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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 August 2007, Volume 50 Issue 8
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    XU Lang, YU Dao-Jian, ZHANG Run-Jie, LI Jian-Guang, KANG Lin, CHEN Zhi-Lin, JIAO Yi
    2007, 50(8):  755-761. 
    Abstract ( 5395 )   PDF (373KB) ( 2388 )     
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    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis is important for general molecular and evolutionary studies in Tephritidae. Via sequencing and cloning the target DNA sequences, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of B. dorsalis from the Chinese population was determined and analyzed. The results indicated that the complete mitochondrial genome of B. dorsalis is a circular molecule of 15 915 nucleotides (GenBank accession no.: DQ845759). Its overall composition is 39.3%A, 16.2%C, 10.2%G, and 34.3%T, and the gene content includes 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and a long non-coding region (A+T-rich region). Seven protein genes and 13 tRNA genes are transcribed from J strand, and the other 6 protein genes and 9 tRNA genes are transcribed genes from N strand. Protein coding genes on J strand show a fairly similar A% and T%, whereas those encoded on N strand have a higher proportion of A than T. The similarity analysis of mtDNA CO genes between B. dorsalis and the other 14 fruit flies showed that there was a high similarity among B. dorsalis and the other species belonging to the same subgenus Bactrocera.
    Cloning and sequence analysis of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius)
    QIU Gao-Hui, HAN Zhao-Jun
    2007, 50(8):  762-768. 
    Abstract ( 3086 )   PDF (1188KB) ( 1232 )     
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    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is one of the most important insecticide targets. In this study, five α-subunit genes from the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) were cloned to their full-length with RT-PCR and RACE strategy. It was also found that the α5 subunit had two forms with only difference in a 175 bp fragment. Sequence analysis showed that these genes had all the characteristics of nAChR gene family and were high homology with the reported nAChR genes from other insects. This work facilitates the further studies on natural subunit composition of nAChR and the molecular mechanisms for target resistance to new nicotinic insecticides in this pest.
    Ultrastructure changes and function of the midgut and salivary glands in Bombyx mori during the pupal-adult metamorphism
    ZHANG Cui-Hong, CUI Wei-Zheng, GUO Yan-Kui, WANG Yan-Wen, MU Zhi-Mei
    2007, 50(8):  769-774. 
    Abstract ( 4045 )   PDF (1391KB) ( 1490 )     
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    In order to further understand the biological activity of digestive system and the origin of cocoonase of Bombyx mori during the pupal-adult metamorphosis, the ultrastructure of the midgut and salivary glands was observed and the hydrolase activity was assayed. The results showed that active secretory characteristics such as a mass of secretory vacuoles, secretory granules and microvilli were observed in the midgut from the 7th day after pupation to one day before emergence and in salivary glands of newly emerged adults. High hydrolase activity existed in the midgut and salivary glands of pharate adults. The activities of protease, esterase and fibrinolytic enzyme were 726 U/mg, 751 U/mg and 263 U/mg in the midgut, and 603 U/mg, 523 U/mg and 147 U/mg in salivary glands, respectively. This suggests that the midgut and salivary glands were the possible origin of cocoonase. Weight and content analysis of ingredients in the pupal midgut during the pupal-adult metamorphosis showed that protein, carbohydrate and fat are major components, accounting for over 95% of the total weight, of which the proteins accounted for 78.8%80.2%. The dry weight of the contents in the midgut was 20.121.9 mg/head in the early stage of pupation, without obvious change during the 7 days after pupation, but reduced by 63.01%66.17% on the 9th day after pupation, and was extremely low in the newly emerged adult. The possible reason is that the contents were gradually assimilated and absorbed during the pupal-adult metamorphism. It was so inferred that during the pupal-adult metamorphism the midgut still keep the function of storaging and releasing nutrients, and cocoonase probably has another function of decomposing and digesting contents of the midgut.
    Effects of six insect growth regulators on the growth, development and reproduction of Delia antique (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)
    SONG Zeng-Ming, XUE Ming, WANG Hong-Tao
    2007, 50(8):  775-781. 
