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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 July 2007, Volume 50 Issue 7
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Cloning and sequencing of two molecular markers located on the sex chromosomes of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera
    NIU Bao-Long, WENG Hong-Biao, HE Li-Hua, SHEN Wei-Feng, MENG Zhi-Qi
    2007, 50(7):  649-654. 
    Abstract ( 2998 )   PDF (2000KB) ( 1399 )     
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    The individual genome DNA of male and female cotton bollworms (Helicoverpa armigera) was screened with RAPD-PCR technology by 500 random primers. A 450 bp marker amplified from female genome DNA with random primer Operon AF-18 was cloned and sequenced, which was confirmed as a specific molecular marker on the W chromosome. A part of HaKettin gene was cloned according to the sequences of homologues from Bombyx mori and Drosophila, and its copy number in the genome DNA of male and female cotton bollworms was detected with the real-time quantitative PCR technique compared with DH-PBAN. The ratio of copy between HaKettin and DH-PBAN was 1.0 in males and 0.5 in females, showing that the copy number of HaKettin is equal to that of Z chromosome in the genome of cotton bollworm. It is so inferred that HaKettin is located on Z chromosome in the genome of cotton bollworm.
    Expression and activity analysis of the recombinant Solenopsis invicta Buren venom allergen Sol i1
    HAN Xue-Qing, LIN Xiang-Mei, ZHANG Yong-Guo, CHEN Yan, YE Gui-Sheng, YANG Wei-Dong,XIA Qiao-Yu, YANG Ze-Xiao, WANG Jian-Feng
    2007, 50(7):  655-661. 
    Abstract ( 3721 )   PDF (3080KB) ( 1243 )     
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    ObjectiveTo study the molecular pathogenic mechanism of Solenopsis invicta Buren venom allergens and produce reagents for the prophylaxis and therapy of S. invicta sting. Methods In the study, the S. invicta venom allergens sol i1 gene and its fragment soli1a encoding the truncated peptide without transmembrane region were amplified by RT-PCR and nPCRand then be sequenced. Two recombinant plasmids Sol i1-pET43.1a and Sol i1a-pET43.1a were constructed and verified by PCR, RE digestion and sequencing, and then transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) and induced by IPTG. The expression products were purified by affinity chromatograph following with the identification of SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, and then used to inoculate rabbits for analyzing the allergenic activity and the potential in therapy. Results The results showed that the nucleotide homology of the amplified product with that published in GenBank was 99%, and the recombinant fusion proteins expressed in BL21(DE3) at high-level had good allergenic activity and immunotherapy potential. Conclusions Recombinant Sol i1 (rSol i1) and recombinant Sol i1a (rSol i1a) expressed in BL21(DE3) both had excellent biological activity, which set basis for further studying the mechanism of S. invicta venom allergens and the prevention of S. invicta.
    Effects of parasitism by Diadromus collaris (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) on morphology and ultrastructure of fat body and adipocytes of host Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) pupae
    LI Wei-Di, SHI Min, CHEN Xue-Xin
    2007, 50(7):  662-666. 
    Abstract ( 3549 )   PDF (1876KB) ( 1187 )     
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    In order to determine the effects of parasitism by Diadromus collaris (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) on structure of fat body of host Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) pupae, the morphology and ultrastructure of pupal fat body and adipocytes of the diamondback moth, P. xylostella parasitized by D. collaris were observed using light and electron microscopy. After 72 h of parasitism, the structure of fat body became loose; the adipocytes were dissociated from fat body; the membrane of adipocyte was torn, its entocyte was consumed passively, the number of apparatus of cell reduced, and the morphology of nuclear chromatin was changed. It is so concluded that parasitism by parasitoid can make host fat body and adipocytes fell to pieces, and this is advantageous for development of parasitoid.
    Sexual dimorphism in the distribution and biometrics of the palpal sensilla of Coccinella septempunctata, and a description of a new sensillum
    Daniel G. THORNHAM, Maureen E. WAKEFIELD, Alison BLACKWELL, Kenneth A. EVANS, Keith F.A. WALTERS
    2007, 50(7):  667-674. 
