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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 November 2008, Volume 51 Issue 11
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Comparisons of levels of crude fat,soluble sugars,and free amino acids in offsprings of the immigrant and non-immigrant populations of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae), under insecticide stress
    YIN Jian-Li
    2008, 51(11):  1103-1112. 
    Abstract ( 3720 )   PDF (611KB) ( 876 )     
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    To understand the biochemical difference between immigrant and non-immigrant Nilaparvata lugens offspring populations, we compared the changes in soluble sugar and crude fat contents in the 3rd and 5th instar nymphs and adults of the offsprings from immigrant and non-immigrant N. lugens, and free amino acid content in immigrant adults and their offspring adults on two rice varieties (TN1 and Xieyou 963) under insecticide stress. The biochemical substances were associated with insect origin (immigrant or non-immigrant), developmental stage, and insecticide type and insecticide concentration. Soluble sugar contents in the 3rd and 5th instar nymphs and adults of the offsprings that developed from the plants treated with insecticides and control (untreated) plants of TN1 for immigrant N. lugens were significantly higher than those for non-immigrant N. lugens. In contrast to soluble sugar content, crude fat content in the 3rd and 5th instar nymphs and adults of the offsprings that developed from the plants treated with insecticides and control plants of TN1 for immigrant N. lugens was significantly lower than that for non-immigrant N. lugens. For Xieyou 963, soluble sugar content in the 3rd and 5th instar nymphs showed the same tendency as TN1. Crude fat content in adults developed from control plants for immigrants was significantly higher than that for non-immigrant populations, and that in the 3rd and 5th instar nymphs did not show a significant difference between immigrant and non-immigrant N. lugens. Crude fat content in the 5th instar nymphs and adults which developed from the rice plants treated with insecticides for immigrant populations was significantly higher than that for non-immigrant. ANOVA results also demonstrated that as for changes in soluble sugar and crude fat contents, there were significant interactions between insect origin and insecticide type, insect origin and insecticide concentration, and insecticide type and insecticide concentration. For the two rice varieties, free amino acid content in immigrant adults was significantly lower than that in their offspring adults. Amino acid content in adults that developed from TN1 plants treated with triazophos was significantly higher than with deltamethrin and imidacloprid, while  in adults that developed from Xieyou 963 plants treated with deltamethrin and imidacloprid it was significantly higher than that with triazophos. The present findings have important significance for understanding the mechanism of insecticide-induced resurgence of the N. lugens.
    Effect of high temperature on haemolymph sugar levels in three selected silkworm races (In English)
    Firdose Ahmad MALIK
    2008, 51(11):  1113-1120. 
    Abstract ( 3505 )   PDF (675KB) ( 2294 )     
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    Two bivoltine races viz. NB4D2 and CSR2 acclimatized to temperate climates, and one multivoltine race viz., Pure Mysore (PM) acclimatized to tropical climates were exposed to two selected high temperatures of 32℃ and 36℃ during 5th instar larval and pupal stages. The tropical multivoltine PM showed less larval and pupal mortality than temperature tolerant bivoltine NB4D2 and temperature sensitive bivoltine CSR2. Haemolymph trehalose levels were relatively higher, and glucose level and trehalase activity lower during moult. At 32℃ and 36℃, haemolymph sugar level and trehalase activity showed only a marginal increase during larval moult. Moulted larvae showed a significant drop in haemolymph trehalose level and increase in trehalase activity and glucose levels. Also, the moulted larvae showed a further decrease in trehalose levels and increase in glucose level and trehalase activity when exposed to higher temperature. Feeding larvae showed a significant drop in glucose level and increase in trehalose level in haemolymph at 25±1℃. At 32℃ and 36℃, haemolymph glucose and trehalose levels and trehalase activity increased in feeding larvae in PM and NB4D2 but decreased in CSR2. Spinning larvae showed a significant decrease in haemolymph glucose level and trehalase activity and marginal decrease in trehalose level. At higher temperatures, an increase in blood sugar level and trehalase activity was observed in spinning larvae in temperature tolerant PM and NB4D2 and decrease in temperature sensitive CSR2. Haemolymph sugar level and trehalase activity increased during pupal development in all the three races. At the two higher temperatures, the haemolymph sugar  level and trehalase activity increased in PM. But, in NB4D2 the   increases in haemolymph sugar level and trehalase activity in pupae at 36℃ were less than those at 32℃. In CSR2, an increase in haemolymph glucose level was observed at 32℃ but haemolymph glucose decreased to the level lower than the control when the ambient temperature of the pupae was raised to 36℃. But, haemolymph trehalose level and activity decreased when the pupae of CSR2 were held at higher temperatures, the decrease being more at 36℃ than at 32℃. Acclimation to high temperature in the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori thus depended upon the race and developmental stage in the life cycle and was manifested by the changes in haemolymph sugar level and trehalase activity.