    Abstract ( 3631 )   PDF (234KB) ( 1437 )     
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    The effects of six IGRs in LC40-50 concentration on development and adult fecundity of onion maggot, Delia antique (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) were observed by treating the 1st and 3rd larvae of onion maggot with phoxim as a control. Adult fecundity was also investigated through continuous feeding the adults on milk solution with different IGRs. The results showed that, except tebufenozide, the other 5 IGRs had obviously adverse effects on larval development periods, pupation rate, pre-oviposition periods, adult longevity and eggs laid per female. Both larval development period and pre-oviposition period were prolonged by about 3 days, pupation rate was reduced by 26.7%-30.0%, adult longevity was decreased by 22.3-24.3 days and eggs laid per female was reduced by 35.5-49.9 when the 1st instars were treated with cyomazine and hexaflumuron. Whereas, when the 3rd instars were treated with these two IGRs, deformed pupae without resulting in larval death was observed, eggs laid per female was reduced by 45.7%-57.8 and adult longevity was shortened by 18.0-20.67 days. Feeding the adults with milk solution with different IGRs in 12000 (IGRmilk) prolonged pre-oviposition period, decreased eggs laid per female and egg hatchability, remarkably increased mortality of 1st instar larvae which was as high as more than 95%. The results indicated that, taking advantage of the adult trait of nutrient supplement, cyromazine and hexaflumuron could be added into milk or sugar solution to lure the adult to reduce its fecundity effectively, which could make the environment-friendly management of onion maggot come true.
    Oxidative damage to Spodoptera litura SL cells by hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether
    WANG Yu-Jian, XU Han-Hong, LIAO Shao-Yu, ZHANG Qian-Feng
    2007, 50(8):  782-787. 
    Abstract ( 2861 )   PDF (437KB) ( 1160 )     
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    The oxidative damage to Spodoptera litura (SL) cells by hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), the second generation photosensitizer for PDT, was investigated. IC50 value, the output of MDA and the content of GSH, and the alteration of cell organelles were assayed or observed to explore the feasibility of applying HMME and its derivatives to control agricultural pest insects. IC50 values obtained with MTT at 24 h and 48 h post HMME treatment with irradiation were 8.35 μg/mL and 7.66 μg/mL, respectively. The results obtained with TBA method showed that photoactivated HMME could induce MDA increasing in dose dependent manner. When the treatment concentration of HMME was 50.000 μg/mL, the output of MDA at 48 h post treatment was 173.08±3.51 nmol/L. The GSH level, however, exhibited a contrary tendency. When the treatment concentration of HMME was 50.000μg/mL, the GSH content decreased by 39.59% compared with the same concentration treatment without irradiation. The SEM photographs showed that distinct pores in SL cells treated with 6.250 μg/mL HMME and irradiation, and sunken and plicate membrane appeared in the treated SL cells. All the evidence indicated that HMME had induced oxidative damage to SL cells.
    Effects of celangulin Ⅳ and Ⅴ on sodium channels in nerve cells of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera)
    HU Zhao-Nong, HE Bing-Jun, DU Yu-Zhe, LIU An-Xi, WU Wen-Jun
    2007, 50(8):  788-794. 
    Abstract ( 3271 )   PDF (378KB) ( 1251 )     
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    As the key structure of excitability in biological systems, the voltage-gated sodium channel is targeted by a series of neurotoxins derived from plants. Celangulin and isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus are the major active ingredients of the insecticidal plant which can result in reverse nerve poisoning symptoms, i.e., narcosis and excitation, respectively. Their effects on inward sodium channel current in nerve cells of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera were investigated in vitro by using patch clamp technique. The results indicated that celangulin reduced tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive inward sodium current in a concentration dependent manner. The sodium peak current was reduced immediately in high concentration  (10 and 1 μmol/L), and decreased slowly in middle concentration 0.1 μmol/L. In low concentration0.01 μmol/L,  however, the peak current was increased in the beginning, and then reduced. Moreover, it had no effect on activated voltage, but the peak voltage shifted to positive potential which was dependent on the concentration of celangulin . After treatment with celangulin , the TTX-sensitive inward sodium channel current was increased distinctly in a concentration dependant manner. It had no effect on activated voltage, but the peak voltage shifted to positive potential in lower concentration (0.1 and 0.01 μmol/L) of celangulin . Due to their chemical structure difference, celangulin and could result in qualitatively divergent kinetics of sodium channels at a shared binding site, so their physiological effects are different.
    Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Tripterygium hypoglaucum (Levl.) Hutch
    SHI Bao-Jun, JI Zhi-Qin, ZHANG Ji-Wen, WU Wen-Jun
    2007, 50(8):  795-800. 
    Abstract ( 3554 )   PDF (198KB) ( 1323 )     
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    Aim Isolating insecticidal activities compounds is an important method to discover new pesticides. Methods Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Tripterygium hypoglaucum against six lepidopteran insects were studied with bioassay-guided fractionation methods. Results The results showed the petroleum extract, methanol extract and acetic ether extract of the root of T. hypoglaucum had antifeedant activity against the 3th instar larvae of Mythimna separate Walker, with the AFC50  value 1 165.7 μg/mL, 104.3 μg/mL and 47.3 μg/mL 24 h after treatment, respectively. The methanol extract of the root bark had contact toxicity to the 4th instar larvae of M. separatar, with the LD50 values 100.4μg/larva 24 h after treatment. Four sesquiterpenes pyridine alkaloids, i.e., wilfortrine, wilforgine, wilfordine and wilforine, were isolated from the methanol extract of the root bark of T. hypoglaucum by bioassay-guided fractionation. The bioassay results showed that wilfortrine and wilforgine had stomach toxicity with the ND50 value 18.1 μg/larva and 7.4 μg/larva,  respectively against M. separata wilfordine and wilforine had topical toxicity with the ND50 value 0.33 μg/larva and 0.06 μg/larva, respectively against M. separata and stomach toxicity with the ND50 value 5.62 μg/larva and 1.24 μg/larva,  respectively against Agrotis ypsilon. Conclusions T. hypoglaucum exhibited insecticidal activity of some degree against the all six lepidopteran insects tested, and the main active ingredients were wilfortrine, wilforgine, wilfordine and wilforine.
    Synergism of six cationic adjuvants to avermectin
    CHEN Zhao-Liang, HAN Zhi-Ren, MA Chao, ZHAI Ru-Huan, MU Wei
    2007, 50(8):  801-806. 
    Abstract ( 4471 )   PDF (165KB) ( 1512 )     
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    In order to provide theoretical proofs for the application of cationic adjuvants, the synergism of six cationic adjuvants to avermectin on 3rd-instar larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, were studied by dipping method and contact and stomach method in the laboratory. The effect of adjuvants on physical properties of avermectin dilutions and activities of three protective enzymes of P. xylostella larvae were also tested. The results showed that all cationic adjuvants had no direct biological activity alone under the concentration of 400 mg/L, but they could dramatically improved avermectin bioefficacy against P. xylostella. The synergism ability with dipping method was more obvious than with contact and stomach method. Among the six adjuvants, copper abietate, 1427 and 412103 had 3.71, 2.82 and 2.72-fold synergism ratio, respectively. Although all the six adjuvants could decrease the surface tension and contact angle of water dilutions of avermectin EW and increase their depositing rates on the leaf of cabbage, they showed no significant difference either in different treatments or in different concentrations of the same adjuvant. These results suggested that the change of properties of dilutions by cationic adjuvant were not the main cause of synergism. The activities of peroxidases (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased dramatically 2 h after being treated by avermectin dilutions which were added with copper abietate, 1427 and 412103. This implied that the three adjuvants had higher permeabilities on P. xylostella larvae.
    Mating behavior of Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae)
    YANG Hong, WANG Jin-Jun, ZHAO Zhi-Mo, YANG De-Min, TANG Zhi-Qiang
    2007, 50(8):  807-812. 
