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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 September 2008, Volume 51 Issue 9
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    A comparative study on the conversion of alcohols and acetates in sex pheromone glands of Helicoverpa armigera and H. assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    WANG Hong-Lei
    2008, 51(9):  895-901. 
    Abstract ( 3523 )   PDF (641KB) ( 1234 )     
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    Closely related species Helicoverpa armigera and H. assulta are two key crop pests sympatrically occurred in and around China. They use opposite ratios of cis-11-hexadecenal and cis-9-hexadecenal as their sex attractant pheromone components to maintain the interspecific reproductive isolation. Besides such difference in pheromone components, the acetate compositions in sex pheromone glands of the two species are also significantly different. In order to understand the biosynthetic mechanism resulting in the different compound compositions in pheromone glands of the two species, we topically applied unsaturated exogenous fatty alcohol and acetate precursors to the pheromone glands of H. armigera and H. assulta and monitored their conversion with gas chromatography analysis. The results showed that the gland oxidases had no substrate specificity to the exogenous cis-11hexadecenol, cis-9-hexadecenol and trans-10-hexadecenol, and therefore the corresponding erminal oxidation reaction did not affect the formation of the specific sex pheromone blend ratio in the two species. Significantly higher esterase acitivity was found in the pheromone gland of H. armigera than that in the pheromone gland of H. assulta. These discoveries would be useful to fully elucidate isolation mechanisms of the two moth species.
    Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) and H. armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to tobacco volatile compounds of high concentration
    FU Xiao-Wei
    2008, 51(9):  902-909. 
    Abstract ( 4495 )   PDF (893KB) ( 1081 )     
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    Oligophagous Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) and polyphagous H. armigera (Hübner) are two sibling species of Heliothis. In crops, H. assulta was rarely found in cotton or tomato fields, and there was almost no H. armigeraon hot pepper, only tobacco was the host plant which both of them preferred to and coexisted on. In order to further understand the effects of plant volatiles on insects' host orientation and selection behavior, the electroantennograms (EAGs) and wind tunnel response of virgin females, mated females, and males of the two species to 20 tobacco volatile compounds at a high concentration (0.1 mol/L), respectively, were recorded. The results showed that both species elicited the similar EAG responses to the tested tobacco volatile compounds, which mainly presented as green leaf volatiles> aliphatic and aromatic compounds> monoterpene, sesquiterpene and heterocyclic compounds.  There were no significant sexual or interspecific differences between the two species in EAG responses to most of the compounds, which suggested that the olfactory neural system of them might have the similar discrimination capability and sensibility, leading to the same “understanding" to the chemical information from their host plants. The behavioral response was essentially identical with the EAG response, i.e., there was consistency between olfactory stimulus and behavioral response of the two sibling species. Considered the obvious difference of their host range, it was inferred that tobacco volatiles was just to affect insect's host orientation, while the host selection behavior of the two species may mainly depended on the process to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of the tobacco plant after contacting or landing on the host plant.
    Cloning, sequence analysis and prokaryotic expression of the ubiquitin gene of Haritalodes derogata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    ZHANG Yu-Hong
    2008, 51(9):  910-915. 
    Abstract ( 3869 )   PDF (1196KB) ( 893 )     
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    Ubiquitin plays a very important role in regulating non-lysosomal ATP-dependent protein degradation. The coding sequence of Haritalodes derogata (Fabricius) ubiquitin gene was cloned and determined (GenBank accession no. EU580145). The opening reading frame (ORF) is 228 bp in length, encoding 76 amino acids with the molecular weight of 8.53 kD and theoretical isoelectric point of 5.83. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that H. derogata ubiquitin shared more than 93% identity with those of other ten insect species at the amino acid level, indicating high homology among them. Phylogenetic tree indicated that H. derogate has close relationship with Spodoptera litura (Fabricius). The theoretical three-dimensional structure of this gene was displayed by homology modeling. Using pET-32a (+) as a fused expression vector, a recombinant plasmid pET-32a-ub containing the coding sequence of H. derogata ubiquitin gene was constructed. Western blotting indicated that the H. derogata ubiquitin gene was expressed successfully in the BL21 (DE3) strain of Escherichia coli induced with IPTG. The results may serve as basis for further studying the function of ubiquitin gene in this insect.