    Cloning, sequence analysis and prokaryotic expression of cathepsin B gene from Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    ZHAO Yan-Yan
    2008, 51(11):  1121-1128. 
    Abstract ( 2978 )   PDF (898KB) ( 1000 )     
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    The cathepsin B cDNA from ovary of Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results of cloning and sequencing showed that the full-length open reading frame (ORF) of HassCB is 1 017 bp (registered with GenBank accession no. EF154237), encoding 338 amino acid residues, and the predicted N-terminus hydrophobic region contains 21 amino acid residues displaying the characteristic features of a signal peptide. The predicted molecular weight (MW) and isoelectric point (pI) are 35.5 kDa and 5.96respectively. The HassCBa gene without signal peptide was then constructed into the expression vector pGEX-4T-1 for expression in prokaryotic cells. The SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that the HassCB was expressed in Escherichia coliBL21, and the expressed product has the MW of 61 kDa, nearly equal to the predicted. Furthermore, the mice were immunized with recombinant HassCB, and the results indicated that the antibody liter was

    151 200 against the recombinant HassCBa. Importantly, the immunoblotting result showed that the antibodies could identify HassCB both recombinant and from natural ovary of H. assulta.
    Cloning, sequence analysis and expression of two genes of venom allergens in Rhynchium brunneum (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae)
    XU Jun-Feng
    2008, 51(11):  1129-1137. 
    Abstract ( 3218 )   PDF (1433KB) ( 786 )     
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    For further studying the allergenic activity, we expressed the hyaluronidase from Rhynchium brunneum using the baculovirus expression system.Two full-length sequences encoding hyaluronidase and antigen 5 (GenBank accession no. EU624135 and EU624136) were cloned by RT-PCR and RACE from R.. brunneum venom. The two allergen genes were designated as Rhy b 2 and Rhy b 5 according to the allergen nomenclature system. Sequence analysis showed the two genes share high similarity with allergens from other wasps, suggesting that the cross\|reactivity could happen tested with these allergens. The hyaluronidase from R. brunneum venom was found to lack the B-cell epitope, which was elucidated to be formed by 9 conserved amino acids in the hyaluronidase from Apis mellifera venom. Furthermore, the two important arginines among the 9 amino acids were also absent. Comparison of antigen 5 from R. brunneum with that from Vespula vulgaris showed that their C-terminals (containing T-cell epitope) were almost the same, but their N.terminals (containing B-cell epitope) were definitely different. Thus, the conformation dependent on B-cell epitope in this allergen could be also absent. We so speculated that the two allergens could be natural hypoallergen and have potential application value in allergen-specific immune therapy.
    Expression and insecticidal activity of insect-specific neurotoxin BjαIT
    LI Hong-Bo
    2008, 51(11):  1138-1143. 
    Abstract ( 3775 )   PDF (929KB) ( 762 )     
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    According to the codon bias of Pichia pastoris, the insect-specific neurotoxin gene BjαIT was synthesized based on its amino acid sequence and was cloned to vectors of PET-30a (+) and pPIC9K respectively. The fusion protein of BjαIT expressed in Escherichia coli was induced with IPTG and was purified with Ni-NTA His Bind Column. The purified fusion protein was used to prepare antiserum and conduct bioactivity test. Dot blotting was used to screen the high-level expressed transformants of P. pastoris. The results showed that the highest expression of recombinant BjαIT in P. pastoris was about 20 mg/L in baffled flasks, and the BjαIT fusion protein expressed in E. coli was not toxic to locust Locusta migratoria manilensis and cockroach Blattela germanica, but that expressed in P. pastoris had insecticidal activity against locust and cockroach through injection.
    Comparison of different methods for extraction and isolation of venom proteins from Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)
    WU Ma-Li
    2008, 51(11):  1144-1150. 