    Abstract ( 3801 )   PDF (254KB) ( 1922 )     
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    Mating behavior of Monochamus alternatus Hope, a major vector of Bursaphelenchuh xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle was observed both in the laboratory and field. The results showed that a complete mating of M. alternatus involved three stagesencountering pair-bonding, ejaculation and post-copulatory guarding. There were many ejaculations in the whole mating process. Of the 123 matings observed in the experiment, the average lasting time for one copulation of M. alternatus was 66.27 min, the time for pair-bonding before ejaculation was 3.51 min with each ejaculation of 57.6 s, and the time of post copulatoryguarding was 15.18 min. M. alternatus made 5.15 matings in four days after the beginning of reproductive stage, and the mating chance by different male individuals were quite different from each other. Mating behavior of M. alternatus presented drastic male competition. Males could adjust their investments of mating according to females and their own mating experience. When a female or male is virgin,  total time of ejaculations is significantly longer than the one which has been mated, and the frequency of ejaculations is significantly greater. Mating behavior of M. alternatus observed in the field was basically consistent with the results observed in the laboratory.
    Faunal composition and vertical distribution of fleas in the eastern part of Daba Mountains, Hubei province, China
    LIU Jing-Yuan, YU Pin-Hong, WU Hou-Yong
    2007, 50(8):  813-825. 
    Abstract ( 3274 )   PDF (594KB) ( 1395 )     
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    With snow line (as snow falls in winter or melts in spring, place rat clamps up and down along border of snow line of the mountain to capture rodents and collect flea specimens outside their bodies) and routine investigation methods, selecting 7 different representative altitude gradients and 6 different habitat types, an 11 years' continuous study had been carried on in the eastern part of Daba Mountains in Hubei. The results showed that1) of the 51 species of 9 974 fleas collected belonging to 28 genera of 8 families, 25 species belong to the Palaearctic region (49.02%), 21 belong to the Oriental region (41.18%) and 5 are wide_spread (9.80%)evaluated with individual proportion, the difference between the Palaearctic region (37.97%) and the Oriental region (50.30%) is not as obvious as species composition2) the faunal characteristics of vertical distribution of fleas in the eastern part of Dabashan Mountain is that the Oriental species occupy absolute predominance under altitude 1 500 mthe Palaearctic species account for 44.82%-56.41% at altitude 1 600-2 300 m, while the individual proportion of the Palaearctic species is 33.47%-60.16% at the same altitude rangesome special indicators in the Oriental region such as Typhlomyopsyllus bashanensis and its host Typhlomys cinereus can be seen in the Palaearctic regionwhen the altitude is elevated to 2 600 m, the Palaearctic species account for 55.00%, and T. bashanensis and its host T. cinereus can not be found any morewhen the altitude was above 2 800-2 980 m, the Palaearctic species proportion and individual proportion are 65.00% and 89.51%, respectively3) of the 51 species of fleas in the eastern part of Daba Mountains, 24 species are also distributed in Qinling Mountains, accounting for 70.58% of 34 species known in Qinling the Palaearctic species proportion in the two mountains was 49.02% and 52.94% respectively. According to principles of similarity in faunal elements, host animals,  vegetation zone and geographical conditions, the altitude lineation (1 000-2 000 m) of fleas in the south slope of Qinling Mountains proposed by Zhang Jin-Tong et al. (1989) was revised and elevated to about 2 600 m. The position and direction of the revised altitude lineation is corresponding to lower border limit of subalpine coniferous forest. Above the line, the Palaearctic elements dominate in both species number and individual number; while below the line, there exists a mixture of the Oriental, the Palaearctic and some endemic elements. In the author's opinion, although the fauna of animal species is a key indicator in determining the characteristics of mountain fauna, the faunal proportion of species and individuals and the living extent of some animals with special indications are of greater significance in altitude lineation to comprehensively determine the property of animal fauna. Meanwhile, it can make people better understand the vertical distribution of the Palaearctic and the Oriental elements in mountains and make wiser judgment conforming to the reality.
    Induced outbreaks of indigenous insect species by exotic tree species
    ZHAO Tong-Hai, ZHAO Wen-Xia, GAO Rui-Tong, ZHANG Qing-Wen, LI Guo-Hong, LIU Xiao-Xia
    2007, 50(8):  826-833. 