    Glial patterning during postembryonic development in the mushroom bodies of the honeybee Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    LI Zhao-Ying
    2008, 51(9):  916-923. 
    Abstract ( 3453 )   PDF (5437KB) ( 1006 )     
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    The characteristics of glial patterns during postembryonic in mushroom body of the honeybee Apis cerana cerana were studied based on the method of anatomy and immunohistochemistry (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine, BrdU immunostaining). The results indicated that glial cells are involved in several functions during the development of the nervous system in the honeybee. In the early larva, a continuous layer of glial cell bodies defines the boundaries of all growing neuropiles. Initially, the neuropiles develop in the absence of any intrinsic glial somata. In the secondary process, glial cells migrate into defined locations in the neuropiles. The combined data from the three brain regions suggest that glial cells can prepattern the neuropilar boundaries and guidance structures for migrating neurons or outgrowing axons. The corresponding increase in the number of neuropile-associated glial cells is most likely due to massive immigrations of glial cells from the cell body rind using neuronal fibres as guidance cues.
    Phylogenetic relationships among common species of Mermithidae (Nematoda) in China based on SAFLP
    JIANG Ai-Lan
    2008, 51(9):  924-929. 
    Abstract ( 3685 )   PDF (850KB) ( 931 )     
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    The method of SAFLP (single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism) was optimized for Mermithidae in this study. The genetic relationships among 11 species or subspecies belonging to six genera of Mermithidae and common in China were detected using this method. Two kinds of restriction endonucleases were used in this study, and the results showed that EcoR was more suitable than Mse for SAFLP analysis of Mermithidae. In total 225 bands (form 250 to 1 650 bp) were amplified using three EcoR primers each with three selective bases. Nei's similarity coefficients and genetic distance (0.19800.4554 were calculated by NTsys-PC2.1 software and the phylogenetic tree was constructed with the method of UPGMA. The results indicated that the eleven species/subspecies of Mermithidae could be distinguished with SAFLP markers and were grouped into two distinct clusters. Two major groups of genera are observed in the phylogenetic tree: Romanomermis + Octomyomermis;  ((Hexamermis+Ovomermis) + Agamermis)+Amphimermis. Comparatively, the genetic distance of different species or subspecies, which are from closer area in the same genera, is smaller in Octomyomermis and Amphimermis. The result of this experiment is similar to that of the morphologic taxonomy system and provides further evidence for the studies of phylogenetic relationship among species or genera of Mermithidae. The results suggest that this optimized SAFLP is suitable for analysis of phylogenetic relationship and taxonomy among species of Mermithidae.
    Relative toxicity of insecticides to Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) (Homoptera:Delphacidae) and the resistance of field populations from different areas of East China
    WANG Li-Hua
    2008, 51(9):  930-937. 
    Abstract ( 3802 )   PDF (966KB) ( 1008 )     
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    Relative toxicity index of 11 insecticides belonging to six different categories against the 3rd-instar nymphs of Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) and the resistance of the nymphs from 7 typically ecological sites in East China to 10 of these insecticides were surveyed with rice seedlings-dipped method. The results indicated that the toxicity of acephate was the lowest among the 11 insecticides, which was used as reference standard herein. The relative toxicity of the other 10 insecticides to the nymphs in a descending turn was fipronil, buprofezin, abamectin, thiamethoxam, alpha-cypermethrin, IPP (a new nitromethylene-compound), chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, triazophos and imidacloprid. Compared with Yunnan (YN) susceptible population collected from fields of Chuxiong, Yunnan province in 2001, the 7 field populations respectively from Jurong (JR), Tongzhou (TZ), Chuzhou (CZ), Dafeng (DF), Nanjing (NJ) and Suzhou (SZ) of Jiangsu province and Lujiang (LJ) of Anhui province in 2007 showed very high resistance to buprofezin with the resistance ratio over 200-fold, and medium or high resistance to alpha-cypermethrin with the resistance ratio of 7.8-108.8 fold. The LJ population showed 7.7- and 12.0-fold resistance to triazophos and chlorpyrifos, respectively, and the CZ, NJ, DF and JR populations showed 5.7-12.6-fold resistance to chlorpyrifos. All the 7 field populations of L. striatellus were sensitive to dichlorvos, fipronil, avermectins, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and IPP.