    Abstract ( 3807 )   PDF (1564KB) ( 1022 )     
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    For developing a suitable isolation and purification method of Pteromalus puparum venom proteins with the activity to inhibit host hemocyte spreading and encapsulation, seven methods, namely, isoelectric precipitation, ethanol precipitation, 75% ammonium sulphate precipitation, 75% ammonium sulphate precipitation combined with heating at 40, 75% ammonium sulphate precipitation combined with three different centrifugal size exclusion membranes (molecular weight cut-off exclusion limit: 10, 50 and 100 kDa), were compared. The results indicated that the isoelectric precipitated fractions had the highest activity to inhibit the spreading and encapsulation of host Pieris rapae hemocytes in vitro, the ethanol precipitated fractions acted the second, while 75% ammonium sulphate precipitated fractions showed the lowest. The results of SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that the purity of the isoelectric precipitated fractions was the highest with only three main protein bands with apparent molecular masses ranging from 45 to 116.2 kDa, the ethanol precipitated fractions showed five main protein bands with apparent molecular masses ranging from 24 to 116.2 kDa, and the protein profiles of ammonium sulphate precipitated fractions had nearly identical protein profiles as crude venom. To compare the activity of venom fractions from three different centrifugal size exclusion membranes, the molecular weight of the fractions with higher activity might be more than 100 kDa. It is concluded that the method of isoelectric precipitation is relatively most suitable among the seven tested methods for isolation of P. puparum venom.
    Effects of total alkaloid from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. on the growth and development of Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its metabolic enzymes
    ZHOU Lin
    2008, 51(11):  1151-1156. 
    Abstract ( 3676 )   PDF (889KB) ( 863 )     
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    Alkaloid is the main insecticidal composition in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., a famous insecticidal plant. In order to study its insecticidal action and judge its prospects, we assayed the effects of total alkaloid on the growth, development and six metabolic enzymes of the 5th instar larvae of Mythimna separate (Walker). The results showed that the treated larvae had marked reduction in body weight, weight gain and relative growth rate compared with the control. The growth rate, survival rate and pupation rate of the treated M. separata larvae and the emergence rate of the treated adults were lower than those of the control. Esterase and carboxyl esterase (CarE) in the treated  insects were distinctly activated. The activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the treated insects were remarkably inhibited by total alkaloid all the time except ALP activity at 3 h after treatment. The activity of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs)  was distinctly activated by total alkaloid at 3, 12 and 24 h after treatment, and was equal to that of the control at 36 h and 48 h after treatment, but was inhibited at 48 h after treatment. The O-demethylase activity of cytochrome P450 (MFO) showed no distinct change at 3 h after treatment and then was activated at 12 and 24 h after treatment, but was not different from the control at 36 h and 48 h after treatment.
    Toxicity and action mechanism of tebufenozide and its derivative 0593 to silkworm (Bombyx mori)
    SI Shu-Ding
    2008, 51(11):  1157-1163. 
    Abstract ( 5706 )   PDF (901KB) ( 1339 )     
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    In order to definite the toxicity of tebufenozide derivative 0593 to silkworm Bombyx mori, we detected the toxicity of tebufenozide and its derivative 0593 to B. mori with food intake method, observed the growth and development of B. mori at their respective sublethal concentration, and determined their effects on endogenous protective enzymes in B. mori larvae. Based on the experimental results, we primarily discussed the action mechanism of ebufenozide derivative 0593. The results showed that the LC50 of tebufenozide and its derivative 0593 to 2nd instar larvae of B. mori were 1.2863 mg·L-1 and 0.3364 mg·L-1 after 96 h exposure, respectively, and both were of high toxicity. At the sublethal dose, the growth and development of B. mori had been obviously affected, which could shorten larval period by 0.52 d. Compared with control, larval weight during molting stage, whole cocoon weight, pupal weight and pupation rate decreased of the treatments dramatically. The  PPO activity in 4th instar larvae of B. mori was activated at 6 h after treatment, and then inhibited at 12 h after treatment. Both tebufenozide and its derivative 0593 significantly activated the chitinase activity in 4th instar larvae of B. mori. 0593 showed more significant effects on endogenous protective enzymes than tebufenozide. These results indicate that tebufenozide and its derivative 0593 belong to high toxicity grade to B. mori, and have adverse effects on its development and endogenous protective enzymes. So they are not suitable to be used in and around mulberry fields.
