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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 August 2008, Volume 51 Issue 8
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Cloning and expression of a G protein alpha subunit gene BmGα73B from Bombyx mori.
    ZHANG Yu-Ping
    2008, 51(8):  785-791. 
    Abstract ( 3209 )   PDF (1100KB) ( 1319 )     
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    The heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins are vital molecules in eukaryotic cell signal transduction;they mediate extracellular signals to pass down to the downstream effectors. In order to investigate the physiological function and action mechanism of the silkworm G protein which takes part in multiple signal transduction pathways, we found a known G protein alpha subunit homolog in silkworm genome database by means of bioinformatics. A novel G protein alpha subunit from Bombyx mori was cloned by PCR and RACE using specific primers and named BmGα73B. The full length BmGα73B gene (GenBank accession no. EU914850) was 1 509 bp with a 1 158 bp ORF coding for 385 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis aided by Blast and DNAstar revealed that the BmGα73B protein contained all the well conserved domains and motifs that were critical sites for interaction with receptors and other binding effectors compared with the already known Gα sequences in other species. RT-PCR was conducted to investigate the BmGα73B expression in different tissues and at different developmental stages. The results indicated that BmGα73B was widely expressed in B. mori tissues, especially rich in the midgut; it was also obviously present in head, Malpighian tubule and other tissues. The stage specific expression patterns indicated that BmGα73Bwas mainly expressed in larvae, also existed in early pupae, but less or not expressed in later pupae and adults. The results suggest that BmGα73B may play crucial roles at the early developmental stage of the B. mori midgut, which could be a clue to further investigate the function of G proteins in silkworm development.
    cDNA library construction and analysis of some ESTs of Chrysoperla nipponensis (Okamoto) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
    NIE Rui-E
    2008, 51(8):  792-797. 
    Abstract ( 3721 )   PDF (638KB) ( 1005 )     
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    Based on the construction technology of non-normalized cDNA library, the cDNA library of Chrysoperla nipponensis (Okamoto) was constructed, which aimed to preserve the resources in the form of cDNA library, to help to modify its genes and to provide the molecular basis for the classification of Chrysoperla nipponensis. The library capacity was 1.0×106, the average size of insert cDNA was 512 bp, and the recombination frequency was 80.0. In total 323 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated successfully after sequencing, and 236 nonrepetitive sequences including 86 contigs and 150 singlets were obtained using cluster analysis with Phrap software. The 236 ESTs were analyzed with BlastN and BlastX of NCBI. The BlastN analysis showed that 180 (76.3%) from the 236 ESTs could not be compared, and the other 56 (23.7%) had a high homology with the available sequences from GenBank,of which one sequence was considered to be 16S rRNA gene. Based on the 16S rRNA sequences, phylogenetic tree was constructed by MEGA, and the result showed that the evolutionary relationship of Chrysoperla, Dichochrysa, Mallada and Chrysopa was relatively close, which coincides with the traditional classification. The BlastX analysis showed that among the 236 ESTs, 179 (83.5%) could be functionally annotated, and the other 39 (16.5%) had no functional information or a score less than 100. Finally, 236 ESTs were annotated by GO (gene ontology) database, and the results showed that 142 ESTs (59.7%) could be functionally annotated and expressed 40 products
    Activities of proteinase inhibitors in Larix gmelinii seedlings under the stresses of cutting needles and herbivore feeding
    WANG Qi
    2008, 51(8):  798-803. 
    Abstract ( 3523 )   PDF (703KB) ( 1064 )     
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    Plant proteinase inhibitors (PPIs) are important defensive substances. In order to understand the effects of damage degrees on the activities of PPIs, the activities of trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitors (CI) in Larix gmelinii seedling needles after being cut with scissors or fed by the larvae of Dendrolimus superans at three various degrees, respectively, were assayed with UV-spectrometry. The results showed that both TI and CI activities in the seedling needles increased significantly after the two treatments from 1 to 20 days, compared with the control. However, there was no significant relationship between PI activities and the damage degrees. TI activities induced by insect feeding were higher than those by needle cutting under the same injured degree whereas the differences were not significant. CI activities induced by larva feeding were all higher than those by needle cutting only on the 5th day no matter what damage degrees. Our research clearly demonstrated that making appropriate injury intentionally to mimic well the effects of herbivory feeding could in crease larch defence, which can be used as a new method to control the larch pests.
    Antioxidant effects of delipidized protein hydrolysate from Martianus dermestoides Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) beetles
    YAN Shan-Chun
    2008, 51(8):  804-809. 
