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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 June 2007, Volume 50 Issue 6
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    Cloning and activity analysis of the promoter of fibroin-L gene from the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    ZHOU Wen-Lin, CAO Guang-Li, XUE Ren-Yu, YU Xiao-Hua, SHEN Wei-De, GONG Cheng-Liang
    2007, 50(6):  547-554. 
    Abstract ( 3694 )   PDF (6866KB) ( 1310 )     
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    The fibroin light-chain gene (fib-L) of the silkworm Bombyx mori is tissue-specifically expressed in the posterior silk glands at high-level. To establish a silk gland bio-factory to produce foreign gene in B. mori under the control of the promoter of fibroin light-chain gene (fib-L), the activity of the promoter was investigated. The fib-L promoter obtained by PCR was cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed that the promoter of fib-L was constituted of the TATA box (-33--35) and the characteristic sequence GTCAATTT(-128--121). The reporter gene DsRed driven by fibroin light-chain gene promoter was transiently expressed in the BmN cells and the posterior silk gland. The result showed that the fibroin light-chain gene promoter could drive the report gene transiently expressing both in the BmN cells and the posterior silk gland of silkworm B. mori.  
    Cloning, sequence analysis and tissue expression of chitinase gene from the midgut of Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen)
    ZHANG Ba-Sheng, CAO Yue-Qing, ZHANG Wei, YIN You-Ping, WANG Zhong-Kang, PENG Guo-Xiong, XIA Yu-Xian
    2007, 50(6):  555-559. 
    Abstract ( 3866 )   PDF (249KB) ( 1371 )     
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    The full cDNA of chitinase gene (LmChi) from the midgut of Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) was cloned by means of 3′-RACE and 5′-RACE. The results showed that the cDNA was 1 604 bp in length and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 452 bp (GenBank accession number: EF092841), which encoded 483 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence, which was composed of a signal peptide, a chitinase active site, a C-terminal serine-rich region and a domain normal present in chitinase, showed a high similarity with other insect chitinases from family 18.Semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that LmChi expressed only in the midgut, but not in the integument, foregut and hindgut of L. migratoria manilensis.  
    Polymorphism of Der fⅡ gene in Shenzhen City and the allergic activity of its prokaryotic expression products
    BAI Yu, JI Kun-Mei, LIU Zhi-Gang, CAI Cheng-Yu
    2007, 50(6):  560-566. 
    Abstract ( 3521 )   PDF (461KB) ( 1277 )     
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    Der fⅡ is a major allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae, which can induce the type Ⅰ allergy. In this study, live mites were collected from Shenzhen City, and these identified as D. farinae were picked out and bred in the laboratory. The total RNA was extracted from the bred mites. The Der fⅡ gene fragment was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. The Der fⅡ gene was sub-cloned into the expression vector pET-His. The recombinant pET-Der fⅡ plasmid was induced to express Der fⅡ coding protein by IPTG. The recombinant Der fⅡ with 6His-tag was then purified by chelating resin, and its allergic activity was identified by Western blotting. As results, five strains of Der fⅡ gene fragment with 411 bases were determined. Comparison showed that the Der fⅡ gene sequences of the five strains from Shenzhen had an identity from 96.8% to 99.3% at the nucleotide level and 93.8% to 98.6% at the amino acid level with the homologous gene sequence deposited in GenBank (GenBank No.AB195580.1). Then they were sub-cloned into expressing vector pET-His, and five kinds of recombinant allergen Der fⅡ were highly expressed as inclusion bodies, which were then purified by 6His-tag purification system. Using Western-blotting method, the allergic activities of purified recombinant allergens were positively identified as their affinity to IgE antibodies from the mite-allergic sera of patients.  
    The time-dose-mortality model of a Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolate on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella
    LU Li-Hua, HE Yu-Rong, WU Ya-Jing, FENG Xia, CHEN Huan-Yu
    2007, 50(6):  567-573. 
