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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 September 2007, Volume 50 Issue 9
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Development of monoclonal antibodies to the vitellin in an endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and its application methods
    2007, 50(9):  871-877. 
    Abstract ( 3472 )   PDF (747KB) ( 1365 )     
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     In order to study vitellogenesis and its endocrine regulation, we used hybridoma techniques and developed four monoclonal antibodies to Pteromalus puparum soluble yolk proteins, named as PpVt mAb1, PpVt mAb2, PpVt mAb3, and PpVt mAb4, respectively. The four antibodies, each with a IgG1 heavy chain and a κ light chain, had high specificity and affinity not only to the ovarian vitellin (Vt), but also to female hemolymph vitellogenin (Vg). However, they showed no immunological reaction with the male substances. The indirect double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was regarded as the most sensitive and accurate to measure Vg/Vt in the wasps, compared with other three methods of ELISA, namely, direct, indirect and double antibody sandwich ELISA. With this ELISA method it is possible to detect the Vg/Vt titer in a single wasp with the sensitivity of 20 ng/mL. The Western blot analysis indicated that the Vg synthesis initiated just after eclosion, and peaked to high levels within 12 and 36 h after eclosion. 
    Sperm mediated egfp gene transfer in the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    2007, 50(9):  878-882. 
    Abstract ( 3516 )   PDF (421KB) ( 1427 )     
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    The Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana is a eusocial insect and one of the most important economical insects in China. The objective of this study was to transfer the exogenous egfp gene through spermatozoa in A. cerana cerana. The drone sperms were mixed with foreign linearized DNA, which were then transferred into the oviducts of a virgin honeybee queen with the technique of artificial instrumental insemination. The descendants of the experimental colonies were analyzed. Green fluorescence was observed in 1-to 2-day-old larvae from a colony of the experimental group, and the positive rate was 0.01%-0.02%. PCR amplification of genomic DNA and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the transfer and expression of egfp gene. The results indicate that sperm-mediated transformation can be applicable to transfer and express exogenous genes in A. cerana cerana.  
    Cloning and expression analysis of heat shock protein 70 gene from Anatolica polita borealis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
    2007, 50(9):  883-888. 
    Abstract ( 3660 )   PDF (1265KB) ( 1584 )     
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    The heat shock protein 70 gene (hsp70) from Anatolica polita borealis (a desert beetle distributed in Xinjiang) was isolated through PCR and RT-PCR technique. Sequence analysis indicated that the APhsp70 gene (GenBank accession no. EF569673) has 2 092 bp in length, includes one full open reading fragment and potentially encodes a 653 amino acid residuum protein. The protein deduced from the isolated gene had a calculated molecular mass of 70 kD and was therefore named APHSP70. The APhsp70 gene contains no intron. The expression pattern of APhsp70 was examined at the transcription level after treatment with heat and cold stress. The Northern blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR results revealed that the APhsp70 was an inducible 70 kDa isoform whose expression was specifically induced by the different stress factors.
    Immunomodulatory effects of the extract of Musca domestica larvae on irradiated mice
    LIU Bin,ZHANG Ke-Tian,SHEN Si,LEI Chao-Liang,HUANG Wen
    2007, 50(9):  889-894. 
    Abstract ( 3362 )   PDF (182KB) ( 1182 )     
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    The immunomodulatory effects of the extract of housefly Musca domestica larvae on irradiated Kunming mice were studied with such indices as the viscera indices, the activity of NK cell, the proliferation of T and B lymphocyte, SOD activity and MDA content assayed. The results indicated that the treatment with the extract consecutively for 18 d increased the mice Spleen and Thymus indices, the activity of natural killer cell, and the proliferation of T, B lymphocyte. Serum analysis demonstrated that the extract significantly reduced the content of MDA and increased the activity of SOD. The results suggest that the extract of housefly larvae has positive immunomodulatory effects on mice irradiated or not
    Bioactivity of podophyllotoxin against Plutella xylostella and its effect on metabolic enzymes
    2007, 50(9):  895-899. 