    Abstract ( 3944 )   PDF (688KB) ( 1774 )     
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    Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the palpi and tarsi of Coccinella septempunctata to identify the principal chemosensory organs likely to be responsible for pesticide residue detection. The study confirmed that the range of sensilla on the maxillary palps included two types of basiconic sensilla, which are both mechanosensory and chemosensory, and one type of campaniform sensilla. The paper reports the first accurate morphometrics of these sensilla, highlighting sexual dimorphism. Measurements of the terminal segment of the maxillary palp showed a significant interaction between side (left or right lateral) and sex of the insect. A new campaniform sensillum was described for the labial palps, totalling between 12 and 17 located on each labial palp. Biometric measurements established a mean diameter of 2.4 μm for these mechanoreceptors. The only chemoreceptors on the labial palps were confirmed to be the basiconic sensilla described in earlier studies. The numbers of these basiconic sensilla were shown for the first time to be sexually dimorphic, with a mean of 18 in males and 16 in females. Sex differences were also exhibited in the tarsi: in the width of the adhesive pad of the second tarsomere, which was larger in males towards the front of the insect and in females towards the rear of the insect. Explanations for these disparities, and for the function of the newly identified sensilla, are discussed.
    Ultrastructure of olfactory sensilla of Holotrichia diomphalia Bates(Coleoptera: Melolonthidae)
    SUN Fan, HU Ji-Hua, WANG Guang-Li, PENG Lu
    2007, 50(7):  675-681. 
    Abstract ( 3516 )   PDF (1445KB) ( 1751 )     
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    The ultrastructure of olfactory sensilla on antennae of Holotrichia diomphalia adult was studied using SEM and TEM. The results showed that the olfactory sensilla concentrated on antennal lamellae and all these sensilla were situated on the sunken cavity formed by antennal cuticle depressions. Two types of olfactory sensillum on lamellae were found both sensilla basiconca (S. ba) and sensilla placodea (S. pl). Based on the difference of cone and plate shape, S. ba was further classified into four subtypes, and S. pl. into five subtypes. The cuticle of olfaction sensillum was single-walled, with a plenty of pores and pore tubules. The number of neuron in olfactory was inconsistent, including one olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), two ORNs and three ORNs. The length of each lamella on antenna in the male was longer than that in the female, and the total number of sensilla in the male was far more than that in the female. The number of S. pl showed no obvious difference between two sexes, but the number of S. ba in the male was far more than that in the female, about nine times that of the latter. It is so inferred that the S. ba is the sensillum used for reception of pheromone and S. pl is used for reception of plant odors.
    Ovarian development of Agrilus auriventris Saunders (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)
    HUANGFU Wei-Guo, WEI Shu-Jun, ZHENG Hong-Hai, LIU Peng-Cheng, HUANG Wei, SHI Zu-Hua, CHEN Xue-Xin
    2007, 50(7):  682-688. 
    Abstract ( 3589 )   PDF (580KB) ( 1160 )     
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    Ovarian development of Agrilus auriventris Saunders was studied by dissecting the pupae, mated or unmated female adults fed with food, and mated females without any food. The results showed that the ovary of this pest has two ovaries, each composed of five ovarioles. Ovaries developed normally in the first two treatments of female adults fed with food, which had the longevity of about 30 days. While the mated female adults without any food had the longevity of only about 10 days, during which no eggs formed either in growth zone or maturation zone of ovarioles. Ovarian development was divided into 6 stages based on the morphological characteristics of ovarian development, the formation of eggs, eggs in the lateral oviducts and vitellogenesis: stage 0 (no oocyte stage), stage (no yolk stage), stage (yolk deposition stage), stage (egg maturation stage), stage (peak egg deposition stage), and stage (egg depletion stage). In mated adults with foods, mature eggs formed in 11 days after emergence, and the ovipositon duration could last as long as 22 days, with the highest fecundity of about 140 eggs per female. It is so proposed that to achieve better control effects, measuress should be taken to control the adults of A. auriventris before the stage of ovarian development (within 10 days after adult emergence).
    Bioactivities of fungicides against Spodoptera litura cells and larvae
    ZHANG Rui-Feng, REN Yong-Xia, XU Han-Hong, ZHANG Zhi-Xiang
    2007, 50(7):  689-694. 
