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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 April 2007, Volume 50 Issue 4
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Expression patterns of isozymes in molting larvae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    ZHENG Wei-Wei, ZHANG Yu-Bao, WANG Jin-Xing, ZHAO Xiao-Fan
    2007, 50(4):  317-322. 
    Abstract ( 3035 )   PDF (482KB) ( 1016 )     
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    Isozymes exist in tissues and cells in various organisms. They express in specific patterns at different developmental stages and play important roles. Insect molting is a cascade controlled by prothoracicotropic hormone PTTH), 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone. Isozymes are involved in this cascade. Demonstrating the expression patterns of the isozymes during molting may provide molecular targets for investigating the molecular mechanism of molting. The isozymes also offer targets to detect the efficacy of new molting regulatory insecticides. We investigated the expression patterns of the peroxidases, alcohol dehydrogenases and esterases in molting larvae of the cotton bollworm, H. armigera. The results indicated that the expression of three peroxidases, two alcohol dehydrogenases and three esterases was involved in the molting or metamorphosis process. The non-steroidal ecdysone agonist RH-2485 could induce the expression of one of the esterases, which might be involved in the molting process. N-terminal amino acid sequence from one of the esterases was determined. These findings provided new molecular targets for studying the mechanisms of insect molting and assaying the efficacy of new moltinginduced regulatory insecticides.
    Molecular cloning and tissue expression of the cDNA of the gene encoding eclosion hormone in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    WEI Zhao-Jun, WEI Hong-Yi, HONG Gui-Yun, LI Juan, JIANG Shao-Tong, LUO Jian-Ping
    2007, 50(4):  323-329. 
    Abstract ( 2758 )   PDF (831KB) ( 944 )     
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    Eclosion hormone (EH), one of the neuropeptides, serves as a critical factor in the control of ecdysis behavior and development in insects. The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Osf) is one of the major agricultural pests in Asia. In this study, the molecular characterizations and tissue expression of the eclosion hormone gene in O. furnacalis were elucidated. Using degenerate primers and RT-PCR method, the middle part of the cDNA of EH gene from O. furnacalis was cloned and sequenced. The full-length cDNA of EH gene was then obtained with rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full Osf-EH cDNA is 986 bp (GenBank accession no. DQ668369), containing a 267 bp open reading frame encoding an 88-amino acid preprohormone. After translation,  the preprohormone was cleavaged to a hydrophobic 26-amino acids signal peptide and a 62-amino acids mature peptide. The Osf-EH shows high identity with those from Manduca sexta (79.5%), Helicoverpa armigera (77.3%) and Bombyx mori (67.0%), but low identity with that of Drosophila melanogaster (45.5%). RT-PCR analysis showed that the EH mRNA only expressed in the brain, and was not be detected in other neural tissues, such as suboesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglion, abdominal ganglion, and non-neural tissues, such as midgut, fat body and epidermis.
    Cloning, expression and immunological identification of Per a7 gene of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana
    LIU Zhi-Gang, HE Yi-Hua, WU Hai-Qiang, ZHU Yong-Feng
    2007, 50(4):  330-334. 
    Abstract ( 3137 )   PDF (268KB) ( 1077 )     
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    An 852 bp cDNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR from total mRNA of the American cockroach, Periplaneta Americana (South China population) with a pair of primers that were designed according to the published tropomyosin gene. Sequence analysis indicated that three nucleotides changed in the gene compared with the reported Per a7 gene. The fragment was cloned into expression vector pET24a(+) and subsequently expressed in E. coli BL21 Star. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the molecular weight of the expressed product was 33 kD. Western blotting indicated that the recombinant protein could combine with sera IgE from human individuals allergic to cockroach allergens.
    Adult behavior and circadian rhythm of sex pheromone production and release of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    LU Peng-Fei, QIAO Hai-Li, WANG Xiao-Ping, ZHOU Xing-Miao, WANG Xi-Qiao, LEI Chao-Liang
    2007, 50(4):  335-342. 