    Abstract ( 4076 )   PDF (225KB) ( 1446 )     
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    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is an important insect pest of cruciferous vegetables in south China and has developed serious resistance to insecticides used. In an effort to search for alternative control methods, the pathogenicity of an isolate (SCAU-PFCF01) of the fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, originally derived from Coptotermes formosanus, against the diamondback moth larvae, was studied in the laboratory by immersing larvae of different instars into serial concentrations of 103-107 conidia/mL of the fungus. The mortality of the diamondback moth caused by infection of P. fumosoroseus increased with the concentration of conidial suspension and the time after treatment. The highest concentration (107 conidias/mL) treatment caused 96%, 85%, and 80% mortality for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instar larvae on day 7, respectively. A time-dose-mortality model was used to analyze the bioassay data and the model fitted the data well, resulting in parameters for estimating the time and dose effects. The pathogenicity of P. fumosoroseus to the diamondback moth differed among various larval stages. The susceptibility of the diamondback moth larvae to P. fumosoroseus decreased in the sequence of 2nd instar, 3rd instar, and 4th instar. The estimated LC50 values of 2nd instar on day 7 after treatment, 3rd instar on day 5 after treatment and 4th instar on day 4 after treatment were 1.17×104, 1.44×104, and 5.21×104 conidia/mL, respectively; while LC90 of 2nd, 3rd, 4th instar larvae were 1.98×106, 3.82×107, and 1.29×108 conidia/mL, respectively. The median lethal time of P. fumosoroseus to the diamondback moth larvae differed at various concentrations. Values of LT50 of all tested instars were shortened with concentration. The LT50 values of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instar were 3.16-1.72 days, 3.21-1.83 days and 3.69-2.04 days, respectively, in the range of 1×105-1×107 conidia/mL. The results suggested the potential of the isolate SCAU-PFCF01 for use in microbial control of P. xylostella.
    Toxicity of sarisan against Mythimna separate Walker and its effects on AChE and ATPases
    ZHANG Jing, FENG Gang, MA Zhi-Qing, FENG Jun-Tao, ZHANG Xing
    2007, 50(6):  574-577. 
    Abstract ( 3768 )   PDF (128KB) ( 1270 )     
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    The contact toxicity of sarisan against 5th instar larvae of Mythimna separate Walker was tested under the laboratory conditions with the method of topical application, their toxicity symptoms were observed, and its effects on the in vitro activities of AChE and ATPase and the content of ACh in heads or midguts of the larvae in different stages of toxicity were assayed. The results showed that the contact toxicity LD50 value of sarisan against the 5th instar larvae of M. separate in 12 h post treatment was 106.93 μg/larva. In vivo toxicity symptoms were characterized by a definite sequence of events, starting with excitation, convulsion, paralysis, and death. Hollow duodenum was found in M. separata.AChE and Na+, K+-ATPase in M. separate larvae were strongly inhibited by sarisan, and a higher ACh content was caused  by sarisan. During excitation, convulsion and paralysis of treated larvae, the inhibition rates of AChE were 21.64%, 29.75% and 35.22%, respectively, while the inhibition rates of Na+,K+-ATPase were 33.29%, 44.45% and 23.98%, respectively.  
    Teleconnection between Pacific sea surface temperature and the early immigration of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) in the Yangtze and Yangtze-Huai River Valley of Jiangsu Province and its possible mechanism
    XIAN Xiao-Qing, ZHAI Bao-Ping, ZHANG Xiao-Xi, ZHANG Gu-Feng, Liu Zhi-Lin, SHI Bao-Guo
    2007, 50(6):  578-587. 
