsequent generations (F1-F5) were 79.17%, 76.60%, 68.66%, 72.58%, 68.15% and 64.06%, respectively, showing a decreasing tendency with the increasing of generations after horizontal transferring and gradually approaching that of the uninfected and mated T. confusum (63.85%). The average longevity of newly infected virgin female and F1F5 females was 4.33, 5.50, 5.60, 6.68, 7.32 and 7.50 days, respectively, shorter than that of the longevity of uninfected and mated T. confusum(7.59 days). The fecundity of the newly infected virgin female and F1-F5 females was 11.33, 70.00, 86.41, 93.90, 102.92 and 124.38 eggs per female, respectively, all except F5 generation significantly less than 134.8 eggs per female, the fecundity of the uninfected and mated female. The olfactory response of the newly Wolbachia-infected T. confusum to the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, was tested by using a four-armed olfactometer under laboratory conditions. The results indicated that Wolbachia had a slightly negative effect on T. confusum by interfering their olfactory response. For the uninfected T. confusum and the Wolbachia donor species T. pretiosum, their adults were detained significantly longer time in the treated areas than in the control area and showed a very strong olfactory response to hexane extract of abdominal scales and eggs of DBM. The retention time of F2 and F3 adults of the Wolbachia-infected T. confusum was longer in the treated area of hexane extract of abdominal scales of DBM than in the control area, but it did not reach to a significant level. The retention time of F2 adults was longer in the treated area of hexane extract of DBM eggs than in the control area, but it also did not reach to a remarkable level. However, the retention time of F4-F6 adults of the Wolbachia-infected T. confusum was significantly longer in the treated areas of above two hexane extracts than in the control area, suggesting that the normal olfactory response of T. confusum to DBM was recovered with the increasing of generations after horizontal transferring of Wolbachia.
    Cloning, expression and transcriptional activity of Bm-mof, an MYST histone acetyltransferase gene in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
    KONG Wei-Qing, YANG Jin-Hong, ZHU Yong
    2007, 50(3):  215-221. 
    Abstract ( 3060 )   PDF (1475KB) ( 1555 )     
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    MYST acetyltransferase widely exists in the eukaryon from yeast to human and it is now known to play a major role in the regulation of eukaryotic transcription. Based on the reported amino acid sequences of other organisms and the scaffold and EST sequences of the silkworm Bombyx mori L., the MYST acetyltransferase gene of the silkworm was obtained with silico cloning. The gene is 1 575 bp in length (GenBank accession number:  DQ442997), containing an ORF of 1 326 bp and no intron. The predicted protein consists of 442 amino acids with the molecular weight of 51.4 kD. It contains three conservative domains, i.e., MYST core domain, zinc finger and chromodomain, and has high similarity with homologous genes in other species. The RT-PCR experiment indicated that the gene was expressed in all tested tissues and stages of the silkworm. Prokaryotic expression of the gene recombinant with six-His tag and a Nus·Tag was successfully carried out through sub-cloning into pET50b vector.
    Bacterial community in midguts of the silkworm larvae estimated by PCR/DGGE and 16S rDNA gene library analysis
    XIANG Hui, LI Mu-Wang, ZHAO Yong, ZHAO Li-Ping, ZHANG Yue-Hua, HUANG Yong-Ping
    2007, 50(3):  222-233. 
    Abstract ( 3885 )   PDF (468KB) ( 1987 )     
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    We inventoried the bacteria community and the effects of diet on bacterial composition in larval midguts of two strains (the monophagous C108 and the polyphagous SCN2) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L., an economically important insect, using 16S PCR-DGGE and clone libraries. DNA sequence analysis indicated that the PCR-amplified 16S rDNA genes represented 41 phylotypes of bacteria. Most of them belonged to the Proteobacteria and Lactobacillales, whereas less dominant taxa including members of the Deinococcus- Thermus, Bacillales, Clostridiales and Actinobacteria were also found in the midgut bacterial community. Phylotypes of Enterococcus were the most dominant group in both strains tested, followed by Thermus. Bacterial composition or population structure of Enterococcus varied between the two strains and in the same strain fed with different diets. Especially, when strain SCN2 was fed with mulberry-free artificial diet, a midgut phylotype belonging to Staphylococcus appeared with a fairly high proportion. DGGE profiles demonstrated that there were differences in the bacterial pattern between young and old larvae. This might be related with the differences of physiology between the two developmental stages. The results suggested that the appearance of special bacteria might associate with the special phagy of the silkworm, and unfit diet might destroy the balance of midgut microbiota to block normal growth of the silkworm.
