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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 November 2007, Volume 50 Issue 11
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    Changes in expression level of heat shock protein 70 gene in Bemisia tabaci B-biotype (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) under high temperature stress.
    2007, 50(11):  1087-1091. 
    Abstract ( 2925 )   PDF (289KB) ( 1580 )     
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    The plasmid with hsp70 cDNA of Bemisia tabaci B-biotype was used as a template. Based on the GenBank sequence data, one TaqMan-MGB probe and the corresponding primers were designed to construct a standard for real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR to detect the expression of hsp70 in B. tabaci B-biotype, with which the changes in expression level of hsp70 from adults of B. tabaci B-biotype under different high temperature stress from 37℃ to 45℃ were detected. The results showed that mild high temperature could induce hsp70 expression in B. tabaci B-biotype adults. Within the range of 37℃ to 41℃, the hsp70 expression level of B. tabaci B-biotype adults increased from 8.78×105±6.41×104 copies to 1.99×107±1.45×105 copies; However, when the temperature increased to 43℃ and 45℃, the hsp70 expression level decreased very quickly. The hsp70 expression level of B. tabaci B-biotype adults changed in response to the diurnal temperature change. When air temperature increased from 34℃ to 41℃ in the morning, the hsp70 expression level increased dramatically from 1.16×105±1.48×104 copies to 6.29×106±1.80×105 copies; however, the hsp70 expression level decreased to 2.32×105±7.69×103 copies when air temperature decreased to 33℃ at nightfall. It was so inferred that hsp70 in B. tabaci B-biotype may play an important role in high temperature tolerance.
    Cloning and expression of nanos, a gene related to germ stem cell and its expression pattern in embryo development in silkworm.
    2007, 50(11):  1092-1098. 
    Abstract ( 3084 )   PDF (728KB) ( 1415 )     
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    【Objective】 To explore the expression pattern of nanos in Bombyx mori embryo and make preparations for the further study on this genes function in silkworm embryo development. 【Methods】The primers were designed according to the cDNA sequence (GenBank accession no: EF647589) of B. mori nanos gene submitted to GenBank database by our laboratory, and used to amplify a fragment of 684 bp. Subsequently, the fragment was cloned and expressed in E. coli (BL21). The fusion protein was purified by using the affinity chromatography and the purified protein was then used to immunize the New Zealand white rabbit to get the antiserum. The Western blot method was used to explore the expression pattern of nanos in early embryo of B. mori. The expression pattern of nanos through the whole developmental stage of B. mori embryo was studied by real-time PCR. 【Results】 One fragment encoding nanos with 684 bp in length was cloned and expressed, and the fusion protein with the molecular weight about 33 kD was obtained. The Western blot using the antiserum prepared was performed on the proteins from B. mori early embryo, and showed that nanos protein was expressed almost constantly. The real-time PCR analysis on B. mori embryos at different developmental stages showed that the expression level of nanos peaked in newly laid eggs and started to drop dramatically from the second day, since which almost no change was detected till the tenth day after eggs were laid. 【Conclusions】 The gene cloned in this study was a nanos homolog in B. mori. The fact that its expression pattern in embryo development differs greatly from that of its counterpart in honeybee reflects the diversity of mechanisms for the formation of germ cells in insects.
    Spectral sensitivity of the compound eye in the lacewing Chrysopa sinica Tjedar
    2007, 50(11):  1099-1104. 
    Abstract ( 3734 )   PDF (223KB) ( 1408 )     
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     Spectral responses of the compound eye in the lacewing, Chrysopa sinica during dark adaptation were investigated by using the ERG’s methods. The results showed that monochromatic light stimuli across the spectrum ranging from 340 nm to 605 nm induced ERG’s reaction of different amplitudes. There were three peaks in their spectral sensitivity curves. The major one appeared at 562 nm, the second 524 nm and the third 460 nm. In a certain intensity range of monochromatic and white light stimuli, the stronger the luminance, the higher the ERG’s value of the lacewing. Length of the adapted-time could influence ERG’s value, which reached balance at 100 min of dark-adapted time. There were four parts in the typical ERG of compound eyes of the lacewing, i.e.,  a positive on-transient, potential of positive phase, a negative sustained potential and  a negative off-transient, respectively; the size and shape of each part could be affected by wavelength, light-intensity and duration of the light stimuli.