    Abstract ( 3080 )   PDF (3042KB) ( 1067 )     
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    To select effective long-term forecasting factors, teleconnection between the early immigration of brown planthopper (BPH) in Tongzhou and Huai'an, Jiangsu and Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies from January 2 years ago to the current June was analyzed, and their correlation stabilities were tested. The results indicated that there were different spatio-temporal distributions of significant correlative SST regions in the two stations. These SST regions were mainly distributed in the Central and South Pacific (72.4%) and in one and two years earlier (82.7%). The relationship between every two of the following three factors was investigated: the early immigration of BPH, the average temperature or precipitation of every ten days from April to August and the monthly mean indices of 500 hPa Western Pacific Subtropical High. Then, teleconnection between Pacific SST anomalies and each of the above three factors, which were significantly correlated with each other, were compared. The case analysis indicated that SST over the mid-Eastern Equatorial Pacific of the previous winter and spring affected the area index of Western Pacific Subtropical High in this June, which influenced the precipitation of the last ten days of June in Tongzhou, accordingly influencing the early immigration of BPH in Tongzhou; while the SST over the mid-Eastern Equatorial Pacific of spring and summer two years ago affected the North boundary of Western Pacific Subtropical High in the current May, which influenced the precipitation of the first ten days of July in Huai'an, accordingly influencing the early immigration of BPH in Huai'an. Finally, the possible mechanism of the teleconnection between the early immigration of brown planthopper and Pacific sea surface tem   perature was proposed as “sea surface temperature → atmospheric circulation → climate → the early immigration of brown planthopper”.  
    Cold hardiness of pupae and over-wintering adults from natural populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in China
    REN Lu, LU Yong-Yue, ZENG Ling
    2007, 50(6):  588-596. 
    Abstract ( 4150 )   PDF (658KB) ( 1280 )     
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    In this study, cold hardiness of pupae and over-wintering adults among seasonal populations and geographic populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in China were assayed by measuring their supercooling capacity and cold survival ability. The results showed that cold tolerance of the pupa followed strong seasonal rhythm: the pre-winter population had higher tolerance to low temperature than the summer population; and the summer population completely collapsed as exposed to 0℃ for 2 days, but there was still 61.4% survivorship for the pre-winter population. The SCPs of one day-old pupae had significantly difference among the different months, highest in February (-9.26℃) while lowest in August (-15.20℃). Further analysis showed that there was a big variation range of SCPs among individuals, which were gathered around two points: -15℃ and -6℃. There was no significant difference in cold hardiness among five geographic populations of B. dorsalis. The main factors that influence cold hardiness of natural populations of B. dorsalis were discussed combined with the results obtained this study.  
    Sequence analysis and comparison of rDNA-ITS1 of geographical populations of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from China and closely related species
    WANG Li-Ping, DU Yu-Zhou, HE Ya-Ting, LU Ya-Juan, LU Zi-Qiang
    2007, 50(6):  597-603. 
    Abstract ( 3856 )   PDF (207KB) ( 1366 )     
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    【Aim】To analyze the genetic differentiation of rDNA-ITS1 sequences among the geographical populations of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard and to provide molecular markers for identifying L. sativae against its closely related species. 【Method】 rDNA-ITS1 regions of eight geographical populations of L. sativae from China were sequenced by using PCR product sequencing method or clone sequencing method, and rDNA-ITS1 sequences of three closely related species (L. trifolii, L. huidobrensis, and L. bryoniae) were retrieved from GenBank. The rDNA-ITS1 sequences among populations of L. sativae and their closely related species were analyzed using MEGA3.1. 【Results】 The ITS1 difference among the geographical populations of L. sativae was very low, with only 8 variable sites for L.sativae and genetic distance below 0.02. But the difference of the ITS1 sequences among L. sativae and its closely related species was significant, with 126 variable sites, 12 authenticable sites for L.sativae and genetic distance between 0.149-0.390 【Conclusion】 Despite of the low diversity, the trends of differentiation of geographical populations of L. sativae were consistent with the geographical distribution. The characteristics of rDNA-ITS sequence can be used as good markers for authenticating L. sativae populations form their closely related species.  