    Abstract ( 3156 )   PDF (185KB) ( 1119 )     
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    The cytotoxicities of 19 kinds of fungicides against Spodoptera litura (SL) cells were studied by using MTT method. The results showed that thiram, diniconazole, hexaconazole, flusilazone, benalaxyl, difenoconazole, tebuconazole and myclobutanil possessed high toxicity against SL cells. The LC50 values of myclobutanil, diniconazole, hexaconazole and tebuconazole, which belong to triazoles fungicides, at 48 h after treatment were 21.94 μg/mL, 23.80 μg/mL, 33.16 μg/mL and 47.63 μg/mL, respectively. Effect of myclobutanil on the protein content and the leakage rate of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of SL cells were studied by using colorimetric method of Coomassie brilliant blue G250. The reduced rates of protein content of SL cells treated with myclobutanil at concentration of 20 μg/mL for 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h were 8.55%, 25.95%, 42.95% and 67.05%, respectively. The leakage rates of LDH of SL cells treated with myclobutanil at concentration of 20 μg/mL for 24 h and 48 h were 30.66% and 32.05%, respectively. Triazoles fungicides could decrease the larvae weight of S. litura obviously. The reduced rates of blood corpuscles of the 4th-instar larvae of S. litura treated with myclobutanil at dose of 0.5 μg/larva, 1.0 μg/larva and 2.0 μg/larva by the inject method for 72 h were 12.31%, 25.96% and 25.73%, respectively. The LD50 values of myclobutanil injected into S. litura larvae at 48 h and 72 h after treatment were 1.59 μg/larva and 1.53 μg/larva, respectively. The results suggest that it possesses good research potential that looking for new leading compounds for insecticides from fungicides with vitro cultured cells as object.
    Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Derris fordii var. lucida
    LI You-Zhi, XU Han-Hong, WEI Xiao-Yi, MA Jun
    2007, 50(7):  695-702. 
    Abstract ( 4003 )   PDF (247KB) ( 1467 )     
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    Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Derris fordii var. lucida were studied for the first time. Insecticidal activities and action mode were determined by bioassay. The active ingredients were isolated from the roots by activity-directed fractionation with column chromatography, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and recrystallization, and identified predominantly on the basisof MS and NMR data. The results showed among methanol extracts from various parts of D. fordii var. lucida only that from the roots had insecticidal activity. The methanol extract from the roots of D. fordii var. lucida had toxicity against the 4th instar larva of Aedes albopictus, Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis craccivoraMyzus persicae, the 2nd instar larva of Herse convolvuli (L.), the neonate larva of Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker), the 2nd instar larva of Pieris rapae (L.) and the adult of Phyllotreta striolata (Fabricius)with LC50 value 24 h after treatment being 260.3 mg/L, 234.6 mg/L, 141.3 mg/L, 16.4 mg/L, 233.4 mg/L, 20.8 mg/L, 11.7 mg/L and 148.4 mg/L, respectively. The methanol extract from the roots had high contact toxicity and stomach toxicity to the 3rd instar larva of H. convolvuli at 24 h after treatment, with the values being 101.6 mg/L and 234.9 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, the sublethal dosage of the extract had sublethal effect of antifeeding and growth inhibition. Three compounds were isolated from the roots and identified: rotenone,β-sitosterol and 6a, 12a-dehydrodegulin. The two compounds, rotenone and 6a, 12a-dehydrodeguelin, possessed poison effect on the neonate larva of S. incertulas, with the LC50 value at 24 h after treatment being 2.6 mg/L and 5.3 mg/L, respectively. It is so concluded that only the roots of D. fordii var. lucida had insecticidal activities, contact toxicity and stomach toxicity were the important action mode, and rotenone and 6a, 12a-dehydrodeguelin were the main active ingredients in the roots.
    Night-interruption response of diapause induction in Pseudopidorus fasciata (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)
    WU Shao-Hui, LI Feng, ZHOU Yu-Chen, XUE Fang-Sen
    2007, 50(7):  703-708. 
    Abstract ( 4246 )   PDF (203KB) ( 1503 )     
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    The zygaenid moth Pseudopidorus fasciata enters winter diapause as the 4th instar larvae under short daylight with a critical night length of 10.5 h. In the present study the effects of night-interruption experiments, in which the scotophase of a photoperiod was interrupted by a simple light, on diapause-averting were systematically investigated in P. fasciata. The experiments were carried out by using 1 h or 30 min light pulse to interrupt the scotophases of short photoperiods of L9D15 (Light 9 hDark 15 h), L10D14, L11D13 and L12D12 at 25 at different phases. The results showed that whether diapause was averted by light pulse mainly depended on whether the pre-interruption (D1) or the post-interruption (D2) scotophase exceeded the critical night length (10.5 h). When D1 or D2 exceeded the critical night length, diapause was always induced. When both D1 and D2 were shorter than critical night length, diapause was averted at different degree, mainly depending on the photoperiod applied and the length and position of light pulse. The results revealed that the nightinterruption response of diapause induction in P. fasciata was based on a time measurement of the critical night length.