    Comparison of Rhopalosiphum padi feeding behavior on seedlings of three wheat varieties
    2007, 50(11):  1105-1110. 
    Abstract ( 3570 )   PDF (182KB) ( 1642 )     
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    To elucidate aphid resistance mechanisms in three wheat cultivars Ww2730, Xiaoyan22 and Batis, Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) feeding behavior was examined using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. The results showed that the initial probing of R. padi on Xiaoyan22 occurred the latest and probing duration was also the shortest among the three cultivars examined. Highest frequency and longest duration of intercellular piercing (F waveform) of R. padi feeding was recorded on Ww2730 R. padi spent significantly more time feeding on mesophyll tissue to ingest actively (G waveform) on the both Ww2730 and Xiaoyan22 when compared with Batis. R. padi ingested from phloem of Batis with much more watery salivation and less excretion (E1 waveform), and ingested passively (E2 waveform) for the longest duration among all three cultivars examined. In contrast, before initiating ingestion on Xiaoyan22, aphids probed, withdrew uninterruptedly and with extended watery salivation (E1 waveform), the duration of passive ingestion (E2 wave) was also the shortest, although their stylets reached to phloem the earliest. We concluded that Ww2730 and Xiaoyan 22 were resistant to R. padifeeding, while Batis was susceptible to R. padi feeding.  It was inferred that physical and biochemical factors in plant tissues (e.g., epidermis, mesophyll and phloem) prevented R.padi from feeding on Xiaoyan22, mechanical restriction between the cells restricted R. padi  to feed on Ww2730, while Batis is a susceptible variety to R. padi.
    Site directed mutagenesis of the zinc- binding domain of Trichoplusia ni granulovirus enhancin
    2007, 50(11):  1111-1115. 
    Abstract ( 2949 )   PDF (522KB) ( 1388 )     
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    Trichoplusia ni granulovirus (TnGV) enhancin can enhance the infectivity of virus in several insect hosts. It has a conserved zinc-binding domain commonly found in metalloproteases, HELGH, which is also present in enhancin proteins from other baculoviruses. In the current work, each of the five amino acids in the domain was mutated to be two different amino acids, and the total 10 mutant enhancin genes were used to construct recombinant AcMNPV. The expression of enhancin proteins was observed in virus-infected cells. Peritrophic membrane (PM) assay indicated all but one mutant lost the ability to degrade the insect intestinal mucin in PM. The only exception was the mutant in which glycine in position 4 was mutated to alanine. The results showed that the zinc-binding domain in enhancin was essential for the activity of the protein, and also suggest that baculovirus enhancin is a metalloprotease.
    Selection, risk assessment and cross-resistance of resistance to tebufenozide in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    2007, 50(11):  1116-1121. 
    Abstract ( 3455 )   PDF (327KB) ( 1378 )     
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    Tebufenozide, the first commercial nonsteroidal ecdysteroid agonist, is used as a key insecticide to control the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) at present. To evaluate the risk of resistance, a field population of the beet armyworm from Shenzhen, Guangdong province was used to select for resistance to tebufenozide by dietary exposure in the laboratory. After selection with tebufenozide 62 times during 75 generations, a resistant strain was achieved with resistance ratio of 39.2 to tebufenozide compared with the original reference strain (141.3 compared with a susceptible laboratory strain). Estimation of realized heritability (h2) of resistance in different selection stages was based on the method described by Tabashnik & McGaughey. The results showed that theh2 to tebufenozide in the early, middle and latter selection stages was 0.1075 (F0-F25), 0.2780 (F26-F50) and 0.0538(F51-F75), respectively. The h2 for the entire selection experiment was 0.1556. The susceptibility to tebufenozide increased 3 times when the culture was kept for 21 generations without exposure to the chemical pressure after 43 rounds of selection. This suggested that the beet armyworm has the capability of developing resistance to tubufenozide, and it is difficult for the beet armyworm to recover the sensitivity to tebufenozide during a short period. Bioassay revealed that this resistant strain had high cross-resistance to methoxyfenozide (RR=71.4), moderate cross-resistance to abamectin (13.1), low cross-resistance to emamectin benzoate (7.0), indoxacarb (8.4) and JS118 (4.7), and a little cross-resistance to chlorfenapy (1.9). The results of resistance risk assessment suggest when tebufenozie is applied by interruption and/or alternation with other insecticides possessing a different mode of action, the resistance development rate in the beet armyworm would be delayed. However, cross-resistance between tebufenozide and other insecticides except chlorfenapy indicates that a resistance management strategy for the beet armyworm involving the rotation of these new insecticides is not likely to be effective.