    Abstract ( 3994 )   PDF (258KB) ( 1353 )     
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    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Fabricius), is a serious pantropical insect pest of grain legumes. Adult behavior and circadian rhythm of sex pheromone production and release of  the legume pod borer were investigated at (29±1)℃ and 75%-80% RH under 14L∶10D. The results showed that the emergence activity of M. vitrata occurred throughout the day, and 86% of females and 73% of males emerged during the scotophase. The differences of emergence behavior between both sexes were statistically significant during the 4th, 5th and 8th hour of the scotophase (t>4; P<0.05). The mating behavior took place from 19: 00 to 05: 00.The mating duration varied from 20 to 90 min. The highest mating frequency occurred during the 5th hour of the scotophase for 3-day-old moths. Single mating peaks were observed for 1-, 6-and 7-day-old moths, while double mating peaks were observed for 2-to 5-day-old moths. Adults of the same age spent longer time in mating during the first half of the scotophase than during the second half of the scotophase. The mating behaviour of the moth was age-dependent. Young and old pairs spent more time in mating than mature pairs of the middle age. Advanced onset of time and peak for mating were observed directly by older moths. The EAG response of male moths was highest to the crude extract of pheromonal glands and air collection from 3-day-old virgin female moths and during the 5th and 9th hour of the scotophase. In the field tests, the highest percentage of the male moths was trapped during 23: 00-01: 00, and more male moths were trapped by 3-day-old virgin female moths than by female moths of other age. The emergence activity, mating activity and the female sex pheromone release were synchronized at different ages and time of the scotophase. The sex pheromone release was almost constant throughout the scotophase, but mating behavior concentrated between the two mating peaks.
    Effect of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene on multiplication of Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus in the host hemolymph
    LIU Yong-Ping, WANG Fang-Hai, SU Zhi-Jian, LI Guang-Hong, PANG Yi
    2007, 50(4):  343-348. 
    Abstract ( 3126 )   PDF (364KB) ( 1138 )     
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    Juvenile hormone analogues (JHA) can promote multiplication of Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV). The effect of methoprene on synthesis of polyhedrin in the hemolymph of the 6th instar larvae of the host S. litura was studied by using SDS-PAGE and immunoblot methods. The results showed that the synthesis of polyhedrin in the host hemolymph was promoted in 2-3 days post treatment. The effect of methoprene on replication of SpltNPV-polh in hemolymph of the 6th instar larvae was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that replication of SpltNPV-polh was promoted significantly from the 4th day to the 5th day post methoprene treatment, during which polh copies increased to 1.22×1010 copy/mL.
     
    Resistance reduction to lambda-cyhalothrin and activity change of multi-function oxidases in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, under non-selection pressure in the laboratory
    LIU Yong-Jie, SHEN Jin-Liang, JIA Bian-Tao, LUN Cai-Zhi
    2007, 50(4):  349-354. 
    Abstract ( 5296 )   PDF (186KB) ( 1474 )     
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    Larvae of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), originally collected from the field of sugar beet, were reared on artificial diet and evaluated for resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin for 43 generations under laboratory condition without exposure to any insecticide (under non-selection). Lambda-cyhalothrin showed LD50 value of 0.9672 μg/larva at F1 generation and decreased gradually in onward generations,  resulting in LD50 value of 0.0325 μg/larva at F43 generation by using topical application, and the resistance level of the non-selected strain decreased from 4 836.0 fold to 162.5-fold compared with the susceptible strain. In leaf dipping bioassay, lambda-cyhalothrin exhibited LC50 value of 185.6 mg/L at F1 generation and decreased gradually to onward generations with LC50 value of 9.2 mg/L at F43 generation. Correspondingly, the resistance level of the non-selected strain decreased from 964.7-fold to 47.8-fold compared with the susceptible strain. Though decreased 29.8-fold (topical application) or 20.2-fold (leaf dipping bioassay) from F1 to F43 generation, the resistance levels of F43 generation was still quite high,  and this indicated that it was very difficult for the beet armyworm to recover the sensitivity to lambda-cyhalothrin. Activities of four monoxygenases,  i.e., methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD),  arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and aldrin epoxidase (AE), of F2, F20 and F41 generation were compared with that of the susceptible strain, respectively. Compared with the susceptible strain, the activities of MROD and AE in midguts in the 5th instar larvae of F2 generation was significantly higher, but those of F20 and F41 generations showed no significant difference. Similarly,  the activities of EROD and AHH of F2,  F20 and F41 generation were also significantly higher compared with the susceptible strain. The results suggested that the resistance of S. exigua to lambda-cyhalothrin was closely correlated with multi-function oxidase which may play different roles at different resistant levels.
    Extract from Trigonella foenum-graecum L. by the optimized SFE CO2 extraction method and its contact toxicity to Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius
    TANG Guo-Wen, YANG Chang-Ju, XUE Dong, XIE Ling-De, CHEN Hui-Ling
    2007, 50(4):  355-360. 