    Heat shock response and HSPs of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) resistant to avermectin
    FENG Hong-Zu
    2008, 51(11):  1164-1169. 
    Abstract ( 3673 )   PDF (986KB) ( 1095 )     
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    By using methods for insect ecology and SDS-PAGE techniques, the thermotolerance, constituents and contents of heat shock proteins (HSPs) were investigated after the avermectin-resistant and -susceptible strains of Tetranychus cinnabarinus were subjected to heat stress. The results showed that the non-lethal heat-hardening could significantly enhance the ability of tolerance to utmost temperature. After heat shock treatment under different temperatures, the components and contents of HSPs in the two mite strains changed obviously. Compared with the avermectin-resistant strain, eight protein bands were absent in susceptible strain under normal rearing conditions. After heat shock treatment, five additional proteins bands (97.2, 74.3, 62.4, 53.0 and 30.3 kDa) were detected in the susceptible strain. Although no specific protein bands were detected in the resistant strain after heat shock treatment, the expressions of some proteins increased with the continued heat stress. The results may help to explain advantages of the resistant strains of T. cinnabarinu in the fitness to high temperatures.
    Nesting behavior of Megachile leachella (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)
    MENG Yan-Hua
    2008, 51(11):  1170-1176. 
    Abstract ( 4141 )   PDF (5548KB) ( 949 )     
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    Aim For the purpose of trapping domestic leaf-cutting bee Megachile leachella nesting in manmade tubes, it is necessary to know the nesting habits and nesting traits of M. leachella.Methods The whole nesting process of M. leachella was observed by visual observation and photographing; the inside nest structure of M. leachella was observed by digging and measuring; bee cocoons were buried in the soil and finger tubes for emergence in the laboratory. Results M. leachella usually nests in soil walls and abandoned ant holes; sometimes it digs new holes to nest in the sandland. It cuts the leaf to build nest cells. There are several cells in one nest, which are lined one by one, and the entrance of nest is covered by leaves. Eleven to fourteen pieces of leaves are needed for constructing one cell. The bee executes 6-9 pollen and nectar trips for each cell. A single egg is laid on the surface of the provision. In Mu Us sandland, Inner Mongolica, M. leachella has two generations one year: the first generation emerges in the middle to late June, while the second generation emerges in late July to early August. Coelioxy sp. and Chrysis sp. are the main parasitoids of M. leachella. The cocoons of M. leachella can emerge from finger tubes in the laboratory. Conclusions Nesting behavior of different individuals of M. leachella was similar. Females of M. leachella could be trapped and domesticated in man-made tubes
    Diversity of chigger mites on small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan, China (In English)
    DONG Wen-Ge
    2008, 51(11):  1177-1186. 
    Abstract ( 3806 )   PDF (2002KB) ( 1032 )     
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    The aim was to study the species diversity, community structure, similarity, distribution and niche of gamasid mites on the body surface of 3 303 small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Dali, Yunnan by using Shannon-Wiener, hierarchical cluster analysis (SPSS 13.0) and Levins'niche. The investigated site was an important focus of epidemic hemorrhagic fever, where stands alongside three cordilleras surrounding Erhai Lake, namely Eastern Wuliang Mountain, Southern Ailao Mountain and Western Cangshan Mountain. The three confined oriented areas formed different landscapes within the same zone for inartificial barrier's isolation of Erhai Lake. The small mammal hosts were captured from three differently oriented areas belong to 7 families, 15 genera and 21 species in 4 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia and Carnivora), while 23 196 individuals of gamasid mites collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 6 families, 16 genera and 43 species. The results reveal that the community structure of gamasid mites is complex with high species diversity. The distribution of gamasid mites and their corresponding hosts are quite uneven in differently orientations, but dominant species beside gamasid mites on the same dominant small mammal host in differently oriented areas beside Erhai Lake are homologous. The results indicate that habitat influences the species composition and distribution of gamasid mites and their corresponding hosts. Gamasid mite communities on their corresponding hosts are similar if the taxonomic position and habitats of the hosts (small mammals) are similar. The abundance and diversity of gamasid mites on small mammals across different sites are determined mainly by host identity and by the habitats where the hosts live. This might be an ecological evidence of co-evolution between small mammals and gamasid mites. But by using the niche breadth of gamasid mites, host-specificity of gamasid mites are low, this may imply that the co-evolution between small mammals and gamasid mites exist, but the degree is not high.
