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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 May 2007, Volume 50 Issue 5
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Screening chemical mutagens and their induced mutants in silkworm, Bombyx mori
    LIN Ying, CHEN Dong-Mei, DAI Fang-Yin, YANG Yu, XIANG Zhong-Huai, XIA Qing-You
    2007, 50(5):  435-440. 
    Abstract ( 3429 )   PDF (1163KB) ( 1446 )     
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    The functional genomics of silkworm, Bombyx mori has become the research hotspot after the genomic project of the silkworm was successfully completed. Since mutants may play important roles in functional genomics research, obtaining a large of mutant strains with manually induced mutations is a very important strategy. Some mutants such as non-diapausing red eggs, long tube-shaped cocoons, small cocoons, sericin cocoons, flossy cocoons, lethal mutants and no adult wing hairs mutants were screened and obtained in this study via inducing standard strain of silkworm C108 with chemical mutagens including ENU, MNU, DES, 5-BU and EMS. We found that MNU and DES were more efficient than other mutagens. Injecting wing disc of silkworm was more convenient and effective method than injecting abdomen. Mutations could be more efficiently induced by chemical mutagens in male than in female. Injecting pupa and adult were both feasible. Most of the mutants mentioned above were lethal mutations, which may be associated with lethal genes. This study also provided effective materials for screening more mutants of the target genes in silkworm by TILLING technology.
    Comparison of c-kit special expression in gametogenesis of Aiolopus tamulus (Fabricius) and Trilophidia annulata (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Oedipodidae)
    ZHAO Zhuo, ZHANG Min, LU Shu-Min, XI Geng-Si
    2007, 50(5):  441-447. 
    Abstract ( 2916 )   PDF (1065KB) ( 982 )     
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    The special expression of c-kit protein in gametogenesis of Aiolopus tamulus (Fabricius) and Trilophidia annulata (Thunberg) collected from Siping, Jilin, Northeast China was studied by using immunohistochemistry and biostatistics. The results showed that: (1) In spermatogenesis, there were different expression levels of c-kit protein in spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, second spermatocytes and mature sperms, and the biggest positive granules were found at the end of spermary; (2) In oogenesis, there were different expression levels of c-kit protein from the 1st to 6th stage of oocytes, and the positive granules gradually disappeared in vitellogenesis; (3) The expression of c-kit protein in gametogenesis was significantly different between the two species.
    The effect of volatile infochemicals on host selection behavior of Trichogramma ostriniae
    LIAN Yong-Guo, WANG Su-Qin, BAI Shu-Xiong, KANG Zong-Jiang, WANG Zhen-Ying, MO Tie-Lu
    2007, 50(5):  448-453. 
    Abstract ( 3974 )   PDF (188KB) ( 1254 )     
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    The effect of hexane extracts of Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée ) female moth scale, egg masses and accessory glands of their different physiological stages on host selection behavior of Trichogramma ostriniae were measured by using a Y-tube olfactometer in the laboratory. The results indicated that the hexane extracts of ACB scale at the concentrations 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL exhibited significant attraction for T. ostriniae. The hexane extracts of ACB egg masses at the concentrations 5 egg masses/mL and 10 egg masses/mL clearly stimulated intensive search behavior by T. ostriniae females; the hexane extract of ACB egg masses at the concentration 40 egg masses/mL, however, had extremely significant repellent action to T. ostriniae females. The hexane extract of female accessory glands of mated-females before their first oviposition and at the earlier stage after oviposition stimulated intensive search behavior by T. ostriniae females; the hexane extract of female accessory glands of virgin females and the older stage after oviposition, however, did not elicit the parasitoid's reaction. The hexane extracts of female accessory glands and egg masses elicited stronger reaction by the parasitoid, but without significant difference between both.
    External morphology and microstructure of the compound eye of Chrysopa pallens Ramber (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
    ZHANG Hai-Qiang, ZHU Nan, FAN Fan, WEI Guo-Shu
    2007, 50(5):  454-460. 