    Abstract ( 3193 )   PDF (194KB) ( 1181 )     
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    Extraction of insecticide constituents from Trigonella foenum-graecum L. by supercritical fluid CO2 extraction (SFE-CO2) method was optimized and the contact toxicity of extracts to Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius were assayed. The extraction method was optimized with orthogonal design experiments. Contact toxicity and efficiency of extraction were used as value standards. The results showed that the optimal extraction was achieved at 55 under 25 MPa of pressure,  the modifier was 95% alcohol,  and the rate between seeds powder and modifier was 200 g30 mL. Extraction pressure and modifier volume showed significant effect to extraction procedure, while extraction temperature and modifier concentration showed less effect. The extracts loaded on filter paper showed toxicity to adult R. dominica. An extraction rate of 5.96% was achieved at theoptimal condition,  and the toxicity was increased obviously with the LC50 value of 65.03 μg/cm2 for R. dominica treated on filter paper for 3 days and then cultured normally for one week. The results indicated that the extracts have high insecticide activity on R. dominica.
    Regional differentiation of the Acridoidea ecofaunas in different vegetational zones (subzones) of Inner Mongolia region
    LI Hong-Chang, HAO Shu-Guang, KANG Le
    2007, 50(4):  361-375. 
    Abstract ( 3252 )   PDF (657KB) ( 1289 )     
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    Based on the data of long-term field surveys and various literature records, the ecofaunas of Acridoidea in the following seven vegetational zones (or subzones) of Inner Mongolia region of China were expounded: Bright coniferous forest zone of cold-temperate type (F1), Deciduous broadleaf forest zone of mid-temperate type (F2), Forest steppe zone (FS), Typical steppe zone (TS), Desert steppe zone (DS), Steppe desert subzone of warm-temperate type (SD) and Typical desert subzone of warm-temperate type (TD). The zonal characteristics of specific compositions of Acridoidea fauna, the ecological conditions (vegetation, climate and soil etc.) in each zone, and the ecological mechanisms in formation of these different specific compositions were analyzed. The species diversities of acridoids and the zonal diversification of faunal geographic elements in different zones, and their relationships with different vegetation in each zone were also summarized and compared. The results indicated that the TS sustained the highest species diversity of acridoids since it could supply acridoids with sufficient temporal, spatial and trophic niches. In food selection acridoids favor mostly ants of Gramineae and Compositae, and both the perennating rosette grass" and “root stock grass" were just right the dominant components of plant communities in the TS, and then the acridoids in this zone could get the most diverse temporal, spatial and nutritional niches with rich foods, diverse habitats, abundant sunshine and suitable soil for egg laying. In contrast, the two vegetational zones of F1 and TD in Inner Mongolia Region all possessed relatively lower species diversity and quite different compositions of acridoids. And this may be caused by the extreme climatic conditions (lower temperature with high humidity in F1 and high temperature with lower humidity in TD) that restricted the occurrence and distribution of acridoids in both zones. It is inferred that the modern status of the acridoid ecofaunas in Inner Mongolia Region is the combined result of both natural selective stress to acridoids and their adaptive evolution in the long course of natural history.
    Comparative study on heat tolerance of Guangdong and Beijing populations of Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
    CHENG Shu-Lan, ZHANG Fan, PANG Hong
    2007, 50(4):  376-382. 
    Abstract ( 3120 )   PDF (216KB) ( 1093 )     
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    The heat tolerance and sensitivity to temperature of Guangdong and Beijing populations of Propylea japonica (Thunberg), was studied at different temperatures (26-36). The growth and fecundity of P. japonica at different temperatures, the lethal high temperatures of P. japonica larvae, and the survival rates of 4th larvae at lethal temperatures after pretreatment at lethal high temperature were observed, and the soluble protein content of P. japonica after heat shock at high temperatures was assayed with Bradford's method. The growth and fecundity of two populations were significantly obstructed at 36, with durations of developmental stages extended, and survival rates and fecundity decreased. From 26 to 36, the sex ratio of female to male changed markedly as the temperature increased. At 36, the adults were all male. The lethal high temperatures to larvae of both Guangdong and Beijing populations were same, as 1st-2nd instar larva, 3rd instar larva, and 4th instar larva all died after treatment respectively at 44, 45, and 46 for an hour. The survival rates of the 4th instar larvae of Guangdong and Beijing populations at 46 were improved after pretreatment at lethal high temperature 39 for 120 or 150 min, with the survival rate of Guangdong population higher than that of Beijing population. With the temperature increasing within 26 to 34, the soluble protein content of adult and the 4th larvae increased. But after heated at 39, 41 and 43 for one hour, the soluble protein content of the 4th larvae increased while that of the adult decreased. The soluble protein content of adult and the 4th larvae of Guangdong population was highest after being heated at 39 for one hour, as Beijing population was highest after being heated at 43 for one hour. Within the temperature range of 26 to 36, the heat tolerance were not much different between Guangdong and Beijing populations.