    Host selection and location behavior of Aprostocetus prolixus LaSalle et Huang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an egg parasitoid of Apriona germari (Hope) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
    LI Ji-Quan, YANG Yuan, WANG Shu-Xiang, FENG Hui-Cang, HUANG Da-Zhuang, JIN You-Ju
    2007, 50(11):  1122-1128. 
    Abstract ( 3608 )   PDF (376KB) ( 1377 )     
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    In this paper, the host selection and location behavior of Aprostocetus prolixus lasalle et Huang was investigated systemically. Many studies showed that volatiles of host plant-insect complex could attract the parasitoid. In order to determine the source of the attractive volatiles within the host plant-insect complex, we examined separately the volatiles that Morus alba twigs with different treatments (healthy twigs, mechanically damaged twigs, system twigs, and twigs infested either by feeding or by oviposition of Apriona germari), faeces of A. germari, and both sexes of the host insect A. germari. The results revealed that the twigs in all treatments attracted the wasp significantly. In addition, the volatiles from egg-laid twigs were the most attractive compared with those from other differently treated twigs. Odours from faeces of host insect elicited a positive response of A. prolixus, but volatiles neither from male nor from female host insect acted as attractants. The effect of A. germari walking traces on microhabitat acceptance behavior of the wasp was not found in open arena assays, whereas the kairomones from feaces of A. germari were demonstrated to be important in the process of microhabitat acceptance for parasitoids by Petri dish bioassays. In choice tests, A. prolixus preferred egg-deposited M. alba twig to healthy or feeding-damaged twig, but the significant differences in the choice of host units among different host plants were not detected. There were infochemicals involved in host recognition by the egg parasitiod on the surface of host-unit.
    Host species, instar and position preference of a tachinid parasitoid, Nemorilla maculosa (Diptera: Tachinidae)
    2007, 50(11):  1129-1134. 
    Abstract ( 3262 )   PDF (199KB) ( 1351 )     
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    The tachinid fly, Nemorilla maculosa Meigen (Diptera: Tachinidae) is an important parasitoid of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in mainland China. Females of N. maculosa lay heavy-shelled macrotype eggs on the last-stadium host larvae of L. sticticalis and other lepidopterous larvae. Little has been studied and understood so far in the host species and instar preference, and parasitic position of N. maculosa. Studies were therefore designed to investigate and understand the host preference of this parasitoid under laboratory conditions (22℃, L16∶D8). The results indicated that N. maculosa could parasitize the beet webworm L. sticticalis, the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae), and the oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) when the final instar of the three host larvae were presented simultaneously. However, the parasitism rate for L. sticticalis was significantly higher than that for the beet armyworm, which in turn was significantly higher than that for the oriental armyworm. Besides, the number of tachinid eggs per host larva received also followed the trend of parasitism rate in these three species, indicating that N. maculosa was more likely to select L. sticticalis larvae as its host. The parasitoid mainly selected the last instar larvae as its host when 3rd, 4th, and 5th instar larvae of L. sticticalis were mixed together. The parasitism rates for these three instars of larvae were increased as the larval instar increased. The tachinid eggs were mainly located on the thorax (66.4%), followed by on the head (23.4%) and the abdomen (10.9%) of the host larvae. The number of tachinid eggs on the thorax was significantly greater than that on the head and abdomen of the host larvae, while the egg numbers between the head and abdomen were insignificantly different. Mechanisms underlying the host instar, position and species preference of N. maculosa were finally discussed.
    The development and fecundity of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acariformes: Tetranychidae) on four different plants and their relationship with the chemical components of plant leaves
    2007, 50(11):  1135-1139. 