    Abstract ( 3701 )   PDF (220KB) ( 1584 )     
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    Agrilus planipennis Fairmair, Hylobitelus xiaoi Zhang, Anoplophora glabripennis (Hotsch),  Anoplophora nobilis (Ganglbauer), Batocera horsfieldi Hope and Apriona germari Hope are indigenous insect species frequently encountered in local forest ecosystems in China with no significant damages recorded. As a result, little attention had been directed to such species as A. planipennis and H. xiaoi in the past. Damages caused by these species to our forests in recently years,  however, become more serious due to the introduction and wide utilization of North America species of ash, pine and popular in forest plantations. The outbreaks of these indigenous species occurred in conjunction with the introduction of sensitive exotic tree species species and ill-advised expansion over large areas. Based on the correlation between the outbreaks of indigenous insect species and exotic tree species, this paper further confirmed the hypothesis of induced outbreak of indigenous insect species by exotic tree species and discussed its mechanism and management countermeasures.
    Advances in establishment of insect cell lines
    ZHANG Huan, ZHANG Yong-An, QIN Qi-Lian, WANG Yu-Zhu, QU Liang-Jian, LI Xuan, MIAO Lin, YIN Zhen-Xian, ZHANG Ai-Jun, WEN Fa-Yuan
    2007, 50(8):  834-839. 
    Abstract ( 3703 )   PDF (257KB) ( 3397 )     
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    More than 800 insect cell lines have been reported by now. Insect cell lines have become useful tools with a variety of applications in such research fields as insect pathology, parasitology, endocrinology, genetics, molecular biology, etc. This paper reviews the progresses in the technique of establishing insect cell lines in combination with our results and experiences gained in recent years, which include development of insect culture, establishment of insect cell lines, initiation of a cell line from different tissues, characterization and identification of new insect cell line.
    The tachinids parasitizing on the meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): species, types of parasitism and their roles in controlling the host population
    LI Hong, LUO Li-Zhi
    2007, 50(8):  840-849. 
    Abstract ( 3531 )   PDF (310KB) ( 1824 )     
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    Tachinids are among the important endoparasitoids for the meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). In most cases, the parasitism rate of tachinids is far higher than that of hymenopterous parasitoids, which exhibits a great potential to regulate the population of meadow moth. In this paper, the tachinid species parasitizing on the meadow moth, types of parasitism, the dominant species and their roles in controlling the host population as well as their protection and utilization were reviewed by combining the results derived from field investigations and literatures. The species of tachinid parasitoids for the meadow moth were as many as 22 species, which were widely distributed along with the meadow moth and most of them were with a broad host range of other phytophagous species. Four dominant species were recorded: Exorista civilis Rondani, Nemorilla maculosa Meigen, Clemelis pullata Meigen, and Exorista pratensisRobincau-Uesvoidy. It was found that the controlling effect of these tachinid species on the current generation of meadow moth is limited; however, they could play an important role in controlling the next generation of meadow moth. The conservation and utilization of the tachinid parasitoids were also discussed based on these prospects.
    Comparative analysis of carbohydrates, amino acids and volatile components of honeydew produced by two whiteflies Bemisia tabaci B-biotype and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) feeding cabbage and cucumber
    LIU Wan-Xue, YANG Yong, WAN Fang-Hao, JIN Dao-Chao
    2007, 50(8):  850-857. 