    Phylogenetic relationship of six genera of the Coliadinae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in China based on partial sequences of EF-1α and COⅡ genes
    LIU Xiao-Yan, WU Xiao-Bing, ZHU Li-Xin
    2007, 50(6):  604-609. 
    Abstract ( 3976 )   PDF (228KB) ( 1357 )     
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    The phylogenetic relationships among 9 species in 6 genera of butterflies belonging to the subfamily Coliadinae were explored based on the partial sequences of EF-1α (about 648 bp) and COⅡ (about 504 bp) genes. There were 261 variation sites and 151 parsimony-informative sites, and a 77.3% A+T bias in 1 152 bp nucleotides of the combined sequence of the EF-1α and COⅡ in the species examined. Molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed by using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) methods. The results suggested that Eurema was a primordial genus of Colidinae, which was differentiated earlier than other genera. According to the phylogenetic tree, Colias and Catopsilia were located in a sister group and had a close relationship. Whereas, Gonepteryx had an uncertain relationship with the sister group of Colias and Catopsilia. The inferred molecular phylogeny in the study did not support the traditional classification of Coliadinae based on morphology. Especially, this study supported the viewpoint that the earliest genus differentiated from ingroup was Eurema, but not the sister group of Colias and Catopsilia.
    A taxonomic study on the genus Decma Gorochov from China (Orthoptera: Tettigonioidea: Meconematidae)
    LIU Xian-Wei, ZHOU Min
    2007, 50(6):  610-615. 
    Abstract ( 3572 )   PDF (235KB) ( 1261 )     
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    The species of the genus Decma Gorochov, 1993 from China are studied, of which a new subgenus Paradecma and a new species Decma (Paradecma) bispinosa sp. nov. are described. A key to the Chinese species of Decma and new description of female Decma (Idiodecma) birmanica (Bey-Bienko, 1971) are provided. The type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Research progress on morphology, secretion and function of Dufour gland in Hymenoptera
    ZHU Jia-Ying, YE Gong-Yin, HU Cui
    2007, 50(6):  616-620. 
    Abstract ( 4502 )   PDF (145KB) ( 1393 )     
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    Dufour gland is an abdominal exocrine gland associated to the reproductive apparatus in all aculeate hymenopteran females. It is morphologically similar and of tubular shape with numerous oily secrete contents. Most of the secretions are blends of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. A broad array of these chemicals were involved in a number of physiological and semiochemical functions, such as assisting reproduction as lubricant to fast the egg laid, playing intricate roles in communication and defense as pheromone, serving as larval food, etc. In this article, the morphology and chemical composition of Dufour gland were introduced, the ways that the secretions are synthesized were discussed, and the functions of the secretions were reviewed.  
    Microsatellite markers and their application in aphid population biology
    WANG Yong-Mo, SHEN Zuo-Rui, GAO Ling-Wang
    2007, 50(6):  621-627. 
    Abstract ( 3822 )   PDF (261KB) ( 1497 )     
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    Microsatellites are simple tandemly repeated sequence with repeat units of 1-6 bp in length. As genetic markers, microsatellites are widely dispersed in eukaryotic genomes. The advantages of microsatellites include high polymorphism, high abundance, co-dominance, selective neutrality and high reliability. There are three kinds of techniques to analyze microsatellites: repeat-sequence hybridization fingerprints, repeat-sequence primer PCR fingerprints and single-locus microsatellite PCR. The first two kinds belong to multiple-locus markers, and the last one is single-locus marker and generally named `microsatellite marker'. Up to now, 141 microsatellite loci were cloned from 14 aphid species, and primers for them were published, which provided abundant information for future studies. In addition, these primers probably work in closely related species. Conforming to Mendel's law, microsatellites were successfully used to speculate sex recombination in some species. Sexual and asexual lineages may coexist in a single aphid species. Microsatellites revealed that genetic diversities were generally higher in sexual lineages than in asexual lineages, but asexual lineages often exhibited heterozygote excesses and linkage disequilibrium. Microsatellites were also effective in studying migration of aphid. Low differentiations and high allelic frequency homogeneity were revealed in highly migratory aphids. The distribution of identical multilocus genotypes was directly used as an indicator of migration ambit. Until now, microsatellites have been rarely used in aphid study by domestic researchers in China. It has been proved that microsatellites are excellent genetic markers, so we expect to see more application of this kind of marker in aphid study.  
