Please wait a minute...
Information
  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 October 2008, Volume 51 Issue 10
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Effects of parasitization by Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on the compositions and contents of soluble proteins and arylphorin in host Boettcherisca peregrina (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) pupae
    HAN Cheng-Xiang
    2008, 51(10):  1003-1010. 
    Abstract ( 3216 )   PDF (566KB) ( 1043 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    For further exploring the physiological effects of parastization by pupa-specific parasitoids on protein metabolic efficiency of hosts, the changes in compositions and contents of soluble proteins and arylphorin in the fat body and hemolymph of Boettcherisca peregrina pupae parasitized by Nasonia vitripennis were investigated by using the  Bradford method for protein quantitation, Western blotting, and enzyme_linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that the compositions of soluble proteins in the fat body and hemolymph of parasitized pupae were similar to those of non-parasitized pupae. There was a storage protein, namely arylphorin with a subunit molecular weight of 80 kDa, in the fat body and hemolymph of both parasitized and non-parasitized pupae. The arylphorin subunit was not degraded in the fat body of both parasitized and non-parasitized pupae, but was found to be broken up into

     

    two bands with similar molecular weight only in the hemolymph of parasitized pupae at 12 h after parasitization by the Western blotting. This suggests that the arylphorin in the hemolymph might be broken down earlier in parasitized pupae than in non-parasitized pupae. The contents of soluble proteins in the fat body were significantly lower in parasitized pupae than in non-parasitized pupae at all the sampling stages except at 24 h after parasitization. In contrast, the contents of arylphorin in the fat body of parasitized pupae were also significantly lower than those of non-parasitized ones except at 48 h after parasitization, only 32.0% of that for nonparasitized pupae at 12 h after parasitization. The contents of soluble proteins in the hemolymph were more or less lower in parasitized pupae than in non-parasitized pupae, and their differences were significant at 2, 12 and 24 h after parasitization. There was a tendency that the content of arylphorin in the hemolymph was lower in parasitized pupae than in non-parasitized pupae, especially at 12 h after parasitization which was only 17% as high as that in non-parasitized pupae. In general, the results suggest that the parasitization by N. vitripennis may result in marked decreases in the contents of both soluble proteins and arylphorin in the fat body and hemolymph of hosts.
    Effects of parasitization by Tetrastichus brontispae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on immunoreaction of the coconut hispine beetle, Brontispa longissima (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
    LIU Kui
    2008, 51(10):  1011-1016. 
    Abstract ( 6527 )   PDF (616KB) ( 1281 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    For evaluating the effects of parasitization by Tetrastichus brontispae on immunoreaction of Brontispa longissima, the changes of total number of hemocytes, the percentage of spread plasmatocytes, the rate of melanization, phenoloxidase activity and hemagglutin activity in the parasitized Brontispa longissima pupae were measured. The results indicated that compared with the unparasitized pupae, the parasitization by the parasitoid resulted in a significant decrease in the total number of hemocytes and the spread percentage of plasmatocytes at 2 d post parasitization and a significant increase in the parasitized pupae at 4 d post parasitization. The rate of melanization in the hemolymph in the parasitized pupae was higher than that of the unparasitized pupae during 0.5-2 d post parasitization and decreased to 0 in 3-4 d post parasitization. The phenoloxidase activity in the hemolymph in the parasitized pupae increased significantly at 0.5, 1 and 4 d post parasitization. A peak of the hemagglutin activity appeared at 2 d post parasitization in the parasitized pupae, which decreased to the lowest level at 1 and 4 d post parasitization. The results suggest that the parasitization by Tetrastichus brontispae may result in irregular changes of immunoreaction of its host Brontispa longissima.
    Effects of parasitism by Meteorus pulchricornis(Wesmael) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on food consumption and utilization of its host Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae
    2008, 51(10):  1017-1021. 
    Abstract ( 3237 )   PDF (615KB) ( 1037 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The effects of parasitism by the koinobiontic parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) on food consumption, weight gain, and food utilization in the penultimate instar larva of Spodoptera exigua Hübner were studied by the gravimetric method in the laboratory. The results indicated that the parasitism resulted in a significant reduction of the amount of food consumed, the growth rate, and food utilization of the host larva. The parasitized larva consumed less food, which were 29.89% and 48369% of that of the unparasitized on the 4th and 5th day, respectively. In line with the food consumption, the weight gain of the parasitized larva was less than the unparasitized, which were 21.51%, 38.87% and 14.42% of that of the unparasitized on Day 3, 4 and 5 after parasitization, respectively. The relative growth rate of the parasitized larva was significantly lower than the healthy larva from Day 3 to Day 5 after parasitization. The food utilization of the parasitized larva measured with the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and the efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) for body mass was significantly less than the unparasitized larva, but the approximate digestibility (AD) was increased as expected, while the unexpected phenomenon is that the above pattern was reversed on the 4th day after parasitization. The unexpected changes in nutrition indices on the 4th day after parasitization may be attributed to the effect of much less amount of food consumed by the parasitized larva while gaining more weight at the same time. The study indicates that parasitism of M. pulchricornis obviously inhibits food consumption, food utilization, and growth of its host S. exigua larvae
    Effects of transgenic Bt rice on the activities of three protective enzymes in larvae of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)
    2008, 51(10):  1022-1027. 