    Abstract ( 3879 )   PDF (739KB) ( 1075 )     
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    The antioxidant effects of delipidized protein hydrolysate from  Martianus dermestoides Chevrolat beetles were studied. The delipidized proteins from the beetles were hydrolyzed by papain and then separated into three parts using two kinds of ultrafiltration membranes, which permit compounds with the molecular weights of 10 kDa and 6 kDa to pass through separately. The antioxidant effects of the three parts to free radicals O2-., DPPH·  and ·OH  were assayed by the methods of pyrogallol\|luminol, scavenging DPPH, Fenton and Oyaizu, respectively. The results showed that all the three parts of delipidized protein hydrolysates from the beetles had distinct scavenging effects, and the strongest effects were found in the hydrolysate with the molecular weight less than 6 kDa (P0.05). We so concluded that the delipidized protein hydrolysate from the beetle has good antioxidant effects.
    Morphological study of the reproductive system of Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes) (Acariformes: Pyroglyphidae)
    WU Gui-Hua
    2008, 51(8):  810-816. 
    Abstract ( 4150 )   PDF (3945KB) ( 1065 )     
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    Dermatophagoides farinae is one of the important species of medical mite. In this study, the reproductive system of both male and female of  D. farinae was investigated under both light and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the male genital system consists of testis, vasa deferentia, accessory gland, ejaculatory duct, penis and accessory copulatory organs. Testis is situated in the haemolymphatic cavity of the opisthosoma and unpaired, in which spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa are regularly distributed in sequence during spermatogenesis. The female genital system consists of bursa copulatrix, ductus bursae, receptaculum seminis, ductus receptaculi, ovaries, oviducts, uterus, ovipositor and oviporus. Among them, ovaries are composed of a large nutritive central cell surrounded by germ cells of different developmental stages.
    Homologous analysis of gene sequences in Spodoptera litura multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates
    LIU Yan-He
    2008, 51(8):  817-823. 
    Abstract ( 4024 )   PDF (956KB) ( 1001 )     
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    In order to provide the theory base for the utilizing of SpltMNPV isolates, the homologous analysis of gene sequences among Spodoptera litura multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltMNPV) isolates or between SpltMNPV and S. littoralis nucleopoly hedrovirus (SpliNPV) were studied. According to the complete genome sequence (AF527603) of SpltMNPV and the sequence (AF527603) of SpliNPV Not I-D fragment deposited in GenBank, five pairs of primers were designed and used. ORF39-ORF42 and ORF119-ORF124 of SpltMNPV three isolates, i.e., Fukuoka (Fu), Egypt (Eg) and Ogasawara (Og), were amplified by PCR. The comparison of ORF39-ORF42 and ORF119-ORF124 nucleotide and amino acid sequences of SpltMNPV isolates, i.e., Chinese isolate (Zh), Eg, Fu and Og, with those of SpliNPV indicated that the similarity between Zh and Og, or between Eg, Fu and SpliNPV is as high as over 99%, but the similarity between Zh and Eg, Fu, SpliNPV or between Og and Eg, Fu, SpliNPV is as low as 74%. This means that among SpltMNPV three genotypes, the homology between B and C is high, A and B or C is low, but the homology between A and SpliNPV is high. The homology of the isolates within the same genotype is high too. The neighbor-joining tree based on amino acid sequences of the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (EGT) in 29 nucleopolyhedroviruses and 10 granuloviruses was established. In the phylogenetic tree, EGTs of Eg and Fu clustered into one clade with SpliNPV, which belonged to a larger clade that included the other SpltMNPV isolates. Based on the sequence alignment and the phylogenetic tree of baculovirus EGTs, it is inferred that Eg and Fu are the isolates of SpliNPV, but Og is the isolate of SpltMNPV.
    Mechanism of cell toxicity of azadirachtin A to Trichoplusia ni Hübner Hi-5 cells
    LI Wen-Ou
    2008, 51(8):  824-829. 