    Abstract ( 3290 )   PDF (168KB) ( 1946 )     
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    Effects of Malus pumila Mill., Sambucus williamsii Hance, Melia azedarach L. and Rhus typhina L. on the development and fecundity of Tetranychus urticae Koch were investigated by means of leaf disk rearing method. Kjeldahl method, Soxhlet extraction method, Anthrone colorimetry, and Folin-Denis colorimetry were also applied to measure the contents of nitrogen, crude fat, soluble sugar and tannin, respectively. The results showed that M. pumila and S. williamsii with high content of nitrogen (2.98% and 4.00%, respectively) and soluble sugar (19.92% and 12.81%, respectively) were suitable for the development and fecundity of T. urticae. R. typhina with the lowest content of nitrogen and soluble sugar and the highest content of tannin (11.45%), however, was baneful to T. urticae. Therefore it can be concluded that tannin, as the secondary compound of plants, may play important role in resistance of plants to mites.
    Numerical classification of communities of sucking lice and their coevolutionary relationship with small mammal hosts in Yunnan, China
    2007, 50(11):  1140-1145. 
    Abstract ( 3075 )   PDF (195KB) ( 1251 )     
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    The aim was to study the coevolutionary relationship of sucking lice and their small mammal hosts by numerical taxonomy. Based on hierarchical clustering analysis on SPSS 12.0, the numerical taxonomy of 16 important communities of sucking lice was carried on. Total 54 variables were measured for the 16 communities. Based on these data, the relative dominant rate (Dr), louse infection rate (RL), louse index (IL), total louse infection rate (RLT), total louse index (ILT) of dominant species of sucking lice and the average index of community structure ( ′, , , ) of every sucking lice community were calculated. The 16 communities of sucking lice were divided into 8 groups in the dendrogram of hierarchical clustering analysis. The sucking louse communities on the same genus of small mammal hosts showed a high similarity and were clustered into the same group. The clustering tendency was concordant with the taxonomic classification of the corresponding small mammal hosts on which the sucking lice exist. When the small mammal hosts were very close in the zoological taxonomy, the communities of sucking lice on their body surface tend to be similar. The results indicated that there would be a synchronized evolutionary relationship between sucking lice and their small mammal hosts. A stable parasitism of sucking lice has been established on the body surface of small mammals. The results suggested that a coevolutionary relationship may link sucking lice and their small hosts together.
    Acrididae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) of Malaysia with the description of a new species
    2007, 50(11):  1146-1161. 
    Abstract ( 3750 )   PDF (710KB) ( 2424 )     
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    This paper deals with the identification of 30 species of Acrididae under 22 genera belonging to 6 subfamilies from Malaysia. Vitalisia bangiensus sp. nov. has been described in detail. The male of Sedulia perakensis Willemse, while females of Eucoptacra minima Ramme and Pagdenia rufipes Miller have been recorded and described for the first time. It is also found that Meltripata bolivari Willemse and Pagdenia rufipes Miller live in two forms, i.e. fully winged and reduced winged form. In addition, keys for the local genera and species have also been constructed.
    Research advances in benzoxazinoids.
    2007, 50(11):  1162-1172. 
    Abstract ( 4171 )   PDF (331KB) ( 2190 )     
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    Benzoxazinoids which exist in most Gramineae plants, with 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) as the representative, show broad-spectrum of biological activities. Researches on benzoxazinoids were initialized in 1950-1960's. Recently their biological functions have been much further elucidated due to application of molecular biology technique and the theoretical development of plant induced resistance. The present paper reviews the most recent advances in researches on benzoxazinoids. Benzoxazinoids are secondary metabolites branching out from the tryptophan synthesis pathway. The concentrations of benzoxazinoids vary with plant tissues and ages; and benzoxazinoid accumulation and hydrolyzation of benzoxazinoid glucosides can be induced by feeding of herbivores and infection of pathogens. Benzoxazinoids have many bioactivities, such as pest resistance, phytopoison, pathogen resistance, allopathic effects, etc.
    Melanism in insects: a review
    2007, 50(11):  1173-1180. 
    Abstract ( 4400 )   PDF (220KB) ( 2423 )     
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    Insect melanism is one of the common polymorphism in nature, and has become classical study system for species evolution and adaptability. The causes, controls and biology of insect melanism are significantly different among different insects. Integrating the main research progress in alien melanic insects and the melanic oriental armyworm, this paper reviewed the causes, classifications, genetic controls, biological variations and molecular basis of melanism in insects. Finally, the future hot topics in this research field were suggested.