    Abstract ( 3306 )   PDF (190KB) ( 1533 )     
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    In order to reveal the insecticidal activity and mechanism of podophyllotoxin, its bioactivity against Plutella xylostella larvae and its effect on their metabolic enzymes were assayed. The results showed that podophyllotoxin had high antifeedant and toxic activity, as well as obvious growth inhibitor activity against the moth. In 24-hour and 48-hour treatments, its AFC50 were 0.4110 mg/mL and 0.2617 mg/mL, respectively. Its LC50 of 72 h was 1.9061 mg/mL. When the tested insects were treated at the dosage of 0.125 mg/mL, their related growth rate reduced by 57.56% (24 h) and 41.18% (48 h) compared with the control; the pupation rate was only 43.33%, and the pupae did not eclose normally. At the same time, podophyllotoxin had different influence on metabolic enzymes. The activity of carboxyl esterases (CarE) in the tested larvae was first activated, and then inhibited. The activity of acid phosphatase (ACP) was first inhibited, and then activated. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) was inhibited obviously, and the inhibition became more intensive as the exposure time prolonged. Both glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) and cytochrome P450 were first induced, and then inhibited.
    Inhibitory effects of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene-aniline on phenoloxidase from Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)
    2007, 50(9):  900-906. 
    Abstract ( 3172 )   PDF (676KB) ( 1369 )     
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    To screen the obvious inhibitors of phenoloxidase (PO) from Pieris rapae (L.) and search after a theoretic foundation for developing the insecticide with novel modes of action, the inhibitory effects of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene-aniline as an inhibitor on PO from P. rapae, which had been partially purified, was studied by using microtitration assay. The results showed that the tested compound could inhibit PO activity obviously and the inhibitor concentration leading to 50% activity loss (IC50) was estimated to be 0.116 mmol/L. The inhibitor was found to be a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor, and the Ki value was determined to be 1.96 mmol/L for the compound. Although the compound could affect PO directly, it did not chelate copper of PO active center.
    Expression of exogenous gene and correlation analysis of characters of transgenic triploid of Chinese white poplar carrying two insect resistance genes
    2007, 50(9):  907-913. 
    Abstract ( 3377 )   PDF (484KB) ( 1330 )     
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    Explants of the triploid of Chinese white poplar were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 carrying the expression vector pBtiA containing two insect-resistant genes (Bt Cry1Ac gene and API gene). The expression of exogenous gene of transgenic subclones was analyzed by ELISA detection, Western blotting and laboratory bioassay with Clostera anachoreta Fabricius and Lymantria dispar L. The relationship among the characters of expression of exogenous gene was analyzed. The results showed that on average 41% of 28 transgenic subclones had a high insect resistance (larval mortality more than 80%) against C. anachoreta, 35% of them had middle insect resistance (larval mortality 40%-80%) and 24% of them had a lower insect resistance (larval mortality lower than 40%). Also 70% of the transgenic subclones had a high insect resistance against L. dispar. Transgenic plant could obviously inhibit the growth and development of the larva, and the inhibition effect of the subclones was different. The expression of exogenous genes in transgenic plant was stable. Correlation among larval mortalities of the transgenic subclones was significant in the two years tested. The transgenic plant showed insect resistance against C. anachoreta and L. dispar, and the resulted larval mortalities in the two insects were significantly correlated. ELISA detection indicated that the expression level of Bt toxoprotein in different subclones was varied in 0.0011%-0.0161%. The obvious correlation between insect mortality and Bt toxoprotein content was proved. This suggested that Bt Cry1Ac gene plays an important role in insect resistance. The transgenic plant also showed some resistance against kanamycin. But the correlation between the resistances against insect and that against kanamycin was not significant. This suggested that selection only with kanamycin could not reflect the plant insect resistance exactly.
    Key words: Triploid Chinese white poplar; transgenic plant; exogenous gene; insect resistance
    Oviposition preference of Encarsia bimaculata and Eretmocerus sp. nr. furuhashii (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), two parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) (In English)
    2007, 50(9):  914-919. 