    Rice yield loss due to Chlorops oryzae Matsumera and its action thresholds in rice fields in Zhejiang province
    WANG Hua-Di, XU Zhi-Hong, CHEN Yin-Fang, ZHU Jin-Xin, FANG Yi-Hao
    2007, 50(4):  383-388. 
    Abstract ( 3548 )   PDF (354KB) ( 989 )     
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    The population dynamics of Chlorops oryzae and its relationship to rice yield loss in rice fields of mountain and semi-mountain areas in 2000-2004 in Zhejiang province, East China were systematically studied, and the life table of field populations of this pest was constructed. The results showed that the mortalities of egg, larva, pupa and adult of this pest in fields were 42.7%, 14.5%, 4.4% and 12.6% for the first generation, and 32.8%, 16.5%, 18.9% and 15.6% for the second generation, respectively. The incidences of injured plants and yield loss were positively related to egg (larva) density in both seedling and after transplanting periods. The time from adult emerging peak to egg hatching peak was proposed as the optimal control period. The control thresholds were determined as 10 eggs per 100 rice plants or 1% injured plants in seedling bed, while 1 egg per hill or 3%-5% injured plants in the paddy after transplanting.

    Reproductive characteristics of two non-pollinating fig wasps of Philotrypesis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Ficus hispida figs
    ZHAI Shu-Wei, YANG Da-Rong, PENG Yan-Qiong, SHI Zhang-Hong, BAI Li-Fen
    2007, 50(4):  389-394. 
    Abstract ( 4404 )   PDF (249KB) ( 1273 )     
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    From August to November 2005, the ovipositing behaviour of two non-pollinating fig wasps of Philotrypesis in Ficus hispida figs were observed, the figs at post-flora phase were dissected to test the distribution patterns of galls used by the two non-pollinating wasps, and the quantity of wasps in figs were counted from different fig crops of three different years. The results indicated that Philotrypesis pilosa and Philotrypesis sp. (probably a new species undescribed) oviposit from outside the figs and use their long ovipositors to reach the ovules inside. Both are not able to pollinate for their hosts, so they are non-pollinating fig wasps. P. pilosa oviposits in the same day as the fig wasp pollinators, and they can oviposit on the syconia for two days. Philotrypesis  sp. oviposits much later, 6 to 13 days later than the pollinators. The ovaries inside the post-floral phase male syconium of F. hispida were classified into three layers according to pedicel length: wall layer (with short pedicel), intermediate and inner layer (with long pedicel). The offspring of two Philotrypesis species prefer to grow in the ovaries close to the wall layer, and rarely exist in the ovaries in inner layer. Under natural conditions, the ratio of the figs of F. hispida with P. pilosa and Philotrypesis sp. varied between different seasons and sampled trees. However, the ratio of the figs with Philotrypesis sp. and the number of the offspring of Philotrypesis sp. in a syconium were all higher than those of P. pilosa. This may be related to the fact that Philotrypesis sp. has a longer time to oviposit.
    Molecular systematic study on twelve species of seven genera in Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Guangxi, South China
    CHEN Zhen-Peng, ZHOU Shan-Yi
    2007, 50(4):  395-404. 
    Abstract ( 2960 )   PDF (354KB) ( 1042 )     
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    Cytochrome oxidase subunits 1(CO1) and 2 (CO2), and the entire sequence of the gene for tRNA leucine from twelve species of seven genera of the ant subfamily Myrmicinae were sequenced. The DNA sequences were analyzed, and the secondary structure of tRNA leucine also gene was studied. The molecular phylogenetic analyses of the subfamily Myrmicinae with Forelius chalybaeus, a species of the subfamily Dolichoderinae as the outgroup were performed by using four methods: the maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), neighbor-joined (NJ), and unweighted pairgroup method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) based on the deoxyribonucleic acid data and the amino acid data. The taxonomic scheme for these genera and species based on molecular phylogeny of above genes consisted with that of the traditional taxonomy and the consistency for genera was better than that for species.