    Cloning and mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 genes CYP6AE12 and CYP9A18 in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)
    YUE Li-Na, YANG Yi-Hua, WU Shu-Wen, WU Yi-Dong
    2007, 50(3):  234-240. 
    Abstract ( 3319 )   PDF (370KB) ( 1293 )     
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    Two novel P450 genes (CYP9A18 and CYP6AE12) from the insecticide-resistant strain (YS-FP) of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) were cloned with RT-PCR and RACE. The coding region of CYP6AE12 cDNA is 1 569 bp, encoding a protein of 523 amino acids, while that of CYP9A18 cDNA is 1 590 bp, encoding a protein of 530 amino acids. Using real-time quantitative PCR, mRNA expression levels of CYP6AE12 and CYP9A18 were compared between the resistant strain YS-FP (derived from a susceptible strain YS through laboratory selection) and the YS strain respectively. The results showed that the expression of CYP6AE12 was higher in fat body than in midgut in the 6th instar larvae of both strains, whereas the expression of CYP9A18 was higher in midgut than in fat body. Compared with the YS strain, CYP6AE12 in fat body and midgut of the YS-FP strain was 1.3- and 3.6 fold over-expressed respectively, while CYP9A18 was not over-expressed in both midgut and fat body of the YS-FP strain. The results suggested that CYP6AE12 was probably involved in pyrethroid resistance in the resistant YS-FP strain of H. armigera.
    Pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius)
    HE Yu-Xian, HUANG Jian, YANG Xiu-Juan, WENG Qi-Yong
    2007, 50(3):  241-247. 
    Abstract ( 3368 )   PDF (766KB) ( 1460 )     
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    Resistance mechanisms to pyrethroids were investigated in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)with synergist bioassay, biochemical analysis and RT-PCR amplification for ⅡS4-6 region of sodium channel gene. Significant synergisms by PBO and TPP but no obvious synergism by DEM to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and fenpropathrin were found in field-collected resistant strains of B. tabaci. The carboxylesterase (CarE) activities to α-naphthylacetate and β-naphthylacetate in the resistant strains were 2.16-2.65 and 1.22-1.41 times that in the susceptible strain respectively, but there was no difference in the GST activities among the resistant strains and the susceptible strain. This indicated that CarE and mixed function oxidase (MFO) played an important role in the resistance of B. tabaci to pyrethroids, while the resistance of B. tabaci to pyrethroids was not related to GSTs. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of ⅡS4-6 region of sodium channel in six different field strains of B. tabaci in Fujian province was amplified by reverse transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction analysis (RT-PCR). Two mutations were identified in theⅡS4-6 linker of the para-type sodium channel of B. tabaci: isoleucine to
     valine at position 917(I917V) and leucine to isoleucine at position 925(L925I). The L925I mutation, occurred in all six different field strains, was identified to be associated with pyrethroid resistance. This suggested that nerve insensitivity might be another mechanism of resistance to pyrethroids in B. tabaci.
    Toxicity of deoxypodophyllotoxin to Periplaneta americana and its effects on AChE and ATPase
    ZHANG Shou-Gang, HOU Hua-Min, GAO Rong, LIU Yan-Qing, HE Bin, DI Xu-Dong, CHENG Jie, XIAO Hang
    2007, 50(3):  248-252. 