    Abstract ( 3305 )   PDF (801KB) ( 2362 )     
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    Encarsia bimaculata and Eretmocerus sp. nr. furuhashii are two dominant species of parasitoid parasitizing Bemisia tabaci in South China. Oviposition preference of the two species was studied in the laboratory. The results indicated that both the two species of wasps could parasitize all nymphal stages of B. tabaci. When given a single instar nymphs of B. tabaci, E. bimaculata lay more eggs on the 3rd and 4th instar nymphs than on the 1st and 2nd instars, while Er. sp. nr. furuhashii lay more eggs on the 3rd and 2nd instars than on the 1st and 4th instars. When given all four B. tabaci instars simultaneously, E. bimaculata decreased the parasitization on the 1st and 2nd instar nymphs but increased the parasitization on the 3rd and 4th instar immatures; whereas Er. sp. nr. furuhashii increased its parasitization on the 2nd and 3rd instars but reduced oviposition on the 1st and 4th instars. Host plants showed no influence on the oviposition trends of the two wasps. The results suggested that the 3rd and 4th instar nymphs of B. tabaci were the most suitable hosts for E. bimaculata while the 2nd and 3rd instars were the more suitable for Er. sp. nr. furuhashii.
    Parasitism and reproductive biology of Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
    2007, 50(9):  920-926. 
    Abstract ( 3397 )   PDF (982KB) ( 1238 )     
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    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important natural enemy parasitizing larvae of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (=A. marcopoli Obenberger) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in Tianjin, China. The survival time of S. agrili under different nutrimental conditions, egg productions of the parasitic wasp at different periods, influence of host size on the development of wasp offspring, and utilization of host beneath the bark of different thickness, were investigated in fields, combining with observations in the laboratory. The results showed that the survival days of the parasitoid differ significantly under different nutritional conditions. Wasps can live pronouncedly longer after feeding 20% honey dilution with the maximal survival time of 3 months, and under the same conditions females usually can survive a little longer than males. When supplied with nutrition, the maximum period for oviposition of the braconid is up to 8 weeks with the peak around the 2nd week. During the whole oviposition period, the mean egg production of 8-12 eggs per female per week is almost constantly maintained without high fluctuation. The newly hatched larvae of S. agrili may produce venoms and attack host initiatively, so help to improve the survival opportunities of parasitoid progeny. The number of successfully developed parasitoid offspring from host enhances with the increase of host larval weight, which indicates that the host nutrition capacity affects the development and survival of wasp progeny. S. agrili can utilize those hosts at right ages beneath the bark of 1-6.5 mm in thickness. Approximately 92% EAB larvae parasitized by Spathius are distributed at 1-4 mm thickness of the bark with the peak at 3 mm. Relationship between the number of wasps and bark thickness can be simulated with a quadratic parabola roughly, and the theoretical maximum number of the parasitoid would be expected at 3.97 mm thickness of the bark.
    Bionomics and behavior of the wolf spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae)
    2007, 50(9):  927-932. 
    Abstract ( 3774 )   PDF (186KB) ( 1704 )     
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    Bionomics and behavior of the wolf spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata were studied through field and laboratory observation. In the experiment, as expected, the spider overwintered with spiderlings, subadults and adults, and their distribution pattern belongs to aggregation. It had 2-3 generations each year in the Northwestern Hunan province. The duration of the 3rd generation was the longest, and that of the 2nd generation was the shortest. The spiders began to move into the rice field from the farmland in the last ten-day of April. There were three oviposition peaks in the rice field. Usually, the wolf spider is a wanderer and it can also step or jump on the crop, land on the ground and water surface, and even move under water when frightened. Female and male mated several times one year, and one female could lay 5 egg-sacs at the most, and one egg-sac had 156 eggs on average in the experimental population. Females usually had a strong ability to protect their egg-sacs by carrying them in front of thorax when encountering an attacker. As expected, the hatched spiderlings made their way safely to the mother's back in aggregation mode. Three to five days later, they began to leave their mother and dispersed. The peak of dispersion occurred after six to seven days, and they had the capability to attack prey. The spiderling stage was 47-158 d. The adult period was 121-236 d. But the average survival duration of adult female was 21-62 d longer than that of adult male. The sex ratios of female to male were less than one in all generations except the second one. The courtship and mating behaviors of the adult spiders and characteristics of the spiderlings and sub-adult spiders were described in detail in this paper. Its starvation tolerance was stronger than its drought tolerance in the laboratory.