    Comparison of proteins from the pupal gonads of silkworms (Bombyx mori) of both sexes by two dimensional electrophoresis
    MAO Li-Ming, LIN Jian-Rong, ZHAO Feng, ZHONG Yang-Sheng, WANG Ye-Yuan, KONG Qing-Ming, XU Qiu-Yun
    2007, 50(6):  628-633. 
    Abstract ( 3567 )   PDF (1574KB) ( 1068 )     
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    The comparison of protein patterns between male and female gonads will not only contribute to the finding of functional proteins related to sexual traits, but also help exploring the regulating mechanism of related genes during the development of gonad. In this study, using two dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and gel image analysis system, we compared the proteins in the male and female gonads of silkworm at the 2nd day of the pupal stage. A total of 435 protein spots were detected in the 2-DE pattern of male gonad, of which 73 were the specific protein spots, occupying 16.8% of the total. There were 417 protein spots in the 2-DE pattern of female gonad, of which 55 were specific ones, occupying 13.2% of the total. Comparison showed that 362 pairs were matched in the 2-DE patterns of both male and female, with the match percentage as high as 85.0%.  
    A nuclear polyhedrosis virus from larvae of Anua indiscriminate Moore (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    LI Yi-Zhen, CHEN Zhi-Yun, GUAN Jian-Chao
    2007, 50(6):  634-637. 
    Abstract ( 3855 )   PDF (312KB) ( 1058 )     
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    A pathogen from dead larvae of Anua indiscriminate Moore was isolated and identified, and the toxicity of the pathogen was assayed in the laboratory. The results showed that the pathogen was a NPV, denominated as A. indiscriminate nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AiNPV). Its LC50 and LC90 against the larvae of A. indiscriminate were 3.4×104 and 3.8×107 PIB/mL, respectively.
    Supercooling capacity of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    HOU Bo-Hua, ZHANG Run-Jie
    2007, 50(6):  638-643. 
    Abstract ( 3834 )   PDF (463KB) ( 1413 )     
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    In this study, the variation of supercooling point (SCP) at different developmental stages of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) was examined. The results indicated that the SCP of B. Dorsalis varied significantly among individuals, but followed a normal distribution. The SCP at the pupal stage ranged from -12.2℃ to -15.0℃, which was the lowest among all the developmental stages. For the late 3rd instar larva, the SCP was -8.1℃. Values of SCPs varied significantly among adults of different age, the lowest SCPs were found in 7 day-old male adults (-10.5℃) and female adults (-10.1℃), and the highest SCPs were detected in 60 day-old male (-5.9℃) and female  (-6.4℃). However, there was no significant difference of SCP between male and female adults in the same age. The results suggest that B. dorsalis may overwinter in the pupal stage in temperate zone.
    Observation and comparison of the structure of respiratory system during different instars of Luciola substriata (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) larva
    ZHENG Xia-Lin, ZHANG Ying, FU Xin-Hua, LEI Chao-Liang
    2007, 50(6):  644-648. 
    Abstract ( 3669 )   PDF (652KB) ( 1207 )     
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    The structure of respiratory system during the 1st-2nd instars and the 3rd-6th instars of Luciola substriata larva was observed using micro-dissection, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicated that the 1st-2nd instar larva had trachea without air sacs, while the 3rd-6th instar larva had trachea and air sacs in the respiratory system. The structure of the posterior spiracles of the 1st-2nd instar larva was the same as that of the 3rd-6th instar larva. Observations by TEM suggest that the hairs on the culticle are tracheal gills.