    Effects of methidathion resistance obtaining on developmental duration and reproductive capacity of the predacious mite Amblyseius womersleyi Schicha (Acari: Phytoseiidae)
    2007, 50(11):  1181-1184. 
    Abstract ( 3589 )   PDF (151KB) ( 1242 )     
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    To explore the effects of acquisition of methidathion resistance on developmental duration and reproductive capacity, the developmental duration and reproductive capacity in the methidathion resistant strain (R-strain) and susceptible strain (S-strain) of the predacious mite Amblyseius womersleyi Schicha (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were studied at 25℃and 30℃in the laboratory. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in mating and oviposition behavior between R-strain and S-strain of A. womersleyi. The developmental duration, the oviposition period and peak, the number of eggs laid by one female in a day or during a generation, the egg hatching rate and the sexual ratio of R-strain were similar with these of S-strain. The results suggest that obtaining methidathion resistance has no obvious negative effects on the developmental duration and reproductive capacity of A. womersleyi.
    Staining and discrimination of Nosema bombycis spores with Calcofluor White M2R
    2007, 50(11):  1185-1186. 
    Abstract ( 3670 )   PDF (725KB) ( 1893 )     
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    The fluorescent dye Calcofluor White M2R was applied to stain and identify Nosema bombycis spores. The results showed that the spores were stained in green-blue fluorescence. With this method it is easy to distinguish microsporidian spores from virus, bacteria and fungus spores.
    Spatial distribution pattern and sampling of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera:Thripidae), on cucumber and green bean
    2007, 50(11):  1187-1193. 
    Abstract ( 3641 )   PDF (264KB) ( 1348 )     
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    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), has successfully settled down in parts of Beijing vegetable production areas and damaged a lot of vegetables. In order to understand the spatial distribution patter of this pest, its population aggregating indexes on cucumber and green bean were calculated based on the related index formulae, and Taylor and Iwao regression formulations. The results showed that the spatial distribution pattern of the western flower thrips belonged to aggregating distribution on cucumber and green bean. Differences in sampling time and population densities had no effect on the spatial distribution pattern of F. occidentalis. Analysis of population dynamics showed that adults and larvae of the thrips mostly were feeding on middle leaves of cucumber (the number of thrips on 4th to 17th leaf was higher than that on other leaves), and that thrips caused lighter damage to unfold leaves, the younger and the older leaves. Theoretical sampling within allowable error by α and β based on Iwao regression formulation was measured.
    Behavioral responses of Aphis gossypiiand Coccinella septempunctata to volatiles from Eupatorium adenophorum and an analysis of chemical components of the volatiles
    2007, 50(11):  1194-1199. 
    Abstract ( 3566 )   PDF (316KB) ( 1398 )     
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    The presence of Aphis gossypii on Eupatorium adenophorum may suggest a new way of controlling the invasive plant. In the laboratory we tested the behavioral responses of A.gossypii and Coccinella septempunctata to volatiles from E. adenophorum were tested with Y-olfactometer, and the chemical com ponents of these volatiles were analyzed with GC-MC. The results of A. gossypii bi-choice tests with Y-olfactometer showed that the choice of A. gossypii fed on E. adenophorum to E. adenophorum odor reached 62.5% when cotton existed, whereas the choice to cotton odor was 37.5%. The choice of A. gossypii fed on cotton to E. adenophorumodor reached 30% when cotton existed, whereas from the choice to cotton odor was 70%. The results of selective test of C. septempunctata from E. adenophorum infested by A. gossypii showed the choice to odor from E. adenophorum infested by A. gossypii was 29.2%, and the choice to cotton odor was 70.8%. The selection of C. septempunctata to aphid odor had no significant differences after both plants were removed. The selection of C. septempunctata to odor from aphids fed on E. adenophorum reached 46.7%, whereas the choice to odor from aphids fed on cotton was 53.3%. GC-MC analysis of the volatiles from E. adenophorum revealed that the main volatile compounds were α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, 2-carene, and α-phellandrene.