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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 July 2008, Volume 51 Issue 7
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    Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Gastrimargus marmoratus (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea)
    DANG Jiang-Peng
    2008, 51(7):  671-680. 
    Abstract ( 3779 )   PDF (995KB) ( 1701 )     
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    The complete sequence of Gastrimargus marmoratus (Thunberg) mitochondrial genome was determined using long PCR and conserved primers walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitochondrial genome of G. marmoratus (GenBank accession no. EU527334) is 15 904 bp in length with 76.5% A+T content. It contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and an A+T-rich region of 1 057 bp. All protein-coding genes of the G. marmoratus mitochondrial genome start with a typical ATN codon, except for CO and ND5 with TTG. The usual TAA and TAG termination codons were found for twelve protein-coding genes. However, the ND5 genes have an incomplete termination codon (T). With respect to the secondary structures of 22 tRNA genes, the absence of DHU arm of tRNASerAGNwas observed as in Locusta migratoria. tRNASer(UGYwith 9 bases in anticodon loop was found, compared with typical 7 bases in others. The predicted secondary structures of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA include 30 helices in 3 structural domains and 44 helices in 6 domains, respectively. The A+T content of the A+T-rich region is 76.5%, relatively higher than that of L. migratoria; three tandemly repeated DNA sequences were found in the A+T-rich region in G. marmoratus.
    Cloning, expression and sequence analysis of carboxylesterase gene from Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    ZHANG Xia
    2008, 51(7):  681-688. 
    Abstract ( 3489 )   PDF (1727KB) ( 1518 )     
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    Carboxylesterases are associated with insecticide-resistance and play an important role in the detoxification of many agrochemicals. Using the polyclonal antiserum against Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) invertebrate intestinal mucin (IIM), a carboxylesterase gene SeC1 was screened from the cDNA expression library of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) midgut. The full-length of SeC1 is 1 812 bp(GenBank accession no. EF580101), and the open reading frame encodes 535 amino acids. The SeC1 possesses a catalytic triad, consisting of a Ser, a His and a Glu residue (Ser186, His443 and Glu319), which is characterized by carboxylic esters (EC: 3.1.1.-). The SeC1 gene has been recombined into pQE30 vector. The spot blot analysis demonstrated that SeC1 protein was expressed at a low level after being induced by IPTG. The activity for Sec1 was 1.3 nmol/100 μL enzyme buffer with the α-NA as substrate.
    Cloning and spatio temporal expression of cDNA encoding pheromone binding protein ASP1 in Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    LI Hong-Liang
    2008, 51(7):  689-693. 
    Abstract ( 3357 )   PDF (308KB) ( 1270 )     
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    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) play an important role in recognition, transmission and processing of insect pheromones. In this study, a cDNA named Ac-ASP1 encoding a PBP was cloned (from the Chinese native honeybee, Apis cerana cerana. The predicted protein has six conservative cysteines in mature peptide, a typical symbol of odorant binding proteins (OBPs). The sequence had been submitted into GenBank and registered is the accession no. DQ449670. The profile of spatio-temporal expression of Ac-ASP1 was identified by real-time PCR. The results of absolute quantitation showed that Ac-ASP1 was expressed at a higher level in antenna (2.07×106 copy number/μg), but at a less level in other tissues including head, thorax, abdomen, wings and legs (10.2 copy number/μg); while the results of relative quantitation revealed that Ac-ASP1 was expressed in two high abundance periods: from larva to the 6th day of adult and around the 21st day of adult. These results may provide the reference to ascertain the function of Ac-ASP1 involved in signal recognition and transmission of queen pheromone.
    Comparison of activities of fusion antifreeze proteins from Microdera punctipennis dzhungarica (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
    LI Su-Li
    2008, 51(7):  694-699. 