    Abstract ( 3657 )   PDF (321KB) ( 1627 )     
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    Whitefly honeydew is an important kairomone resource for host-searching of parasitoids. Carbohydrate and amino acid composition of honeydew from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Bbiotype feeding on cabbage and cucumber, and from the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum feeding on cucumber was comparatively analyzed with the ion chromatogram. The results showed that honeydew of the both whiteflies contained abundant carbohydrates and amino acids, however, the total carbohydrates were present at absolutely high levels, as 42.5, 2.6 and 5.4 times as the total amino acids in honeydew of three whitefly/host combinations, respectively. And the principal carbohydrate was oligosaccharide, accounting for 89.3%, 81.7% and 88.2% of the total carbohydrates, respectively in their honeydew. The species of whitefly and host plant significantly affected sugar and amino acid composition of honeydew, especially oligosaccharide composition. Disaccharides trehalulose and turanose were predominant oligosaccharides in honeydew from B. tabaci B-biotype on cabbage, accounting for 52.7% and 35.4% of the total oligosaccharides, respectively. However, the principal oligosaccharides in honeydew from B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum on cucumbers were tetrasaccharide stachyose and trisaccharide melezitose, which accounted for 40.3% and 26.2%, 49.9% and 27.0% of the total oligosaccharides, respectively. The predominant amino acids were alanine in honeydew from B. tabaci on cabbage (accounting for 66.5% of the total amino acids), glycine in honeydew from B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum on cucumbers (accounting for 38.2% and 51.7% of the total amino acids, respectively). A principal volatile Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was found with GC-MS in honeydew from both B. tabaci on cabbage and T. vaporariorum on cucumber.
    Electroantennogram responses of female Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu to two volatile enantiomers of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.
    LIU Ling, GE Feng, SU Jian-Wei, QIN Xiao-Wei, GAO Bao-Jia
    2007, 50(8):  858-862. 
    Abstract ( 3114 )   PDF (177KB) ( 1202 )     
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    Electroantennograms were recorded from female Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu to serial stimulus doses (50 μL, 100 μL, 400 μL, 800 μL, 1 600 μL, and 3 200 μL) of four monoterpene hydrocarbons ((+)-α-pinene, (-)-α- pinene, (-)-β- pinene, and (+)-β-pinene), and the saturating dose was tested. Dose-response curves constructed from the EAGs revealed that the saturating dose of (-)-α-pinene was 1 600 μL and that of the other three chemicals was 800 μL. The relative volume of the electroantennogram response was higher for (+)-α-pinene compared to (-)-α-pinene, suggesting that greater affinity to receptor molecules for (+)-α-pinene than (-)-α-pinene; on the contrary, response of the moth to the (-)form of the β-pinene was higher than that to the (+) form, suggesting that (+)-β-pinene does not bind as efficiently as (-)-β-pinene with the receptor molecules in many of the sensilla. Electroantennogram recording using mixtures of the enantiomers at saturating dose levels showed that the response to the mixture of α-pinene was almost equal to those of the two forms of α-pinene, suggesting that the two forms of α-pinene were detected by the same receptor neurons; and the same for the β-pinene. Discrimination between enantiomers by plant olfactory receptor neurons in the moth suggested that the enantiomeric ratios of volatile compounds might be important in host location of D. tabulaeformis.
    Antennal sensilla of the green plant bug, Lygus lucorum Meyer-Dür (Heteroptera: Miridae) observed with scanning electron microscopy
    LU Yan-Hui, TONG Ya-Juan, WU Kong-Ming
    2007, 50(8):  863-867. 
    Abstract ( 4153 )   PDF (549KB) ( 1818 )     
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    Antennal morphology and sensilla of the green plant bug, Lygus lucorum Meyer Dür (Heteroptera: Miridae), were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the linear antenna consists of the scape, pedicel and two flagellomeres. Two types of sensilla trichodea, two types of sensilla chaetica, two types of sensilla basiconic and one type of Böhm bristles were distinguished with the shapes and distribution of sensilla. No difference was found in the type and distribution of the sensilla between the male and female adults. The quantity and distribution of each sensillum, however, were different in different segment of antenna.
    A gynandromorph of Microterys ishiii Tachikawa (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae)
    ZHANG Yan-Zhou, ZHU Chao-Dong
    2007, 50(8):  868-870. 
    Abstract ( 3337 )   PDF (157KB) ( 1411 )     
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    This note reports the occurrence of gynandromorphism in Microterys ishiii Tachikawa in China. General aspects and photograph of the insect are presented. The gynandromorph was reared from Pulvinaria aurantii collected in Ya Xian, Zhejiang Province. All the specimens studied are housed in Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.