    Abstract ( 3639 )   PDF (711KB) ( 977 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The effects of transgenic rice on the activities of SOD, CAT and POD in Cnaphalocrocis medinalis larvae were studied by assaying enzyme activities after the 3rd instar larvae had been fed with leaves of transgenic and nontarnsgenic rice (control) for different time. The results showed its SOD activity was significantly higher (91.5%) than that of control after the larvae fed on transgenic rice for 4 h and reached the maximum with a little difference from that of control after the larvae fed for 36 h. The CAT activity of larvae fed with leaves of transgenic rice reached the maximum and was a little higher than that of control after feeding for 24 h, but significantly lower than that of control after the larvae fed for 48 h. The POD activity of larvae fed with leaves of transgenic rice reached the maximum with a little difference from that of control after feeding for 12 h, but decreased by 68.05% after feeding for 48 h. Meanwhile we also assayed the variation of the Bt protein in the larval body and dejecta. By voidance of dejecta, the level of Bt protein in the larval body was always lower than that in dejecta after feeding for 12h, and the difference between both reached the highest at 24 h after feeding. It was so inferred that the gradual accumulation of Bt protein in the larval body disturbed the dynamic balance of SOD, CAT and POD, baffled the clearance of free radicals and produced toxic effects on C. medinalis larvae.
    Preparation and identification of monoclonal antibodies to the vitellin from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann (Arachnida: Ixodidae)
    LI Xiao-Ming
    2008, 51(10):  1028-1032. 
    Abstract ( 3515 )   PDF (803KB) ( 944 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    This study aims at tick vitellogenesis and its mechanism. Six hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibody (McAb) against vitellin (Vn) of the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis were produced by fusing myeloma cells (SP2/0) with spleen cells, both from BALB/c mouse which were immunized with the Vn. They were named as 1B5, 2A7, 2B8, 2F2, 3A1 and 3G1, respectively. Further identification indicated that 1B5, 2B8 and 2F2 were of the isotype IgGA, 2A7 was of the isotype IgG1, while 3A1 and 3G1 were of the isotype IgG2a. All the six antibodies had high specificity and affinity, and their titers were over 10-5. SDS-PAGE and affinity analysis of 1B5, whose specificity and titer were the highest, indicated that the molecular masses of its heavy chain and light chain were 58 kD and 21 kD, respectively, and the affinity constant was 2.8993×10-6. Western blot analysis showed that the six antibodies had specific immunological reaction with the eight subunits of the Vn. The six McAbs against the Vn of H. longicorns prepared and identified successfully in this study may provide an important tool for further elucidating vitellogenesis and its regulation mechanism in H. longicorns.
    Ultrastructure of the flight muscle of female adults in the gregarious phase and solitary phase of the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) (Orthoptera: Acrididae)
    LIU Hui
    2008, 51(10):  1033-1038. 
    Abstract ( 4343 )   PDF (1626KB) ( 977 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The electron microscope examination of ultrastructure of flight muscle of female adults in both gregarious and solitary phases of the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) was performed. The results show that 7 days after emergence, the adults of both phases have the similar structures of indirect flight muscle, where the thick and thin filaments form a hexagonal lattice with myosin and actin in the ratio of 13. The development of flight muscle and formation of mitochondrion are gradually changeable process with differences between the different day-old adults. The sarcomere length (2.1-3.4 μm) of 7 or 10 day-old adults in the gregarious phase is shorter than that in the homologous solitary phase. The myofibril diameter of 7 day-old adults in the gregarious phase is thicker than that in the solitary phase. The mitochondrion displays some shapes in the early adult period and grows daily. The mitochondrion content in myofibril is 20%-43%, which are different between the phases: 42.96% in 7 day-old adults of the gregarious phase and 22.45% in those of the solitary phase;  41.32% in 10 day-old adults of the gregarious phase and 29.98% in those of the solitary phase. It is inferred that the above differences in sarcomere length, myofibril diameter and mitochondrion content in flight muscle may contribute to different flight abilities in the two phases of L. migratoria manilensis adults, of which those in the gregarious phase can migrate for longer distance.
    Repellent activity of capsaicin and its effects on glutathione-S-transferase and Na+, K+-ATPase activity in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
    JI Ming-Shan
    2008, 51(10):  1039-1043. 