    Monitoring resistance to transgenic Bt cotton in field populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) with F1 screening method
    LIU Feng-Yi
    2008, 51(9):  938-945. 
    Abstract ( 3392 )   PDF (1079KB) ( 876 )     
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    Development of Bt-susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera and their reciprocal crosses feeding on Bt cotton leaves for 5 d were comparedand individuals 0.6 mg/larva and surviving beyond the mid-2nd-instar on Bt cotton leaves for 5 d were considered as the standard for homozygous resistant individuals. In 2006the frequency of allele conferring resistance to Bt cotton in Qiuxian CountyHebei Provincewas estimated by using the F1 screening method. The results showed that 24 out of 127 field-collected male moths were detected to carry resistance alleles and the resistance allele frequency was estimated as 0.094 95%CI 0.044–0.154. This is the first report that resistance allele frequency increases to such a high level in fields in China. Long-term adoption of Bt spraysdominant planting of uni-toxin-producing Bt cottonand lack of conventional cotton refuge system may accelerate the resistance evolution in this regionand it is necessary to establish and implement effective resistance management strategy as soon as possible. Factors influenced resistance evolution and the resistance risk in fields were discussed as well.
    Foraging preference of the bumblebee Bombus hypocrita (Hymenoptera:Apidae)
    SHI Hai-Yan
    2008, 51(9):  946-952. 
    Abstract ( 4002 )   PDF (1077KB) ( 1040 )     
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    While foraging insect pollinators often restrict their visits to one type of flower. We measured nine types of floral selectivity (preference) in the bumblebee Bombus hypocrita workers foraging on mixed arrays of artificial flower types differing in either colour only (variation in a single trait) or colour plus additional traits (variation in multiple traits). The results showed that there was a significant degree of preference as the number of flower traits (including sizemorph and odour) was increased (P<0.01). There was a descreasing tendency for foraging rate as the number of flower colours was increased from two to fourand no significant relationship between the number of flower colours and preferenceP>0.05. The number (108±9) of 5 cm purple flowers visited by B. hypocrita was significantly higher than that (40±4) of 3 cm purple flowers (P<0.01)suggesting thatB. hypocrita has a preference for visiting 5 cm purple flower. The number (63±8) of purple flowers with lemony flavour visited by B. hypocrita was significantly lower than that (88±2) of purple flowers with strawberry flavour (P<0.05) suggesting that B. hypocrita had a preference for visiting the purple flowers with strawberry flavour.
    Species composition and diversity pattern of carabid beetles in the Pangquangou National Nature Reserve, Shanxi Province
    JI Wei-Rong
    2008, 51(9):  953-959. 
    Abstract ( 4514 )   PDF (1184KB) ( 1232 )     
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    The effects of biological conservation practice were studied in Pangquangou National Nature Reserve (111°22-111°33E37°4537°55N elevation 1 6002 831m)Shanxi ProvinceChina from May to September in 2006 and 2007. Pitfall catches of carabid beetles from four sitesi.e.Lusechanglang of the core zone forest CZ),Badaogou of the buffer zone BZ), Shenweigou of the test zone TZFF), which is far from farmlands and Bashuigou of the test zoneTZNF),which is near to farmlandswere calculated and compared. A total of    1 731 carabids belonging to 42 species were caught. Carabid beetles were significantly more abundantand species richness diversity and dominance were higher in TZNF than in the other three zones. CZ had a very low number of individuals and low diversity. Based on species composition and abundancecarabid beetles from different zones were separated from each other by ordinations which was based on principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and cluster analysis. The carabid assemblage in BZ was similar to that of CZ and TZFFbut it was strikingly different from that of TZNF. In addition these indices were not significantly different in CZ BZ and TZFF but they were higher than those in TZFF. Based on the presence of the carabids in different zones we distinguished six groups of species1) all zones species or generalists (three species)2) core zone species (one species)3) buffer zone species (one species)4) test zone species (three species)5) core and buffer zone species (one species)6) buffer and test zones species (one species). It is inferred that the high diversity of carabid species in TZNF may be due to the edge-associated species and the presence of species from the adjacent habitatswhile the low diversity of carabids in CZ due to the pressure of tourism and traffic. The biological conservation practice which relieves the pressure of human disturbance has significantly contributed to the reestablishment and maintenance of the diversity of carabid assemblages in the studied area.