    Induction pattern of antimicrobial peptides genes in Drosophila
    DENG Xiao-Juan, YANG Wan-Ying, LI Yi-Feng, WANG Wen-Xian, WEN Shuo-Yang, XIA Qing-You, CAO Yang
    2007, 50(4):  405-415. 
    Abstract ( 2744 )   PDF (462KB) ( 1479 )     
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    Drosophila melanogaster is an attractive model insect for dissecting the innate immunity system of invertebrates and vertebrates. The fruitful results on several aspects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as cloning and characterization of AMP genes, the signal transduction path way and the evolution of the AMPs multi-gene families in Drosophila species, have contributed a lot to the deep understanding of the innate immunity mechanism of insects and other organisms. Such results may also shed further light on the mechanism of immunity of some agricultural lepidopteran pest insects and the strategies of pest control. In this review, we summarized the structures, biological properties, the induction pattern, the signal transduction pathway, as well as the evolution of AMPs and their multi-gene families.
    Mite fauna associated with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) in Karaj Region, Iran
    Katayoon KHERADMAND, Karim KAMALI, Yaghoub FATHIPOUR, Edward UECKERMANN, Ebrahim Mohammadi GOLTAPEH
    2007, 50(4):  416-422. 
    Abstract ( 3343 )   PDF (275KB) ( 4014 )     
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    The mites occurring on button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) in Karaj region of Iran were studied. Seventeen species belonging to three orders and nine families of mycophagus, predaceous and saprophagus mites were found, during a survey conducted from the spring 2004 to summer of 2006. The mites species were: Macrocheles glaber (Müller), Macrocheles merdarius (Berlese), Macrocheles subbadius (Berlese), Parasitus coleoptratorum* (Linnaeus), Parasitus fimetorum (Berlese), Parasitus mammillatus (Berlese), Sancassania rodionovi Zachvatkin, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Uroobovella fimicola (Berlese), Ameroseius fungicolus* Masan, Pediculaster kneeboni* (Wicht), Pediculaster flechtmanni*(Wicht), Scutacarus longitarsus (Berlese), Dendrolaelaps multidentatus* Masan, Arctoseius cetratus (Sellnick), Lasioseius sugawarai* Ehara and  Ameroseius plumigera Oudemans. Six of them are new for the Iranian acaro-fauna that are indicated by asterisk. Twelve species are recorded for the first time from mushrooms.
    Molecular identification of five common species of necrophagous flies in China
    WANG Jiang-Feng, YIN Xiao-Hong, CHEN Yu-Chuan
    2007, 50(4):  423-428. 
    Abstract ( 3260 )   PDF (323KB) ( 1183 )     
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    In order to solve the difficulty of the identification of necrophagous flies faced by forensic pathologists and technicians, the feasibility of species identification based on a 348 bp region of the mitochondrial COⅠ (cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅰ)  gene using RFLP and analysis of DNA was evaluated. Samples were collected in Zhongshan, Guangzhou and Xi'an. The 348 bp region of the COⅠ gene was amplified and sequenced using forward and reverse primers. Cleavage sites for several restriction endonucleases were searched using the DNASTAR. PCR products were digested with restriction endonuclease DdeⅠ, DraⅠ and HinfⅠ, and then separated on native polyacrylamide gels. Evolutionary tree and evolutionary divergence analysis were performed using MEGA 3.0. The analysis indicated that the methods could be used to identify common necrophagous flies. The results provided basis for further research, especially for the setup of mtDNA database of insects of forensic importance.
    Hind-wing morphology of Mylabris Fabricius (Coleoptera: Meloidae) from China
    YANG Yu-Xia, REN Guo-Dong
    2007, 50(4):  429-434. 
    Abstract ( 3446 )   PDF (711KB) ( 1133 )     
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    We selected 11 representative species of Mylabris Fabricius from China, analyzed and compared their hindwings, and described their morphological characteristics by taking M. calida Pallas, 1782 as the mode. As a result, the venations of Mylabris Fabricius were tentatively classified into three types as follows: Southern type, represented by Oriental species, wing dark brown with a lot of folds, veins stout and highly sclerotic; Plateau type, represented by Qingzang Plateau endemic species, wing ivorywhite and semitransparent, only the large cell enclosed by costal margin and MP1+2 obvious; and Northern type, as the transition between the former two types, represented by Palearctic species, wing brown, veins clear and moderately sclerotic. At last, the vein morphological evolution of the genus was discussed.