    Abstract ( 3515 )   PDF (853KB) ( 1384 )     
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    In order to compare the activity differences between the prokaryotic expressed MBP-MpAFP5 and GST-MpAFP5, the two recombinant prokaryotic expression plasmids pGEX-4T-1-Mpafp5 and pMAL-p2x-Mpafp5 were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) to obtain two different fusion antifreeze proteins of Microdera punctipennis dzhungarica. The two fusion proteins were purified by affinity chromatograph. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that both of the fusion antifreeze proteins were highly expressed in soluble fractions. The thermal hysteresis activities (THA) of GST-MpAFP5 and MBP-MpAFP5 at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL were measured as 0.51℃ and 1.336℃, respectively. The ice crystal morphology of both proteins displayed pyramid shape. Cryoprotection to bacteria experiments showed that the two fusion proteins could protect bacteria survival at subzero 7℃ temperature. Comparatively, MBP-MpAFP5 had higher protective activities than GST-MpAFP5. These results provide basic data for application of the insect antifreeze proteins in the future.
    Primary culture and electrophysiological properties of brain neurons of adult Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    ZHOU Ting
    2008, 51(7):  700-706. 
    Abstract ( 3494 )   PDF (552KB) ( 1849 )     
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    To explore the neuronal mechanisms underlying pesticides intoxication in adult honeybees, the primary culture of brain neurons of adult honeybees and electrophysiological recordings are required. However, little is known of the electrophysiological properties and sodium currents or potassium currents in normal adult honeybee brain neurons. We first dissociated neurons from brains of adult Apis mellifera by gentle trituration after a 15-min incubation with papain. This preparation resulted in a large number of isolated viable neurons. Using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique, we investigated the neuronal responses of the isolated neurons to the current or voltage stimulation. Current-clamp data showed that the tested neurons showed no spontaneous discharges but were capable of firing a single action potential in response to depolarizing current injection. The mean current threshold for action potential was 60.8±6.3 pA and the mean voltage threshold −27.4±2.3 mV. Under voltage clamp, sodium currents were isolated by blockade of potassium channel and calcium channel. The sodium current was activated at command potentials more positive than −40 mV with a maximum around −10 mV and a halfmaximal voltage for inactivation of −58.4 mV. The neurons expressed at least two distinct K+ currents, a small transient current and a large sustained current (80% of total K+ current) with a half maximal voltage for activation of 3.86 mV. The large sustained potassium current showed little or no inactivation. The results suggest that the prominent sustained potassium current might account for the a single spiking in the recorded adult honeybee neurons. 
    Chronometrical morphology changes of larval spiracle at different developmental stages of Parasarcophaga crassipalpis (Macquart) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)
    WANG Ling
    2008, 51(7):  707-713. 
    Abstract ( 3580 )   PDF (616KB) ( 1097 )     
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    Larval spiracle morphology of Parasarcophaga crassipalpis (Macquart) was studied in detail under microscope, and the corresponding morphological indexes were collected and analyzed by digital image processing equipment. The results showed that structural traits of anterior and posterior spiracles regularly changed along with larval growth. When the 2nd and 3rd instars overlapped, special morphological features occurred. This stage could be an ideal age indicator to determine the decisive time for possible use in forensic entomology. Measurements of the ratio of length and width of anterior spiracle chamber and the average optical density of anterior and posterior spiracles were confirmed as larval age markers. This study further confirms the correlation between morphological indexes and postmortem interval as long as the investigator accounts for the development data of the species.
    Establishment of optimization of assaying activity of acetylcholinesterase from Odontotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Termitidae) and their sensitivity to insecticides
    TANG Fang
    2008, 51(7):  714-71. 