    Inter- and intra-individual length-variant heterozygotes of intron 2 in Or83b-like gene unveil evolutionary instability in Philotrypesis sp. (Hymenoptera:Chalcidoidea:Pteromalidae)
    WANG Ni-Na
    2008, 51(9):  960-966. 
    Abstract ( 3706 )   PDF (1508KB) ( 1169 )     
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    The two non-pollinating fig wasps on Ficus hispida L. Philotrypesis pilosa and P. sp.might share the latest common ancestor. Host plant recognition using olfactory system by fig wasps may act as a strict pre-mating isolation mechanism. We investigated the introns of the atypical olfactory receptor gene Or83b-likewhich is remarkably conserved among many insects and can be used to unveil speciation and the direction of differentiation in closely related species. The PCR results showed that the nucleotide identity in the coding regions and the identity of the deduced amino sequences between the two fig wasps were 98.2% and 99.03%respectivelyand that of the introns 84.5% on average. The high identity further confirms the close relationship between the two fig wasps. Howeverinter- and intra-individual length-variant heterozygotes in some introns in P. sp. were observed but not in P. pilosa. It is so inferred that P. pilosa might have become stable as a specieswhile P. sp. may be still in the process of speciation.
    Flea fauna and distribution characteristics in Yunnan, S.W. China
    ZHANG Sheng-Yong, GUO Xian-Guo, GONG Zheng-Da, ZHANG Li-Yun, WU Dian, WANG Zheng-Kun
    2008, 51(9):  967-973. 
    Abstract ( 3697 )   PDF (1164KB) ( 1141 )     
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    【Aims】 On the basis of field investigations in the past and published literatures, to analyze the distribution characteristics of fleas in Yunnan and the influence of geographical subregions on the flea fauna. 【Methods】 On the basis of field collection and additional literatures, flea species were identified and inventoried. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis were made by using software SPSS 13.0. 【Results】 In total, 144 flea species, which belong to 45 genera and 9 families, were recorded in Yunnan of China. Of the 144 flea species, 15 species are Palaearctic species, 108 species Oriental species, 15 species in both Palaearctic realm and Oriental realm, and 6 species cosmopolitan ones;75 flea species are endemic in Yunnan;122 species were found in Middle Subregion of Hengduan Mountains, 26 species in Southern Subregion of Hengduan Mountains, 41 species in Eastern Plateau Subregion of Yunnan, 28 species in Western Plateau Subregion of Yunnan and 25 species in  Southern Mountainous Subregion of Yunnan. The result of cluster analysis is in accordace with that of the principal component analysis, both with two groups clustered:one consists of Southern Subregion of Hengduan Mountains(Ⅱ), Southern Mountainous Subregion of Yunnan (Ⅴ), Eastern Plateau Subregion of Yunnan (Ⅲ) and Western Plateau Subregion of Yunnan (Ⅳ), and the other is Middle Subregion of Hengduan Mountains(Ⅰ). 【Conclusions】 The distribution of fleas in Yunnan is obviously influenced by environmental conditions of the geographical subregions in Yunnan Province.  
    Molecular mechanisms of juvenile hormone action
    LIU Ying
    2008, 51(9):  974-978. 
    Abstract ( 10028 )   PDF (1108KB) ( 1545 )     
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    Ecdysteroids (Ecd) and juvenile hormones (JH) play critical roles in regulating insect development and (metamorphosis. Though the molecular mechanisms of Ecd action are well understood now, those of JH action, in contrast, are still poorly known mostly because the JH receptor has not been successfully identified yet. In this review, we described three aspects of recent progresses in molecular mechanisms of JH action. 1. JH and Ecd cross-talk with each other at the molecular level. JH modulates or suppresses Ecd signal to regulate insect development and metamorphosis. 2. Met and USP are two potential JH nuclear receptors. 3. JH also transduces signal via membrane receptor and protein kinase C.