    A taxonomic study on the genus Phebellia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Tachinidae) from China
    2007, 50(9):  933-940. 
    Abstract ( 3003 )   PDF (927KB) ( 1320 )     
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    Nine species of the genus Phebellia  Robineau-Desvoidy including four new species are found in China: Ph. agnatella Mesnil, Ph. aurifrons sp. nov., Ph. carceliaeformis (Villeneuve), Ph. clavellariae (Brauer & Bergenstamm), Ph. fulvipollinis sp. nov., Phebellia glauca (Meigen), Ph. Glaucoides Herting, Ph. latisurstyla sp. nov. and Ph. setocoxa sp. nov. Among them, Ph. clavellariae (Brauer & Bergenstamm), Ph. glauca (Meigen) and Ph. glaucoides Herting are recorded from China for the first time. New species are described and illustrated. A key for the known species of Phebellia Robineau- Desvoidy from China is provided.
    Advances in systematics of ticks
    2007, 50(9):  941-949. 
    Abstract ( 3641 )   PDF (575KB) ( 2794 )     
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    In recent years, there has been much progress in our understanding of the cataloguing and classification, and the phylogeny and evolution of ticks. Alternations at the generic level in soft ticks (Argasidae) were introduced. One s
    ubfamily, the Hyalomminae, had been combined with Rhipicephalinae, and the Bothriocrotoninae n. subfamily had been created recently in hard ticks (Ixodidae). The Bothriocroton n. genus was created to house an earlydiverging lineage ofendemic Australian ticks that used to be in the genus Aponomma (ticks of reptiles), and the Cornupalpatum n. genus was created for a fossil species, Cornupalpatum burmanicum Poinar & Brown, 2003.The genus Boophilus became a subgenus of the genus Rhipicephalus, and the genus Anocentor was sunk into the genus Dermacentor. The genus Aponommain part became a synonym of Bothriocroton and in part a synonym of Amblyomma. Thus, the name of Anocentor and Aponomma is no longer a valid genus name, respectively. The numbers of tick species are recalculated according to the nomenclature revised. In total, there are 3 families 18 genera and 897 species of ticks in the world, while the Chinese tick fauna consists of 119 speciesin 2 families 10 genera. We also introduced the main hypotheses about the phylogeny of ticks and discussed some questions in it. The effective understanding of the tick phylogeny relies on the totalevidence approach combining the morphological characters and molecular data, and the references that concern the relationships between ticks and different hosts, zoogeography, palaeontology and comparative parasitology.
    Research advances on QTL of honey bees in the post-genomic era
    LUO A-Rong, ZHANG Yan-Zhou, DING Liang, ZHU Chao-Dong
    2007, 50(9):  950-956. 
    Abstract ( 3442 )   PDF (210KB) ( 1727 )     
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    The western honey bee (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera:  Apidae) has been genome-wide sequenced following Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera:  Drosophilidae), Anopheles gambiae (Diptera:  Culicidae) and Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Therefore, the research on the honey bee has entered into a post genomic era. As a eusocial insect, many traits of honey bees, which are closely related to their social life style, are of quantitative traits. The QTL mapping has been extensively applied for the research on these features. Herein, we discuss the current situation of the research on foraging behavior, defensive behavior, body size, reversal learning and so on of honey bees by the QTL mapping approach. Besides, we summarize the latest progresses of the QTL mapping on honey bees in the post-genomic era.
    Tissue distribution and content of Cry1Ab insecticidal protein in the Bacillus thuringiensis resistant and susceptible Asian corn borer larvae fed on Bt-transgenic corn
    2007, 50(9):  957-961. 