    Species diversity and distribution patterns of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) in China
    SHEN Xiao-Cheng, SUN Hao, ZHAO Hua-Dong
    2007, 50(7):  709-719. 
    Abstract ( 3394 )   PDF (294KB) ( 1563 )     
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    A total of 3 751 species noctuids belonging to 845 genera of 20 subfamilies from China were inventoried into a database, and their distribution patterns were analyzed. The results indicated that most of the Chinese noctuids could be assigned into four faunal elementsEurytopic,  Palaearctic, Oriental and East Asian. Among them East Asian element predominated over the other elements, making up 51.35 percent of the total speciesthen Oriental element occupying 25.51%, Palaearctic 18.45% and Eurytopic only 2.26%. The distribution of the family in the seven zoogeographical regions of China was characterized by the compounds of various elements in various taxa. Eurytopic element (85 species) was fairly well-distributed in the seven regions. Oriental (957 species) and Palaearctic (692 species) elements were distributed in stairs with latitude by distinct orientation. For East Asian element, South China pattern (1 363 species) and North China pattern (290 species) were of isolated-distribution; Central China pattern (273 species) were of multi-region and cross-boundary distribution, but mainly distributed in North-China Region, Central-China Region, Qinghai-Xizang Region and South-West Region. Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was made to identify areas of endemism. The regions and distribution of these areas of endemism were mostly in congruence with the zoogeographical region division of China, but Taiwan was close to the Central-China Region in endemism. Based on the results of key fauna analysis, the priority regions for conservation were proposed in the sequence of Taiwan, Yunan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Sichuan, Hainan, Heilongjiang and so on.
    Molecular identification of the introduced western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and other eight common thrips species (Thysanoptera:Thripidae)
    YOU Zhong-Hua, LU Hong, ZHANG Xian-Sheng, FENG Ji-Nian, SHI Bao-Cai, GONG Ya-Jun, HUANG Da-Wei
    2007, 50(7):  720-726. 
    Abstract ( 4362 )   PDF (259KB) ( 1504 )     
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    The 433 base pair segments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidaseⅠ(COⅠ) gene from 62 individuals of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and other 8 common thrips species in China were sequenced. The DNA data analysis showed that the average intra-species genetic distance was 0-0.005;there was no significant genetic divergence between the western flower thrips found in Beijing in 2003 and those reported internationally. The average interspecies genetic distance was 0.213. Thrips individuals of the same species were successfully clustered by NJ tree. The bootstrap values of the original divergence among intra-species haplotypes amounted to 100%. The results show that molecular identification based on PCR and direct sequencing is desirable for identifying thrips species.
    Progress in ecological biosafety of insect-resistant transgenic cotton and corn in relation to arthropods
    HAN Lan-Zhi, BAI Shu-Xiong, ZHAO Jian-Zhou, WANG Zhen-Ying, WU Kong-Ming
    2007, 50(7):  727-736. 
    Abstract ( 3313 )   PDF (294KB) ( 1648 )     
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    Since Bt cotton and corn were commercially planted in 1996, remarkable economic, ecological and social benefits have been obtained. However, ecological biosafety pertinent to their introduction has become a public concern, especially the potential impact of Bt crops on non-target organisms and evolution of resistance in target insect pests. The progress of laboratory and field assessment of Bt corn and cotton on non-target arthropods and resistance management of target insects were reviewed in this article. Research has shown that field populations of some non-target herbivorous insects in Bt crops may increase due to the removal of wide-spectrum insecticides. The pollen or nectar of Bt corn and cotton as food sources of honey bees or the natural drift of pollen onto food plants of silkworms have no direct or indirect detrimental influence on these beneficial insects as well as the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus. Bt cotton and corn may affect natural enemies indirectly by decreasing the population of lepidopteran insects that serve as hosts of parasitoids or predators. Population densities of predators in Bt fields were significantly higher than those in non-Bt fields treated with insecticides for control of target pests. However, population size and species richness of parasitoids might decrease due to lower density or poor quality of their host insects. There were no significant negative effects of Bt cotton and corn on the abundance and diversity of foliar and soil arthropod communities. Resistance monitoring demonstrated that resistance of target insects to Bt cotton and corn has not occurred in fields after 10 years of commercial use, either in large-scale farming system  as in the U.S. and Australia or in small-scale planting of Bt cotton in as China and India where several other non-Bt host crops of the target insects can serve as natural refuge. The absence of field resistance to date is presumed to be due to the implementation of refuge strategy in the developed countries and the unique cropping pattern in the developing countries. However, caution for resistance evolution continues to be warranted because resistance to Bt crops most likely remains a question of not “if" but “when". Therefore, future work should be emphasized on the impact of long-term and large-scale planting of Bt cotton and corn on non-target organisms and resistance evolution of target pests.