    Cloning, sequence analysis and tissue expression of a carboxylesterase gene from Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    WANG Dong
    2008, 51(9):  979-985. 
    Abstract ( 3793 )   PDF (1374KB) ( 1093 )     
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    In order to study the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), a fulllength carboxylesterase cDNA was firstly cloned from H. armigera using RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategies. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene contains a 1 794 bp ORF, a 129 bp 5 UTR and 139 bp 3UTR, encoding a 597-amino-acid protein. The predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point of this carboxylesterase were 67.1 kD and 4.92, respectively. This gene was deposited in GenBank under the accession no. EF547544. Homology analysis showed that this carboxylesterase is most similar to that from Spodoptera litura with 60% amino acid identity. The results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that this gene was highly expressed in the midgut, low expressed in fat body and gonad and not expressed in head. It is inferred that this carboxylesterase gene may be involved in detoxification of xenobiotics.
    Effect of β-asarone on the activities of four enzymes in adults of Rhizopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)
    SONG Xu-Hong
    2008, 51(9):  986-991. 
    Abstract ( 4197 )   PDF (1244KB) ( 1081 )     
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    Four important enzymes including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione-S-transferase (GSTs), carboxylesterase (CarE) and esterase isoenzyme (EST isoenzyme) in Rhizopertha dominica adults were studied after treated with β-asarone extracted from Acorus gramineus roots and shoots. The results indicated that activities of the four enzymes showed strong time-effect. Activities of AChE and GSTs were inhibited by β-asarone at a dosage of 94.49 mg/kg with the exposure time prolonged. While the activities of CarE and EST isoenzymes were induced by β-asarone at the same dosage. Theβ-asarone at a low dosage (67.5 mg/kg) showed marked induction effect on AChE activity. However, with the dosages of β-asarone increasing, AChE activity was mostly restrained. β-asarone showed induction effect on GST at a low dosage (100.0 mg/kg), but showed inhibitory effect at a high dosage (133.3 mg/kg). With the dosages of β-asarone increasing, the CarE activity was somewhat promoted.β-asarone induced EST isozyme activity at different dosages, but the induction effect was not significantly correlated with the treated dosages.
    A preliminary phylogenetic study of Copidosoma species (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) associated with Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) based on 28S rRNA (In English)
    ZHANG Yan-Zhou
    2008, 51(9):  992-996. 
    Abstract ( 3852 )   PDF (1135KB) ( 1499 )     
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    Phylogenetic relationships amongst Copidosoma species, e.g. C. floridanum, C. primulum, C. truncatellum and C. agrotis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) associated with noctuid hosts (Lepidoptera) are inferred from nucleotide sequences of the D2 region of 28S rDNA. Both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analysis show C. floridanum and C. primulum, associated with Plusiinae and Heliothinae hosts separately, descend from a theoretical common ancestor, while C. truncatellum and C. agrotis associated with Noctuinae are more closer to each other. The D2 region of 28S ribosomal RNA appears potentially useful for understanding phylogenetic relationships in this genus.
    Evaluation of an artificial liquid diet of Orius similis Zheng (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)
    2008, 51(9):  997-1001. 
    Abstract ( 3392 )   PDF (1151KB) ( 1175 )     
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    To evaluate an artificial liquid diet of Orius similis Zheng, the nymph and adult of O. similis were fed on the artificial diet for two generations continuously using cotton aphids as the control, and their developmental and reproductive indexes at different stages were investigated. The results showed that the durations (22-23 days) of the two consecutive generations of O. similis were not significantly different from that of the control (21 days), which suggested that the diet could well meet the nutritional need of the nymph of O. similis for growth and development. However, the obtainable rate of the adult of O. similis fed on the cotton aphids could achieve 63%, which was prominently greater than those of the two consecutive generations of O. similis fed on the artificial liquid diet, which were 45% and 43%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the period of pre-oviposition, the fecundity and longevity of the adult of O. similis between the treatments and the control. But the significant difference was observed in the period of oviposition between the treatments and the control, which are about 13-16 days for the treatments and 20 days for the control, respectively. These results suggested that the artificial liquid diet could also well meet the nutritional need of adult O. similis for reproduction.