    Abstract ( 3442 )   PDF (157KB) ( 1512 )     
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    The distribution and content of Cry1Ab insecticidal protein in different tissues of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), when the 3rd instar larvae of Cry1Ab protein resistant and susceptible colonies fed on whorl leaves of Bt-transgenic corn expressing Cry1Ab protein for 3 days were determined and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay  (ELISA). The distributions of Cry1Ab in different tissuesin the resistant and susceptible larvae were similar, mainly in the midgut tissue and haemolymph. The Cry1Ab contents in the midgut tissues of the resistant larvae with and without contents inside their midguts were 277.2 ng/g and 52.7 ng/g, respectively, significantly higher than those of the susceptible larvae, which were 104.9 ng/g and 40.1 ng/g, respectively. The Cry1Ab contents in the haemolymph of the resistant and susceptible larvae were 93.7 ng/g and 69.5 ng/g, respectively. The Cry1Ab protein in the silk gland and Malpighian tubules in the resistant and susceptible larvae could be detected, but the concentration was quite low. No Cry1Ab protein was detected in the fat body and reproductive organs, pupae, adults and eggs by ELISA method both in the resistant and susceptible larvae fed on the Bt corn. The results suggested that the Cry1Ab protein from larvae feeding on Bt corn could not be biotransferred to the subsequent pupae, adults and eggs.
    Bio-efficacy of Beauveria bassiana against tea looper caterpillar, Buzura suppressaria Guen. (Lepidopera: Geometridae) (In English)
    2007, 50(9):  962-966. 
    Abstract ( 4667 )   PDF (161KB) ( 3220 )     
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    Bio-efficacy of Beauvaria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus, was evaluated against tea looper caterpillar, Buzura (=Biston) suppressaria Guen. (Geometridae:  Lepidoptera) at Kamalpur and Hunterpara Tea gardens, West Bengal, India, during May-June, 2005 & 2006. Methomyl 40% SP and cypermethrin 25% EC, the planters' commonly used chemical pesticides were taken as standard checks. B. bassiana  was used at 1.50 g, 2.00 g and 2.5 g/lit. of water while methomyl and cypermethrin were used at 0.75 mL, 1.00 mL and 1.50 mL and 0.50 mL, 1.00 mL and 1.50 mL/lit. of water, respectively. There was 88.00% reduction in the population build up of looper caterpillar at Kamalpur Tea Garden and 84.00%  at Hunterpara Tea Garden at 3 days after spraying with 2.5 g B. bassiana/lit. of water. The dead caterpillars turned black and hanged under the leaves. However, the biocidal activity of B. bassiana was found to be on par with the highest dose of methomyl and cypermethrin.
    Insecticidal efficacy of microwave treatment against Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its effects on the germination rate of adzuki beans
    2007, 50(9):  967-974. 
    Abstract ( 3571 )   PDF (783KB) ( 1586 )     
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    The efficiency of microwave treatment to kill Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) weevils was assessed. The bare adults of the weevil, adults mixed with adzuk beans, larvae living in mung beans and eggs on mung beans were treated with different microwave power and exposure time, and its effects on the adult oviposition, larva emergence and egg hatching of the weevil and the germination rate of adzuki beans were observed. The results showed that when the bare adults were treated with microwave, the adult mortalities increased with the exposure time and microwave power, and more than half of adults were killed after being treated with midhigh power for at least 60 s or high power for at least 50 s, with a mortality of 51.21%-99.92%. When the adults mixed with the adzuki beans were treated, the varying tendency of adult mortalities under different treatments of microwave power and exposure time was similar to that of the bare adults, but the mortalities of adults mixed with adzuki beans were obviously higher than those of the bare adults at the same treatment conditions, and 55.75%-100% of adults were killed under the following treatments:  low to mid power for at least for 60 s, defrost power for at least 50 s or mid to high power for at least 40 s. All adults were killed when treated with mid power for 70 s or mid-high power for at least 60 s. Microwave treatment had aftereffects on C. chinensis, higher adult mortalities were found in the treatments than in the control even if the adults did not die immediately after being treated. The adult corrected mortalities on the 3rd day after being treated reached 87.74%. Microwave also decreased the adult oviposition, larva emergence, egg hatching and germination of adzuki beans. The susceptibility of adult, egg and larva living in mung beans to microwave was from low to high. As high as 51.67%-99.79% of adzuki beans failed to germinate under the following treatments: mid power for 60 s, defrost power for 50 s, mid power for 40 s, mid-high or high power for 30 s. It was so concluded that microwave treatment had prominently lethal effects on C. chinensis.When using microwave to eliminate pests from agricultural products, however, many factors, such as microwave machine, treating power and time, usage and water content of agricultural products and so on, should be considered and optimizing experiments should be performed to achieve the best results.