    Abstract ( 5308 )   PDF (870KB) ( 1443 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The repellent activity of capsaicin against Plutella xylostella, and the effects of capsaicin on activities of glutathione-S-transferase and Na+, K+-ATPase in the 3rd instar larvae of the moth were tested in the laboratory with conventional methods. The results showed that capsaicin had strong oviposition deterrence and antifeedant activity against P. xylostella. At a concentration of 6.25×104 mg/L, the nonselective oviposition deterrence rate was 96.55% 24 h after capsaicin application, while the selective oviposition deterrence rate was 84.30%. At the same concentration, the nonselective antifeedant rate and selective antifeedant rate was 81.47% and 69.69% respectively 48 h after capsaicin application. In addition, glutathione-S-transferase and Na+, K+-ATPase activities fluctuated after P. xylostella was treated with capsaicin for different hours. When P. xylostella was treated with 1.25×105 mg/L capsaicin, the highest GSTs and ATPase activities were found at 18 h and 1 h after treatment, respectively. These results suggested that capsaicin can disturb the oviposition and feeding of the moth, and influence some enzymes in its body.
    Resistance stability and re-growth in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to trichlorphon
    ZHANG Yu-Ping
    2008, 51(10):  1044-1049. 
    Abstract ( 3249 )   PDF (1054KB) ( 944 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics

    In the laboratory, two different high-level resistant strains TrR50 and TrR90 of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis to trichlorphon were established after 14 generation selection by using the concentrations of LC50 and LC90 of trichlorphon, the TrR50 and TrR90 strains without exposure to any insecticides were kept for 19 generations, and the resistance recession to trichlorphon were studied. At the same time, the re-growth resistance was monitored after the two strains were bred for 4 generations under insecticide-free condition, and then selected with trichlorphon for 12 generations. The results showed that the resistance of the two resistant strains was all  instable, but their depression rates were different. After Tr90 and TrR50 were selected for 4 and 7 generations respectively, their resistance decreased to one third of the original level. Then the resistance of the two strains was depressed slowly, and after the two strains were selected for 19 generations, their resistance kept at a low level but was unable to be depressed to the susceptible level. Through equation fitting of resistance depression tendency, it was found that the resistance depression of the two strains was both in line with S-curve model. The resistance re-growth of the two strains was different. After selection with trichlorphon for 6 generations, TrR50 resistance went up rapidly which was close to the original level; but only after selection for 9 generations with trichlorphon,

    TrR90 resistance began to increase rapidly, which was close to the original level only after 12 generation selection. The results of the equation fitting of resistance re-growth tendency showed that resistance re-growth of the two strains was quite different, and the fitting curve of TrR50 strain was in line with the logistic model, while that of TrR90 was in line with quadratic curve model.
    Nodosity formation and nutrition consumption in grape cultivars with different phylloxeraresistance and infested by grape phylloxera
    DU Yuan-Peng
    2008, 51(10):  1050-1054. 
    Abstract ( 3311 )   PDF (902KB) ( 1091 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Nodosity formation in grapes with different resistance to grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) infestation was studied by potted plant test of inoculation. Number, weight, and contents of carbohydrates and proline of nodosities were tested. The result showed that the rootstocks 5BB, 1103P, SO4, 3309C and 101-14Mgt did not produce nodosities after infected by phylloxera, while the rootstocks 140Ru, Lot and 110R produced a little nodosities but no tuberosities. The rootstock Beta and cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Kyoho and Tamina, however, produced lots of nodosities and tuberosities with the roots perished seriously. The more susceptible varieties had more and larger nodosities. The nodosity accounted for 40.02%, 37.08% and 35.36% of the total weight of Tamina,Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon, respectively. The total weight per 100 nodosities in the three cultivars reached 4.4, 3.5 and 4.3 times of that of 140Ru, respectively. The average reduction of cane growth of 140Ru, Lot and 110R was 16.5%, while 43% for the four highly susceptible varieties. The assay of correlation between nodosity weight and nutrient accumulation in nodosities showed that they were significantly positively correlated:  nodosity weight was positively correlated with the increment of starch, sugar and proline.
    Phylogeny of Deltocephalinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from China based on partial 16S rDNA and 28S rDNA D2 sequences combined with morphological characters
    DAI Ren-Huai
    2008, 51(10):  1055-1064. 