    Abstract ( 3668 )   PDF (181KB) ( 1231 )     
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    The contact toxicity of deoxypodophyllotoxin to newly-hatched Periplaneta Americana larvae was tested with the method of drug film, and its effects on the in vitro activities of AChE and ATPase in central nerve system of adult P. Americana were investigated.  The results indicated that deoxypodophyllotoxin exhibited high toxicity against P. Americana larvae, and its LC50 values were 26.26, 4.68, 1.51, and 0.62 μg/cm2 at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure time, respectively. Though deoxypodophyllotoxin did not affect the activity of AChE, it inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase in dose-dependent manner at the range of 5-625 μmol/L concentration and the IC50 was 44.9 μmol/L. Deoxypodophyllotoxin showed activating effect at lower concentration while inhibitory effect at higher concentration on Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase. The results suggest that AChE is not target of deoxypodophyllotoxin, while ATPase may be one of important targets of deoxypodophyllotoxin.
    Effects of host potassium nutrition on development, survival and host selection of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)
    LU Wei, HOU Mao-Lin, WEN Ji-Hui, LI Jia-Wen
    2007, 50(3):  253-258. 
    Abstract ( 4571 )   PDF (186KB) ( 1536 )     
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    To understand the effects of potassium nutrition of host-plant on the duration, survivorship, nymph body size and adult host selection of Bemisia tabaci, we conducted experiments with different potassium concentrations, K0(0 mg/L), K30(30 mg/L), K60(60 mg/L), K120(120 mg/L) and K240 (240 mg/L). The results showed that duration, survivorship and body size of the whitefly nymphs on the cucumber plants treated with different potassium concentrations were different. The total duration from egg to adult on plants with K240 potassium concentration was 21.4 days, and with K60 potassium concentration, 18.3 days. The total survival rates of the whiteflies from egg to adult were 71.4%, 84.7%, 83.8%, 76.2% and 64.8% on plants treated with K0, K30, K60, K120 and K240 potassium concentrations, respectively. In the host choice experiment, the number of adults and deposited eggs per plant were significantly higher on plants with K60 potassium concentration than on those with other concentrations. Implications of the current results in regulating sweetpotato whitefly populations through adjusting plant potassium nutrition were discussed.
    Life tables of the laboratory population of Coccinella undecimpunctata L. at different temperatures
    FENG Hong-Zu, WANG Lan, DONG Hong Qiang
    2007, 50(3):  259-263. 
    Abstract ( 3237 )   PDF (161KB) ( 1248 )     
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    Life tables of laboratory population of the Coccinella undecimpunctata L. were constructed at five temperatures. The results showed that the developmental rate increased with the temperature increasing from 16 to 32. The longest duration of the generation was 64.2 days observed at 16, the shortest was 16.4 days at 32, and in between 27.1 days and 21.5 days at 24 and 28, respectively. The threshold temperatures and the effective accumulated temperatures required for egg, larva, pupa and whole generation were 10.9, 11.1, 12.5, 10.6 and 40.9, 110.3, 39.7, 359.4 degree-day, respectively. The lifespan was shortened with the temperature increasing. The longest lifespan was 34.7 days at 16, while the shortest was 14.1 days at 32. The maximum number of eggs laid per female was 463.8 at 24, while the least was 96.4 at 32. It was so concluded from the results that temperature had great effect on the development of C. undecimpunctata. The most suitable temperature range was from 24 to 28, during which there were higher innate capacity of increase and the highest index of population trend, and the double population time was shortened. The increase rate of population at 16 was limited, with the index of population trends only 10.7% as high as that at 24; meanwhile double population time was 23.3 days, which was 4.1 times that at 24. The development duration, survival rate and fecundity of C. undecimpunctata was decreased at 32.
    RAPD analysis of population genetic structure of Bemisia tabaci biotype B and biotype Q
    CHU Dong, CHEN Guo-Fa, XU Bao-Yun, WU Qing-Jun, ZHANG You Jun
    2007, 50(3):  264-270. 