    Abstract ( 3586 )   PDF (2140KB) ( 1246 )     
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    The external morphology of the compound eye of Chrysopa pallens Ramber and its microstructure under light and dark adaptation were observed by using scanning electron microscope and optics microscope. The results indicated that the compound eye with a shape of half sphere, located on the lateral upsides of its head, was composed of 3 600 ommatidia in both sexes. The angle between the foremost and the hindmost ommatidia along the axis was 180°, and the angle between the uppermost and the lowermost one was about 200°. Each ommatidium contained corneal lens, crystalline cone, 6 to 8 retinula cells and basement membrane where the pigment granules could be observed, which were encompassed by two primary iris pigment cells and six secondary iris pigment cells in periphery. In dark adaptation, the crystalline cone opened obviously, the distal retinula cell nucleus moved close to the crystalline cone, and the pigment granules of secondary iris pigment cells surrounded the crystalline cone. In light adaptation, the crystalline cone closed or opened slightly, both the distal retinula cell nucleus and most of pigment granules of secondary iris pigment cells moved to the proximal end and surrounded retinula cell column. No differences in the microstructure of compound eye were observed between male and female under the same light-or dark-adaptation, respectively. It was so concluded that the organization of the compound eye of C. pallens belonged to the type of superposition eye with a clear zone, which was characterized by the crystalline cone closing or opening, the longitudinal movement of distal retinula cell nucleus and pigment granules on basement membrane as well as the longitudinal movement of secondary iris pigment granules.
    Purification of destruxins produced by Metarhizium anisopliae and bioassay of their insecticidal activities against grubs
    HU Qiong-Bo, REN Shun-Xiang, LIU Shu-Yan
    2007, 50(5):  461-466. 
    Abstract ( 5855 )   PDF (200KB) ( 1536 )     
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    Five crystal destruxins were purified from the fermentation broth of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strain MaQ10 via preparative HPLC and re-crystalization, which were classified to destruxin A, B, C, E and A2, respectively. Contact toxicities of destruxins A and B against the grubs Exolontha serrulata (Gyllenhall) and Holotrichia ovata Chang were bioassayed by immersing the insects in aqueous dilutions. The results indicated that at 96 and 120 h after treatment, the LC50s of destruxins A and B were estimated as 78.1571 mg/L and 88.7562 mg/L towards E. serrulata and 66.5308 mg/L and 79.4309 mg/L towards H. ovata, respectively. At the concentration of 300 mg/L, the LT50s of destruxins A and B were 13.4159 h and 10.5331 h towards E. serrulata, and 13.6399 h and 9.9451 h towards H. ovata, respectively.
    Influence of chlorpyrifos and abamectin on the functional response of Scolothrips takahashii Prisener to hawthorn spider mite Tetranychus viennensis Zacher
    LI Ding-Xu, TIAN Juan, SHEN Zuo-Rui
    2007, 50(5):  467-473. 
    Abstract ( 4275 )   PDF (257KB) ( 1162 )     
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    Leaf disc bioassay was employed in the laboratory to investigate the effects of selected pesticides, including abamectin and chlorpyrifos, on the functional response of an acarophagous thrips, Scolothrips takahashii Prisener to a damaging spider mite, Tetranychus viennensis Zacher eggs under the conditions of 25±1, RH 60%±10%, and a photoperiod of 16L8D. Two doses, viz. the labeled dose and half of the labeled dose, of the selected pesticides were tested. Logistic regression was used to determine the type of functional response and to compare predation performance at various prey densities; parameters of random predator equation for both exposed and unexposed predators were estimated and then compared with an equation with indicator variables. The results showed that the two insecticides exerted profound influence on the functional response of the acarophagous thrips. Exposed to labeled dose of abamectin, both males and females thrips exhibited significant lower attack rates, markedly extended handling time was also recorded, and functional response for females in the labeled dose exposure was confirmed to be Holling- type, rather than Holling- type in the control. An exposure of half labeled dose of abamectin had no obvious influence on the attack rates of both sexes of the predator, but handling time in females prolonged significantly. Exposures of the two doses of chloryprifos resulted in attack rates reduced notably in both male and female thrips, with the handling time extended by 85.62% and 71.97% in the female and 55.92% and 38.20% in the male respectively, and functional responses for both males and females were proved to be Holling- type, same as those in the control.
    Linkage mapping of resistance to abamectin in the diamondback moth using AFLP marker
    LUO Qian, FENG Xia, LU Li-Hua, WAN Shu-Qing, CHEN Huan-Yu
    2007, 50(5):  474-480. 