    Abstract ( 3983 )   PDF (173KB) ( 1411 )     
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    The optimal conditions for assaying the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) were determined by orthogonal experiment. The concentrations of acetylcholinesterase and substrate, pH and temperature of the reaction system, and reaction time were optimized. L25 (56) orthogonal matrix was adopted, without considering interaction. Through analyzing the data from orthogonal experiment with range analysis and variance analysis, we found that the optimal conditions were as enzyme concentration 12.5 g/L, substrate concentration 8 mmol/L, pH 8.0, reaction temperature 40, and reaction time 5 min. Furthermore, the inhibition of 6 insecticides to AChE from O. formosanus was determined.  The IC50 values of methomyl, phoxim, triazophos, profenofos, malathion and omethoate were 3.52×10-4, 1.86×10-3, 5.13×10-3, 9.55×10-4, 8.81×10-3 and 1.39×10-2 mol/L, respectively. The inhibition of AChE activity by six insecticides increased with the increasing of insecticide concentration from 3.3×10-7 to 5×10-3 mol/L.
    The migratory behaviour and population source of the first generation of the meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in 2007
    ZHANG Yun-Hui, CHEN Lin, CHENG Deng-Fa, JIANG Yu-Ying, LU Ying
    2008, 51(7):  720-727. 
    Abstract ( 3653 )   PDF (1206KB) ( 1327 )     
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    The meadow moth,Loxostege sticticalis L., is an important farming migratory pest in North China, and the understanding of the exact overwintering area and migratory path for the pest is essential for establishing a population forecasting system. In this study, we developed a long-term monitoring observation of the pest using a vertical-looking radar (VLR), checked up the ovarian develop ment and collected the number of meadow moths in light trap at different points during the peak migration period of meadow moth. We also analyzed the weather background during the major immigration period, especially, low altitude airflow and large-scale atomspheric circulation. Finally, we did numerical simulation on migration dynamics of meadow moth with Hysplit_4 (HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory). The results showed that meadow moths during June 7-9 showed a typical physiological characteristic of migrating insects and the moths usually took advantage of strong winds to fly and formed main migrating layers at 300-500 m above ground level (agl), mainly at 400 m (agl), and lasted 9 h in one night. Part of the meadow moth population in the northeast of China immigrated from Wumeng, Inner Mongolia, and part from the middle-east part of Mongolia and the border areas of China and Russia. It is so inferred that population intercourse of the meadow moth may exist between China and neighboring countries.
    A comparative study of the population fitness of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) on two tobacco species,Nicotiania tabacum and N. rustica
    FU Xiao-Wei
    2008, 51(7):  728-737. 
    Abstract ( 3459 )   PDF (327KB) ( 1254 )     
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    Effects of Nicotiania tabacum and N. rustica on the developmentfood utilization and population growth of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) under both experimental and natural conditions were studied comparatively. The results showed that(1) In laboratory condition with 26±1℃,relative humidity of 75%±5% and photoperiod of 16L8Dwhen reared on N. rusticathe development duration of  H. armigera larvae significantly prolonged while the survival rate of both 1st and 2nd instar larvae and the fecundity of female adults reduced notablythe net reproductive rate (R0=30.5374) and innate capacity of increase (rm=0.0951) decreased compared with those reared on N. tabacum.(2) There were no significant differences in the approximate digestibility (AD) and the relative growth rate (RGR) of the 6th instar larvae reared in the two tobacco species. Compared to the larvae feeding on N. tabacumboth the efficiency conversation of ingestion (ECI) and digestion (ECD) to N. rustica significantly decreased while the relative consumption rate (RCR) increased significantly. (3) The 2nd generation population of H. armigera in N. tabacum fields (I=1.9922>1) increased faster than that in N.rustica fields which were influenced mainly by tobacco and others"especially in early stage of larvae. The increase of the 3rd generation population slowed down in N. tabacum fields (I=1.5994>1)which declined in N. rustica fields (I=0.6434<1). The early stage larvae were mainly affected by tobacco resistance and rainfallswhile the late stage larvae were infected easily by pathogens. These results showed that N. rustica was less suitable to the reproduction and increase of H. armigera compared to N. tabacum.


    Bionomics and host competition of two parasitoids on Bemisia tabaci
    LI Yuan-Xi
    2008, 51(7):  738-744. 