    Abstract ( 5172 )   PDF (1942KB) ( 1415 )     
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    Trichoplusia ni Hübner cells were used to study the toxicity mechanism of azadirachtin A (Aza A) at the cellular level. Growth inhibition effect of Aza A on Hi-5 cells was tested. No obvious growth inhibition effect of Aza A on Hi-5 cells was found in the first two days post treatment. However, the inhibition effect went higher in the following days. By using the Giemsa dying method, we observed the change in shape of Hi-5 cells treated with 1.25 μg/mL Aza A. Most cells could not attach to the bottom wall of tissue culture flasks. The cells changed into rotundity. Apoptotic bodies appeared in the treated cells. The fluorescence microscope was used to observe the cell nucleus after stained with Ho33342. The results showed that some of Hi-5 cell chromosomes were abnormally condensed after treatment for 1 d. The ratios of condensed nuclei increased later, and the nuclear membrane was damaged obviously. To study the effect of Aza A on protein content, the FITC staining was performed. The DI value was 1.070±0.018 on the 1st day post treatment with 1.25 μg/mL Aza A, and increased to 1.912±0.019


    on the 3rd day. The relative GSH content inhibition in the cells treated with Aza A was examined. Obvious difference was found in the GSH content at different days post Aza A treatment. The results suggest that Aza A has an effect on cell propagation cytoskeleton function and cell viability of in vitro Hi-5 cells.
    Behavioural responses of Bemisia tabaci B biotype to three host plants and their volatiles
    CAO Feng-Qin
    2008, 51(8):  830-838. 
    Abstract ( 5457 )   PDF (1087KB) ( 2055 )     
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    Using Y-type olfactometer, behavior response of female Bemisia tabaci B biotype to three kinds of host plants, volatile extracts, volatile reference compounds, volatile ananogues were studied, and components and contents of volatiles in different host plants were compared as well. The results indicated that: 1 Strong behavior selection reaction of female adults of B. tabaci to tomato leaves and cabbage leaves, and their volatile extracts occured, respectively, whereas no significant behaviour selection to the pepper leaves and their extracts were found, respectively. When odors from the three host plants and their volatile extracts were comparatively tested, the female adults showed the strongest host preference to tomato, followed by cabbage, and then pepper leaves. 2 There were significant difference in volatile profile, components and contents among the three host plants. Volatile quantity of tomato leaves is much more than that of cabbage leaves and pepper leaves. Main components were terpene in volatile extract of tomato (89.8%), but hydrocarbon in volatile extract of cabbage (53.0%). 3) Among eight kinds of reference samples tested, 1,8-cineole always showed strong attractableness to female B. tabaci at five concentration levels. Eugenol, limonene, linanlool and myrcene showed strong attractableness to female B. tabaci just at appropriate concentrations. However, both α-pinene and Cis-3-Hexen-l-of displayed repellency to B. tabaci at high concentrations, but had no effect at low concentrations. Dodecane had no distinct effect on B. tabaci at any concentrations. 4Peper plants applied with tomato and cabbage volatiles analogues, respectively, could significantly attract B. tabaci adults. However, there was no significant difference in attractableness to female B. tabaci between tomato plants applied with pepper volatiles analogues and CK. The results suggest that volatile infochemicals from host plants play important roles in orientating behavior of Bemisia tabaci B-biotype.
    Development of the tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acari: Eriophyidae) on various tomato lines
    WANG Mei-Yu
    2008, 51(8):  839-843. 
    Abstract ( 4424 )   PDF (985KB) ( 1177 )     
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    In order to understand the resistance level of different tomato lines to the tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Massee), the development of the mite was studied in the field and laboratory on 12 tomato lines (the more hair lines, YZ618 and YZ619; the less hair lines, YZ419, YZ507 and YZ504; the wild lines, YZ7 and YZ5; the yellow-leaf line YZ401; the conventional lines, YZ406, YZ412, YZ413 and YZ515). The results indicated that there were significant differences in population density of the mite on different tomato lines, which was high on YZ504, YZ507 and YZ419 and low on YZ7, YZ618 and YZ619. There were also notable discrepancies in the survival rate, developmental duration, egg production and other examined parameters of the experimental populations of the mite on different lines. The highest survival rate was found on the less hair lines YZ504 an YZ507, the second on YZ419, and the lowest on YZ27. Meanwhile, the highest egg production was found on YZ504, the second on YZ507 and YZ419, and the lowest on YZ7. Judging from the life parameters of the experimental populations of the mite, we concluded that YZ7 and YZ618 lines were resistant to the mite, while YZ504, YZ419 and YZ507 lines were susceptible to the mite.
    Bioassays of resistance of transgenic poplar with novel binary insect-resistant genes to Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and Hyphantria cunea(Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)
    YANG Li-Yan
    2008, 51(8):  844-848. 