    Abstract ( 3329 )   PDF (572KB) ( 1110 )     
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    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is an important insect pest in cruciferous vegetables and has developed high resistance to avermectin all over the world. In this study, AFLP was used to construct a linkage map of resistance to avermectin in diamondback moth. The mapping families consisted of the susceptible strain, the abamectin-resistant strain and their backcross progeny. A total of 1 044 DNA bands and 271 polymorphic loci were amplified using 10 combinations of AFLP primers. Chi-square (χ2) analysis indicated that only 123 bands fit the segregation ratio of 11 (P=0.05) in these polymorphic loci. Twenty-eight linkage groups were constructed with 112 bands, covering about 1 222.7 cM of the genomics of the diamondback moth. Three markers of E1M4-15, E1M1-4, and E1M4-2, linked with abamectin-resistant gene were situated on the same linkage group and their distance apart from resistant gene was 0 cM, 8.3 cM, and 13.1 cM, respectively. Comparison with the constructed linkage map showed that the gene was located on the fifth linkage group. These AFLP markers associated with resistance to abamectin show a strong potential of application in monitoring diamondback moth resistance to abamectin.
    Cytotoxicity and apoptosis on C6/36 cell produced by piperine
    WANG Yu-Fang, ZHUGE Hong-Xiang, ZHOU Xia, HUANG Li-Hong
    2007, 50(5):  481-487. 
    Abstract ( 4394 )   PDF (2901KB) ( 1353 )     
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    We observed cytotoxicity, apoptosis, the expression of Fas protein, growth state and recovery of damaged cells produced by botanical insecticide piperine on C6/36 cell strain of Aedes albopictus using MTT, Annexin-V/PI double staining and inverted microscope observation. The results indicated that piperine caused the morphological change in the treated cells at the concentration of above 0.035 mmol/L. The cells showed pantomorphia under the inverted microscope. They became swollen or shrunk, and the space between cells was widened. A large number of cells assembled into conglobations, and then ablated, disaggregated and died. The IC50 of C6/36 cell 24 hours after treatment by piperine was 0.32 mmol/L. Moreover, the cytotoxicity increased with the raising of concentration of piperine. The results of Annexin-V/PI double staining showed that the apoptosis was apparent in treatments of the piperine concentration above 0.28 mmol/L, while the rate of apoptosis was 19.4% in the treatement of the piperine concentration of 0.56 mmol/L. The expression of Fas protein increased in the treatments of  the piperine concentration above 0.28 mmol/L but not apparently, and the total death rate was 72.7%. Treated with high concentration of piperine (0.56 mmol/L) for 24 hours and 48 hours respectively, following a period of growth retardation, the cells of 24-hour-group could recover slowly while the 48-hour-group showed inconvertibility. The results suggest that there is time dependence of the effect on C6/36 by piperine. Apoptosis, however, is not the main mechanism. The cytotoxicity would be increased with the treating time prolonged.
    Parasitism and fitness-related performances of Lysiphlebus ambiguous Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in different instars of the host Aphis fabae reared at high temperature
    XU Qing-Hua, MENG Ling, LI Bao-Ping
    2007, 50(5):  488-493. 
    Abstract ( 3232 )   PDF (202KB) ( 1130 )     
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    Prevalent experiments to investigate the host-stage selection of parasitoids manipulate host cohorts at the optimal temperature (25). To explore the oviposition strategy and fitness-related performances of parasitoids in different host instars, the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopli was cultured at 30 to obtain cohorts of different instars and adults and then exposed to parasitism of Lysiphlebus ambiguous (Haliday). The parasitism and fitness-related performances were recorded including parasitization rate, emergence rate, sex ratio, body size, and development time. The results indicated that the aphid parasitoid attacked more young aphids than the old, even though the 1st through the 4th instar nymphs and eclosing adults were all susceptible to parasitism. The parasitism rate on the adult aphid (28.0%) was significantly lower than on the 1st instar nymph (40.0%) and the 2nd instar nymph (42.8%). The proportion of female progeny and emerging adult size of the offspring parasitoid declined with the increase of aphid instars (and body sizes) at parasitism, but the development time remained constant, which contrasted with fitness performances of the parasitoid attacking the host reared at the optimal temperature. It was argued that L. ambiguous may not or may not always base the host value on body size and instar of the host, and other clues (e.g. behavioral, chemical etc.) associated with dynamics of endosymbiotic bacteria in the host aphid should be considered.
    Radar observation and population analysis on the migration of the clover cutworm, Scotogramma trifolii Rottemberg (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    ZHANG Yun-Hui, CHEN Lin, CHENG Deng-Fa, ZHANG Yue-Jin, JIANG Yu-Ying, JIANG Jin-Wei
    2007, 50(5):  494-500. 