    Progress in biological mechanism of melittin
    ZHAO Ya-Hua, LIU Ai-Shan, LI Ri-Qing, GAO Xiang-Yang, ZHANG Wei, ZHENG HuiPing
    2007, 50(7):  737-744. 
    Abstract ( 3127 )   PDF (220KB) ( 1979 )     
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    We summarized progress in melittin, including the biological function, the molecular structure and characteristics, the mechanism of hemolysis and the relationship between the structure and the activity of hemolysis and antimicrobial of melittin. Meanwhile, based on the related research in our laboratory, we focused on the studies of the mechanism of melittin home and abroad in recent years. We proposed that the study on melittin should be quantified, and the calculation technology should be utilized for further illustrating the dynamical process of melittin and the relationship between structure and function, which may provide a firm theoretical basis for guiding molecular designing in future.
    Cloning and sequence analysis of two cecropin D genes from the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)
    CHEN Wei-Chun, SONG Jie, PANG Yi
    2007, 50(7):  745-749. 
    Abstract ( 3676 )   PDF (246KB) ( 1407 )     
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    Cecropins are a family of antibacterial peptides synthesized in insects as a response to a bacterial infection. Two primers were designed according to cecropin B gene from Spodoptera litura and were used to PCR. As the result, two new cecropin genes, named cecD1 and cecD, were obtained, which encoded identical preprocecropin D. There was 2 amino acid residues difference between the mature peptide of preprocecropin D and that of cecropin B from S. litura. Two introns, 568 bp and 377 bp long, were found in cecD1 and cecD2, respectively, both having the same 5′and 3′splicing sites. The A+T content was 59.7% in cecD1 intron and 69.8% in cecD2 intron, conforming to the high A+T content characteristics of most eukaryotic introns.
    Contents and existing forms of cantharidin in Meloidae (Coleoptera)
    LI Xiao-Fei, CHEN Xiang-Sheng, WANG Xue-Mei, HOU Xiao-Hui
    2007, 50(7):  750-754. 
    Abstract ( 3751 )   PDF (140KB) ( 1690 )     
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    【Objective】 To determine the contents and the existing form of cantharidin in Meloidae. 【Methods】The total cantharidin obtained with acidolysis method and the free cantharidin obtained with direct extraction method were determined in eight species of Meloidae and the control species Huechys sanguinea (De Geer) (Homoptera:Cicadidae) by gas chromatography, and the content of the bound cantharidin in each species was calculated with the content difference between the total cantharidin and the free cantharidin. The relationship between the contents of the bound cantharidin and the contents of Ca and Mg elements in Meloidae were assessed. 【Results】 The results showed that the total cantharidin contents in the samples of Meloidae were 1 to 9 times the free cantharidin contents. The total cantharidin contents were generally higher than 2.0% of dry body weight and the free cantharidin contents were all less than 1.7% of dry body weight in Meloidae. No cantharidin in any form was found in H. sanguinea. Positive relationship was found between the bound cantharidin and Ca element in Mylabris and Epicauta, and between the bound cantharidin and Mg element in Mylabris, but negative relationship was found between the bound cantharidin and Mg element in Epicauta. And the mol of Ca element in Mylabris was lower than that of the bound cantharidin. 【Conclusion】 The contents of the total cantharidin were higher than the contents of the free cantharidin in Meloidae. The bound cantharidin may exist in the forms of magnesium cantharidate and calcium cantharidate.