    Abstract ( 3891 )   PDF (1381KB) ( 1288 )     
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    To verify the resistance of binary genes chitinase-BmkIT to larvae of Coleopterous insect Anoplophora glabripennis and Lepidopterous insect Hyphantria cunea, in vitro insect-resistant bioassays were conducted, where the 1st-instar larvae of A. glabripennis were inoculated into poplar stems and those of H. cunea onto fresh poplar leaves. The results showed that transgenic clone 132-2 144-1 and 123-1 had significant lethal and inhibitory effects on H. cuneal larvae compared with the untransformed control P0.05. Most H. cunea larvae were not able to develop into pupae, some pupae were not able to emerge, and some emerged moths were abnormal with imperfect wings which died soon without mating. However, the differences in larval mortality and body weight of A. glabripennis were not significant compared with those of the untransformed control, indicating that transgenic stems had little influence on the survival and development of A. glabripennis larvae. The results suggested that the insect-resistant gene combination could not only be used as one of the complementary alien gene sources for resisting Lepidopterous pests but also contributed to reducing the risk of development of insect resistance produced by using single insect toxin gene.
    Evolutionary analysis of CYP6 genes of Philotrypesis spp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae)
    LIU Ying
    2008, 51(8):  849-854. 
    Abstract ( 3690 )   PDF (1081KB) ( 1240 )     
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    Nine new DNA fragments encoding cytochrome P450 were amplified from the fig wasps Philotrypesis spp.:  CYP6CK1, CYP6AQ2, CYP6AQ3, CYP6AS20, CYP6AS21, CYP6AS22, CYP6AS23, CYP6AS24 and CYP6AS25. These sequences include helix and heme-binding regions which are important functional regions for all P450 genes. We employed MEGA 4.0 to construct gene tree and PAML 4.0 to test the selection pressure on the encoding region. The results showed that the expansion of CYP6AS, CYP6AQ and CYP6CK subfamilies might be produced by the events of gene duplication. Members in the CYP6AS subfamily from those fig wasps are suffering from purifying selection, and the encoding regions are highly conservative.
    Revision of the four species of Tetrigidae (Orthoptera: Tetrigoidea) from China based on morphological characteristics and partial sequences of three genes
    YAO Yan-Ping
    2008, 51(8):  855-860. 
    Abstract ( 3842 )   PDF (1130KB) ( 996 )     
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    To clarify the classification of the morphologically similar species Tetrix dentifemura and T. grossus, and Euparatettix erythronotus and E. jiuwa nshanensis, we analysed the morphology and DNA data of the four insects of the family Tetrigidae. The morphological comparision showed that there are a lot of common characteristics between T. dentifemura and T. grossus, but with major difference including the length of hind wings; for E. erythronotus and E. jiuwanshanensis, there are many common characteristics except little difference, in terms of the shape of frontal ridge, the places of antenna and lateral ocelli, and the length of posterior femora. The fragments of Cyt b, 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes were sequenced for 4 species from 2 genera of Tetrigidae. The united sequence of the 3 fragments is 2 902 bp in length. We found that the three fragment sequences of T. dentifemura and T. grossus were completely identical, and the three fragments of E. erythronotus and E. jiuwanshanensis were also identical. Combining the results of morphological comparison with gene sequence analysis, we proposed that the T. grossus should be treated as a junior synonym of T. dentifemura, and E. jiuwanshanensis should be treated as a junior synonym of E. erythronotus.
    Discovery of the genus Kitanola Matsumura from China,with descriptions of seven new species(Lepidoptera,Limacodidae)
    WU Chun-Sheng
    2008, 51(8):  861-867. 
    Abstract ( 4044 )   PDF (6571KB) ( 1390 )     
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    In this paper the genus Kitanola Matsumura is recorded for the first time from China with K. uncula (Staudinger) and seven new species K. spina sp. nov.K. spinula sp. nov. K. linea sp. nov.K. albigrisea sp. nov.K. caii sp. nov.K. brachygnatha sp. nov. and K. eurygnatha sp. nov. A key to the Chinese species of the genus is provided. The photographs and genital illustrations of the examined species are given. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in Institute of ZoologyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina.
    Progress of proteomics and its application in insects
    CHEN Li-Zhen
    2008, 51(8):  868-875. 
    Abstract ( 3287 )   PDF (1217KB) ( 1416 )     
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    After the full genome sequence of model insects had been determinedapplication of proteomics in model insects was developed subsequently. Proteomics has mainly been applied in such model insects as Drosophila melanogasterBombyx moriAnopheles gambiae and Apis mellifera. As an effective and direct approach proteomics can also be widely applied in studying physiologytoxicology and chemical ecology of nonmodel insects.