    Abstract ( 3164 )   PDF (1079KB) ( 1290 )     
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    The clover cutworm, Scotogramma trifolii Rottemberg is a partially outbreaking pest in farming and stockbreeding areas of northern China. In recent years the pest present uptrend harm to crops. In this paper we reported a long-term monitoring observation of the pest using a vertical-looking radar (VLR) incorporate ancillary equipment and the data analysis by GIS. The results showed that the average soil temperature at 20 cm beneath in the middle ten days of May was lower than the developmental threshold temperature (10.6) for eclosion of the hibernated chrysalis. Airflow analysis of the late ten days of May in 2005 showed that south and southwest winds were preponderant in these days, which provided favorable airflow for insect migration. Simultaneous radar observations indicated that the nocturnally migrating clover cutworm generally flew at altitudes of up to 1 000 m above ground level (agl), with high density concentrations at about 300-500 m (agl). They could flight throughout the night at 500 m (agl). The ovarian development of the migrating moths showed typical characteristics of migratory insects. Based on these findings, the factors related to outbreak of this pest in Baicheng of Jilin province were discussed.
    Molecular phylogeny of Galerucella spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidaseⅠ gene
    ZHENG Fu-Shan, DU Yu-Zhou, WANG Zhi-Jie, WANG Li-Ping
    2007, 50(5):  501-507. 
    Abstract ( 3371 )   PDF (250KB) ( 1398 )     
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    The aim is to infer the phylogenetic relationships of Galerucella and outgroup Phaedon brassicae Baly beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and to discuss the relation between the evolution of Galerucella and host plant. The sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅰ (COⅠ) gene were sequenced or downloaded from GenBank for the following species: G. birmanica, G. nymphaeae, G. grisescens, G. suturalis, G. capreae, G. lineola, G. viburni, G. pusilla, G. calmariensis, G. tenella, and outgroup P. brassicae. Nucleotides composition, transition and transversion, and genetic distance of a 720 bp segment were analyzed. By using Maximum Parsimony (MP), Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Bayesian Inference (BI) methods, we constructed the molecular phylogeny of these species based on their COⅠ sequences. The results indicated that average A+T content of COⅠ gene in Galerucella was 71.8%, showing a strong A+T bias. The variation ratio of amino acid was 18.3%. Genetic distances between Galerucella and the outgroup P. brassicae (0.169-0.198) were bigger than those among Galerucella species (0.001-0.134). Molecular phylogenetic trees obtained suggested that there was remarkable relationship between the evolution of Galerucella and host plant, and G. suturalis, G. capreae and G. viburni have closer relationship with species of Galerucella than as defined in traditional taxonomy.
    A taxonomic study on the genus Fer Bolivar from China,with descriptions of one new species (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Catantopidae)
    ZHENG Zhe-Min, XIE Ling-De
    2007, 50(5):  508-511. 
    Abstract ( 3031 )   PDF (177KB) ( 1053 )     
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    This paper dealt with five species of the genus Fer Bolivar from China, including one new species, Fer nigripennis sp. nov. A key to all species of the genus was provided. All the specimens are kept in the Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University. 
    Review of quantitative models for risk assessment of invasive alien species
    WANG Ya-Nan, WAN Fang-Hao, SHEN Wen-Jun
    2007, 50(5):  512-520. 
    Abstract ( 3459 )   PDF (258KB) ( 2221 )     
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    It is widely acknowledged that risk assessment has become an indispensable part of controlling of biological invasion. Therefore, there is a pressing need to formulate scientifically sound methods and approaches of quantitative model in this emerging field. This paper reviewed a few new predictive modeling techniques, called genetic algorithm, fuzzy envelope model and selforganising map, which are used to predict potential distribution of organisms. Meanwhile, integrodifference equation models, cellular automata and neutral landscape models, which deal with the spread of populations, were also introduced and discussed.
    Geographic distribution of Kerria yunnanensis Ou et Hong (Hemiptera: Kerridae) and the role of ecological factors
    CHEN You-Qing, WHANG Shao-Yun
    2007, 50(5):  521-527. 