    Abstract ( 4655 )   PDF (2561KB) ( 2112 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The phylogeny of 19 genera of Deltocephalinae leafhoppers was analyzed based on 50 adult morphological characters combined with nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA and nuclear 28S D2 rDNA genes. One species of Typhlocybinae was included as outgroup. Parsimonian, distance and Bayesian methods were used to estimate the phylogenetic relationships. The topology of the phylogenetic trees generated with different methods was quite similar. We partially resolved the morphologically defined tribes and the relationships among 19 genera of Deltocephalinae. The genus Macrosteles was well supported to occupy a basal position in the study, so the most primary tribe in Deltocephalinae might be Macrostelini. The phylogenetic analysis trees put all genera of Deltocephalini but Nakaharanus onto a single lineage. The genus Balclutha, corresponding to the tribe Balcluthini, remains unsolved in our analyses. The Euscelini might be a polyphyletic group in the analysis. Analytical result recovered Athysanini and Paralimnini as monophyletic clades. The clade Phlogotettix and Scaphoideus-Nakaharanus was constantly resolved using different methods. We suggested that Scaphoideus, Nakaharanus and Phlogotettix should be included in or into Scaphoideini. But the results resolved poorly the taxonomic status of Xestocephalini overall.
    A taxonomic study of the genus Cryphaeus Klug (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Toxicini) from China with descriptions of four new species
    WU Qi-Qi
    2008, 51(10):  1065-1076. 
    Abstract ( 3552 )   PDF (7633KB) ( 1560 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The paper deals with 17 species of genus Cryphaeus Klug, 1833 from China, of which 4 new species to science are described and illustratedC. brevicornus sp. nov., C. longicornus sp. nov., C. barbellatus sp. nov. and C.obliquicornus sp. nov. The type specimens of new species are preserved in the Museum of Hebei University. A key to the known species of the genus from China and Japan is given.
    Application of RNA interference in studying gene functions in insects
    YANG Zhong-Xia
    2008, 51(10):  1077-1082. 
    Abstract ( 3787 )   PDF (1054KB) ( 1449 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    RNA interference (RNAi) is a kind of phenomenon that in vitro or in vivo dsRNA induced knockdown of gene expression. RNAi as one of the most promising techniques to knockdown the expression of corresponding gene has been extensively used for sequence specific loss of gene function in model insects like Drosophila and also in non-model insects. The methods to introduce dsRNA and the functional analysis of gene have been frequently developed, and RNAi technique combined with transgenic technique has been applied to control agricultural pests in recent years. In this review, we described the application and prospect of RNAi technique in studying gene functions in insects and in pest management.
    Symptoms of Anomala corpulenta and A. exoleta(Coleoptera: Rutelidae) larvae infected by Bt HBF-1 strain and histopathological changes in their midguts
    SONG Jian
    2008, 51(10):  1083-1088. 
    Abstract ( 4535 )   PDF (4918KB) ( 1080 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    The symptoms and histopathological changes in the midguts of Anomala corpulenta and A. exoleta larvae infected by Bacillus thuringiensis HBF-1 strain were observed using histopathological slice. The results showed that no obvious symptom of the larvae was observed at the beginning of HBF-1 infection. With the time increasing, the infected insect appeared inactive, paralyzed and lost its sensitivity to the environment, and finally became blackish, straight or shrinked until to death. The results of histopathological obeservations under microscope showed that the midgut cells appeared with malformation and vacuolization 3 days after HBF-1 infection, and were seriously damaged and even destroyed completely 7 days after infection, while the epithelium began to deviate from the membrane 10 days after infection. In the newly dead insects, the epithelium shed completely together with the endocyte.
    Parasitism characteristics of two tachinid parasitoids Exorista civilis Rondani and Nemorilla maculosa Meigen (Diptera: Tachinidae) on the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    LI Hong
    2008, 51(10):  1089-1093. 
    Abstract ( 3411 )   PDF (1107KB) ( 985 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics

    To understand the parasitism characteristics of tachinid parasitoids, Exorista civilis Rondani and Nemorilla maculosa Meigen (Diptera: Tachinidae) on the population of the beet webworm Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the number and position of the tachinid eggs and the parasitism rate in various instars of L. sticticalis were investigated in a field population in Kangbao, Hebei province. The relationship between the tachinid parasitoid survival and the host instars and the number and position of tachinid eggs on the host larvae was also analyzed. The results showed that the parasitism rate on the 5th instar host larvae by the tachinid flies was the highest. The number of tachinid eggs deposited on the 5th instar larva by these two tachinid flies varied from 1 to 8 eggs per host larva, with one egg per host larva dominant (45%), and followed by two eggs per host larva (33.6%). However, only one tachinid maggot could survive in a host. The tachinid eggs located more on head and thorax than on abdomen. Compared with the dorsal and abdominal sides of the host larvae, the lateral side was the most favorite side attacked by the tachinids. The survival rate of the tachinid progeny was highly related to their egg number on the host larva. Only 66.7% of the host larvae with one tachinid egg each could produce a mature maggotwhile 100% of the host larvae with more than two tachinid eggs each could produce a mature maggot.