    Abstract ( 3002 )   PDF (527KB) ( 1287 )     
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    Bemisia tabaci biotype B has been an invasive agricultural pest worldwide during the past two decades. Compared with the biotype B, biotype Q is a new invasive biotype. However, biotype Q has invaded into numerous countries and caused severe losses. The genetic structure of biotype B and biotype Q was analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA RAPD markers here. The results showed that:1the specific amplified patterns using the primer H16 could distinguish biotype B populations from biotype Q populations and non-B/Q biotype population in Zhejiang province;2the genetic diversity of biotype Q was higher than that of biotype B;3biotype Q more likely originated from Iberian peninsula than from Middle Eastern regions. Our results also suggest that RAPD markers seem to be unsuitable to be used in analysis of the relationships of different biotypes, though they could be used to distinguish the different biotypes.
    Discovery of the fossil glosselytrods (Insecta: Glosselytrodea) from Shaanxi, China
    HONG You-Chong
    2007, 50(3):  271-280. 
    Abstract ( 3004 )   PDF (1075KB) ( 1198 )     
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    The discovered fossil glosselytrods in the world are rare, which have been known with only 6 families, 12 genera and 26 species. In this paper the author described three new Midtriassic fossil glosse lytrods belonging to the new members of Tongchuan Entomassemblage of Shaanxi Entomofauna (one fossil group of Shaanxi Biota). Judged on the results of study on the fossils of glosselytrods and other insects, other animals and plants, the geological age of the Tongchuan Formation corresponded to European Latinian stage in age. Based on the characteristics of these insects and other fossils, the author inferred that the Gondwana continent might separate from the Eurasian continent before the Middle Triassic Ladinian stage. Type specimens are deposited in Beijing Museum of Natural History.
    A taxonomic review on the genus Valiatrella Gorochov (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Podoscirtinae) with descriptions of two new species
    LIU Hao-Yu, SHI Fu-Ming
    2007, 50(3):  281-285. 
    Abstract ( 2932 )   PDF (439KB) ( 1204 )     
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    The genus Valiatrella Gorochov, 2005 was studied systematically. At present, it includes 3 species, of which only one species was reported from China. In this paper, we described two new species from China, V. multiprotubera sp. nov. (male, China: Yunnan) and V. laminaria sp. nov. (male, China: Guizhou), and a new record of V. sororia (Gorochov, 2002) in China (China: Guizhou). Type specimens of new species are deposited in the Museum of Hebei University.
    Entomopathogenic nematodes and advances in taxonomic techniques
    QIU Xue-Hong, HAN Ri-Chou
    2007, 50(3):  286-296. 
    Abstract ( 3757 )   PDF (339KB) ( 1584 )     
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    Entomopathogenic nematodes in the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae are potential biological control agents against pest insects, of which Steinernematidae is represented by the genera Steinernema and Neosteinernema, and Heterorhabditidae by the genus Heterorhabditis. Over the past decade, new technologies (especially molecular methods) have been incorporated into the traditional morphological approaches in identification and diagnosis of entomopathogenic nematodes. The entomopathogenic nematode systematics has come into a phase of stability and growth. More and more newly discovered nematode species/isolates have been used into the biological control of pests. At present, there are 65 recognized named species of entomopathogenic nematodes in the two families, with 52 species in Steinernema, 1 species in Neosteinernema and 12 species in Heterorhabditis. This paper lists the species of entomopathogenic nematodes and their sources, and reviews the advance in the taxonomic status and the taxonomic techniques of entomopathogenic nematodes, with emphasis on the molecular methods.
    Distribution of RCA-Ⅰ receptors during gametogenesis in Atractomorpha sinensis Bolivar (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae)
    LU Shu-Min, XI Geng-Si, TANG Chao-Zhi
    2007, 50(3):  297-303. 