    Abstract ( 3549 )   PDF (164KB) ( 1353 )     
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    Based on the investigation results of Kerria yunnanensis Ou et Hong natural distribution areas in southwest and southeast of Yunnan Province and the related literatures, the role of ecological factors on geographic distribution of K. yunnanensis was reviewed and analyzed. The results show that K. yunnanensis might originate from South Asia in Indian Ocean areas. Naturally, K. yunnanensis is distributed mainly on half slopes of valley straits of Nujiang River and its subsidiary currents, Lancangjiang River and its subsidiary currents, Honghe River and its subsidiary currents, and Irrawaddy River subsidiary currents. The combination of temperature and relative humidity is identified as the principal factor limiting geographic distribution of K. yunnanensis, which is also related with the distribution of its host plants. The unique river valley topography, mountain range alignment, and local weather characteristics in Yunnan Province determine the geographic distribution pattern of K. yunnanensis.
    Cloning, sequence analysis and expression of a fatty-acid binding protein gene of Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    ZHANG Tao, AN Shi-Heng, YIN Xin-Ming
    2007, 50(5):  528-533. 
    Abstract ( 3303 )   PDF (488KB) ( 1069 )     
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    A fatty-acid binding protein (FABP) gene of Helicoverpa assulta was cloned and expressed for further study on its function. The cDNA encoding the FABP was isolated from the fat body and blood cell of H. assulta larvae by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The fragment containing FABP gene was inserted into pGEX-4T-2 expressive vector, and the expression was induced by IPTG and then checked. The results showed that FABP in H. assulta was 399 bp in length (registered in GenBank with the accession no. DQ299942), encoding a peptide of 132 amino acid residues, and the predicted molecular weight was 15.0 kD. The FABP was fused with GST. Checked with SDS-PAGE, the prokaryotic expression product molecular weight was about 41 kD, and it was further confirmed with Western blot.
    Novel phagocytotic hemocytes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    ZHANG You-Fang, MA Yu-Kun, Erjun LING
    2007, 50(5):  534-538. 
    Abstract ( 3152 )   PDF (417KB) ( 1311 )     
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    Aim: In order to observe the fine structure of phagocytotic hemocytes with an attention to make sure whether oenonytoids are also phagocytotic in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Methods: Larvae of pnd pS strain of the silkworm were injected with fluorescent microbeads for this experiment. Stained with acridine orange and propidium iodide, the phagocytotic hemocytes were serially scanned for fine structure by the Radiance 2000 confocal scanning laser microscope (Bio-Rad), and confocal fluorescent images were processed with the Lasersharp 2000 software. Results: the observation showed that besides granulocytes and plasmatocytes, some prohemocytes (stem hemocytes) and oenocytoids (prophenoloxidase producer) could also phagocytose fluorescent beads. Furthermore, inside some oenocytoids there were lots of acridine orange green granules that were similar to granules in granulocytes. Spherulocytes were not observed to have phagocytosed any fluorescent beads, but they had large acridine orange green granules. These granules were supposed to be apoptotic bodies which should be introduced by phagocytosis. Conclusion: Besides granulocytes and plasmatocytes, the circulating hemocytes oenocytoids are also phagocytotic in the silkworm.
    Special expression of analogous proto-oncogene c-kit in postnatal spermatogenesis of Loxoblemmus doenitzi Stein
    XI Geng-Si, OUYANG Xia-Hui, WANG Xue-Feng, HE Hui
    2007, 50(5):  539-543. 
    Abstract ( 3194 )   PDF (458KB) ( 987 )     
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    The analogous proto-oncoproteins c-kit specially expressed in spermatocytes and sperm in postnatal spermatogenesis of Loxoblemmus doenitzi Stein were detected by immunohistochemistry. In meiosis,the analogous c-kit positive granules were on the cellular membrane of spermatocyte from metaphase Ⅰ to telophase Ⅱ. After meiosis,the analogous c-kit positive granules only existed in the head of the mature sperm in the testis and the spermatheca. The investigation indicated that the analogous proto-oncoprotein kit and its receptor as a signal transduction system may play some important role in keeping the meiosis process, the sperm maturation and the fertilization for L. doenitzi. These results are similar to those on mice which were marked by the proto-oncoproteins c-kit, but the difference still existed in some aspects. For example, there are many c-kit positive granules in mice's spermatogonium and spermatoon during spermatogenesis, but there are not the analogous c-kit positive granules in L. doenitzi's spermatogenous and spermatoon. It is so inferred that the functions of the analogous c-kit may be similar to the c-kit in regulating animal reproduction aspects. They may belong to the same gene's product.