    Abstract ( 3567 )   PDF (212KB) ( 1420 )     
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    The bionomics of two parasitoids Encarsia Formosa and En. sophia on Bemisia tabaci and host competition between the two parasitoids were investigated in the laboratory. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in length of hind leg tibia between two parasitoids. The ovipositor and egg size of En. sophiawere longer than those of En. formosa, and eggs ready to be laid by one-day old female wasp of En. Sophia was less than those of En. formosa. The time taken by En. Sophia in both host checking and ovipositing were significantly shorter than that of En. formosa, whereas the rounds turned during host checking by a wasp of En. Sophia were less than those by a wasp of En. formosa. The developmental time of En. Sophia egg was about 24 h, which was significantly shorter than that of En. Formosa egg. The pupal duration of En. Sophia was also significantly shorter than that of En. formosa. The developmental time from egg to adult for En. Sophia was about 72 h shorter than that for En. formosa. In 24 h, the total oviposition in combination treatment of one En. formosa and one En. Sophia was 14.0 eggs, which is more than that in combination treatment of two En. formosa (10.2 eggs) and significantly more than that in combination treatment of two En. Sophia female wasps (9.5 eggs). The mean number of eggs loaded in parasitized host in combination treatment of two wasp species (1.73 eggs) was significantly higher than

    that in combination treatment of females from one wasp species, which were 1.29 and 1.39 eggs for En. formosa and En. sophia, respectively. In combination treatment of two wasp species, the numbers of eggs laid in host parasitized by two wasp species were 1.21 and 1.43 for En. Formosa and En. sophia, respectively, and were significantly more than those in the hosts parasitized by only one wasp species, which were 1.06 and .19 for En. Formosa and En. sophia, respectively. The results suggest that female wasps of both En. Sophia and En. Formosa can recognize the existence of another species, and En. Sophia has higher competence than En. formosa.

    Structure of raptorial legs in Bittacus (Mecoptera:Bittacidae)
    TAN Jiang-Li,HUA Bao-Zhen
    2008, 51(7):  745-752. 
    Abstract ( 4131 )   PDF (1979KB) ( 1573 )     
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    The morphology,musculature,and ultrastructure of legs of Bittacus planus Cheng and B. implicates Huang et Hua adults were described and illustrated based on observations with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Adult hangingflies have three pairs of legs with similar structure,all being raptorial with grasping structure formed from the fourth and fifth tarsomeres,unique in Insecta. It has been found for the first time that the femoro-tibial extensor b is composed of an elongate thin tendon arising proximally from a small triangular femoral muscle. The tendon of pretarsal flexor is modified into a strong flexor muscle in a shuttle-shaped swollen area,bearing distally a process which is blocked by a Y-shaped pedestal in a notch. The relationships between the predating habits of adults and the structure of raptorial legs were analyzed,and the characteristics of the raptorial legs of hangingflies and mantids are tentatively compared.
    A review of the genera Phlossa Walker and Iragoides Hering in China (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae
    WU Chun-Sheng
    2008, 51(7):  753-760. 
    Abstract ( 3729 )   PDF (1517KB) ( 1624 )     
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    The genus Iragoides Hering has been considered as a junior synonym of Phlossa Walker. The both genera contain 12 species together. However, the type species of Phlossa does not accord with that of Iragoides in the male and female genitalia. Therefore, the genus name Iragoides Hering is available and restored here. In Iragoides, the juxta has minute spines in the posterior portion or a pair of membranous processes bearing hair at each side in the male genitalia, and the corpus bursae has two signa which usually are trigonal plates bearing minute spines in the female genitalia. In Phlossa, the juxta is typical, without any spines or processes in the male genitalia, and the corpus bursae has a crescent signum in the female genitalia. Four species of the genus Phlossa Walker and five species of the genus Iragoides Hering are recognized from China, including I. lineofusca, a new species described herein. Iragoides elongate Hering is reported for the first time in China. The photographs and the genital illustration of the examined species are given. Keys to the Chinese species of both two genera are provided. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Advances in the studies of insect olfactory receptors
    GONG Zhong-Jun
    2008, 51(7):  761-768. 