    Abstract ( 3083 )   PDF (2650KB) ( 1131 )     
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    For better understanding of the significance of β-gal glycoconjugates distribution during gametogenesis, the distribution of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA-) receptors during gametogenesis in Atractomorpha sinensis Bolivar was detected by using lectin-binding cytochemistry method. The results showed that during spermatogenesis RCA- receptor was found on the membrane of spermatogenic cells at different stages, and the heads of deforming spermatids and sperms showed moderate positive reaction. During oogenesis, there was RCA- positive reaction in the oocytes of all stages, and the quantity of positive granules reached the maximum in the oocyte growth phase. With the formation of yolk granules, the products of RCA- positive reaction diminished gradually in oocytes, yet on the yolk membrane of maturing egg there appeared moderate positive reaction again. The results suggest that β-gal glycoconjugates may play great roles during gametogenesis of A. sinensis.
    Effect of ethanol extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng on growth, development and reproduction of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)
    CHENG Li-Kun, LIU Xiao-Xia, ZHANG Qing-Wen, MA Xiao-Mu, SUN Yan-Yan, ZHONG Yong
    2007, 50(3):  304-308. 
    Abstract ( 3485 )   PDF (153KB) ( 1266 )     
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    The effect of ethanol extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng on growth, development and reproduction of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was bioassayed in the laboratory. The results showed that the mortality rate of H. armigera larvae was significantly higher while pupa weight and adult emergence were significantly lower than the control when the larvae fed on the diet containing the extract of E. adenophorum at the concentrations of 0.088,0.44,2.2 and 11 g/kg. Treatments with the extract at the concentrations of 0.08, 0.4 and 2 g/L showed attraction effect on the oviposition of the bollworm females, however, the extract treatment at the concentration of 10 g/L showed the repellent effect on the oviposition of the bollworm females. Egg hatching success of cotton bollworm in all treatments of the extract decreased significantly compared with the control. The results suggest that feeding the extract of E. adenophorum may obviously retard growth and reproduction of the cotton bollworm.
    Bioactivities of extracts from Acorus gramineus on four stored grain pests
    YAO Ying-Juan, YANG Chang-Ju, XUE Dong, HUANG Yan-Zhang
    2007, 50(3):  309-312. 
    Abstract ( 3242 )   PDF (151KB) ( 1805 )     
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    Botanical insecticides are relatively safe and biodegradable, and readily available source of bioinsecticides. In recent years, the studies on new species of plant and on the spectrum of them have been much heated in the world. In this study, four different extracts (ethanol extract, acetone extract, ethyl acetate extract and petroleum ether extract) of Acorus gramineus rhizome were tested for their insecticidal activities against four stored grain pests, Sitophilus zeamais Motschusky, Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius, Cryptolestes pusillus Schoenherr and Oryzaephilus surinamensis L., using repellence method and contact toxicity method. The results showed that all extracts had obviously repellent and contact toxicity on the tested beetles. Sixty hours after the treatment, the repellent levels of the four extracts to the insects were all above grade Ⅲ. The contact mortalities of these four tested insects ranged from 41.11% to 100.00%. The results suggest that A. gramineus extracts can be used to control the main stored grain pests effectively, and offer basis for developing A. gramineus as the plant insecticide to control the stored grain pests.
    Ultrastructure of wing scales of Nymphalid butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
    FANG Yan,WANG Tong-Qing,SUN Gang,CONG Qian
    2007, 50(3):  313-317. 
    Abstract ( 2768 )   PDF (3624KB) ( 1624 )     
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    Ultrastructures of wing scales of 20 species in 15 genera of Nymphalidae, typically common in northeast China, were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The wing scales of Nymphalid butterflies were in three shapes, namely angustifoliate shape, latifoliate shape and round-leaved shape. Scale length is 65-135 μm, width 35-85 μm, and distance 48-112 μm. The wing scale ultrastructures of Nymphalid butterflies observed can be divided into three types, namely arch bridge shape, chessboard shape and sieve pore shape. Arch bridge shape and chessboard shape are quite similar, but they are very different from sieve pore shape. Of the species observed, the size of the vertical gibbosities on the scale was smallest in Limenitis populi(200 nm×300 nm) and largest in Apatura ilia (590 nm×560 nm). The scales are similar in shape, structure and arrangement, and especially the differences in shape and size of the scale ultrastructure between the congeneric species are relatively less, suggesting their closer relationship.