    Abstract ( 4509 )   PDF (229KB) ( 2345 )     
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    The olfaction has many important effects on insect behaviorincluding habitat choosingfood huntinggatheringtropismreproductionsignal communicationetc. In order to control the pest more efficientlyit is necessary to explore and understand the mechanism and signal transduction pathway of insect olfaction. Olfactory receptor (OR)as a kind of G protein-coupled receptorsis a key component of the olfactory system. In recent yearsmore attention is being paid toOR. In this mini-review articlewe summarized the process of insect olfactionthe structure and expression regulation of receptor genesthe molecular structurefunction and distribution of receptor proteinsand the study of some related ligands.
    Immunocytochemical localization of androgen receptor-like in the oogenesis of reproductives and workers of Reticulitermes aculabialis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
    DONG Dan
    2008, 51(7):  769-773. 
    Abstract ( 3529 )   PDF (1294KB) ( 1261 )     
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    In order to understand the role of androgen receptor-like (AR-like) during the oogenesis of termites,method of immunocytochemical localization was employed to investigate the location of AR-like at different stages of female reproductives and workers during the oogenesis of Reticulitermes aculabialis. The results indicated that the AR-like existed in all ovaries of the last instar nymphs,the swarming females and the workers. AR-like was located in the cytoplasm of oocytes at the differentiation stage and the growth stage,but it was located in the follicular cells at the yolk forming stage. In the ovary of the workers,AR-like was distributed in the cytoplasm of oocytes at the differentiation stage and the growth stage. Yolk forming stage did not exist in workers. The results suggest that AR-like plays an important role in oogenesis of termites: as the ovary development of workers is restrained the oogenesis of workers is similar to the level of last nymph,but the workers could turn into reproductives acording to the demand of the termite colony.
    Effects of alfalfa varieties on the survival rate and fecundity of Therioaphis maculata (Buckton) (Hemiptera: Aphidae)
    WANG Sen-Shan,XU Yong-Xia,CAO Zhi-Zhong,SHI Shan-Li,HE Chen-Gui
    2008, 51(7):  774-777. 
    Abstract ( 3439 )   PDF (133KB) ( 1170 )     
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    Effects of four alfalfa varieties on survival rate and fecundity of Therioaphis maculata (Buckton) were investigated at 25℃ in the laboratory. The results showed that the survival rates of the aphid in the 3-leaf,6-leaf and adult stages were the lowest in HA-3 (8.00%±1.15%, 21.27%±7.40%, and 17.07%±3.03%, respectively), and the highest in Hu (25.63%±3.68%, 42.27%±2.76%, and 55.10%±0.19%, respectively). The survival rate was lower in seedling stage than in adult stage. The level of alfalfa resistance was in order of HA-3>G3>JH>Hu using the innate capacity of increase (rm) and the nymph survival rate as the indices of alfalfa antibiosis to the aphid,and this is correspondent well with that in fields.
    Life history and relevant biological features of Andrena camellia Wu (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae)
    HUANG Dun-Yuan
    2008, 51(7):  778-783. 
    Abstract ( 4512 )   PDF (1081KB) ( 1391 )     
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    Andrena camellia Wu is one of the major insect pollinators of Camellia oleifera found in Jiangxi and Hunan, China. In 2006-2007, we surveyed morphological features of all stages except adult, life history, and behaviour of both larvae and adults in Yichun, Jiangxi. The results indicated that this species occurs one generation a year in Yichun. Adults start to emerge in around middle October. Males normally emerge 3 days earlier than females, and die after copulation with females several days later. The life of males spans around 18 days after evacuating nests, while that of females 38 days. Larvae last 24 days or so, with pupae 30 days. Females can copulate with males at the same day as they emerge. They select localities to build their nests nearby where they emerge. Both pollens and nectar are carried into cells in the nest to make ball-like food for their offspring,and one cell for one ball-like food, and one ball for one egg.