    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of five subfamilies of the Acrididae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene sequences (In English)
    WANG Nai-Xin
    2008, 51(11):  1187-1195. 
    Abstract ( 3809 )   PDF (1188KB) ( 1744 )     
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    The homologus sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes were sequenced in 17 species representing five subfamilies (belonging to family Acrididae): Melanoplinae, Catantopinae, Cyrtacanthacridinae, Oedipodinae and Gomphocerinae from China. The concatenated sequence from both genes was 1 998 bp in length, consisting of 1 266 bp and 732 bp for COI and Cytb respectively. In the concatenated sequence, A+T content was about 72.13%, and C+G only 27.87%. There are 889 sites conserved, 1 109 sites were variable, and 838 sites were parsimony informative in the variable sites. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood using Erianthus versicolor and Erianthus sp. of the Eumastacoidea as outgroups. Our results showed that the monophyly of the subfamilies Gomphocerinae and Catantopinae were not supported here. The phylogenetic trees did not entirely agree with the international taxonomic system of grasshoppers. The subfamily Oedipodinae clustered as one clade, which was supported as a monophyletic group. Based on the close relationships among four subfamilies, Gomphocerinae, Catantopinae, Cyrtacanthacridinae and Melanoplinae, we suggest that the four subfamilies should be considered to merge into one subfamily. Simultaneously, we found it was not very dependable to infer the phylogenetic relationships among subfamilies within the Acrididae based on the concatenated sequence from Cytb and COI genes.
    Research progress in molecular evolution of yolk proteins in insects
    DONG Sheng-Zhang
    2008, 51(11):  1196-1209. 
    Abstract ( 3957 )   PDF (1959KB) ( 1075 )     
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    Vitellogenins, cyclorraphan yolk polypeptides and lepidopteran minor yolk proteins are main three classes of yolk proteins in insects, and evolutionary relationships among them are always the key problems for study. This paper explored the molecular evolution relationships within and among three yolk proteins based on their sequence data retrieved from the NCBI protein database through alignment and phylogenetic analysis. Combined with what have been achieved for their evolutionary relationships, we concluded that vitellogenins are well conserved in insects, showing similarity to the vertebrate apolipoprotein B; yolk polypeptides are related to vertebrate hepatic and pancreatic lipases but lost their functions in phylogenesis, while minor yolk proteins are related to a family of lipases containing vertebrate gastric lipases and lingual lipases. In addition, molecular characteristics of three yolk proteins were also summarized.
    Cloning, characterization and expression detection of the β-actin cDNA from Mantichorula semenowi (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
    TANG Ting
    2008, 51(11):  1210-1215. 
    Abstract ( 3356 )   PDF (1530KB) ( 818 )     
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    β-actin is a member of the actin family, which plays important roles in maintaining cytoskeletal structure, cytoplasmic movement and cell division. β-actin is one of the most commonly used  internal controls in gene quantitative analysis. In this study, a full-length cDNA of β-actin from Mantichorula semenowi was cloned via homology cloning and RACE. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic study showed that this cDNA contained 1 372 nucleotides, with a 1 131 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 376 amino acids and flanked with a 66 bp 5UTR and a 175 bp 3UTR. β-actin shared a high sequence identity of 96%-99% with that of other insects. Profiles ofβ-actin expression in different recovery time after heat shock were expressed similarly and not significantly different from that of the unstimulated control, suggesting an ubiguitous expression pattern.

    Life table of the laboratory population of Lygus lucorum Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae) at different temperatures
    MEN Xing-Yuan, YU Yi, ZHANG An-Sheng, LI Li-Li, ZHANG Jun-Ting, GE Feng
    2008, 51(11):  1216-1219. 
    Abstract ( 3229 )   PDF (1028KB) ( 1014 )     
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    Life tables of the laboratory population of Lygus lucorum Meyer Dür at five different temperatures (17, 20, 23, 26 and 29℃) were constructed.The results showed that the developmental rate of L. lucorum increased with the increment of temperature at 17-32℃, and the relationship between them could be simulated by the Logistic model. The developmental durations of nymph, preoviposition, egg and generation were 10.04-27.63, 8.33-19.33, 6.74-15.00 and 25.11-61.96 days at the experimental temperatures, respectively. The threshold temperatures of nymph, preoviposition and egg were 9.45, 7.28 and 6.28℃ with effective accumulated temperatures of 210.25, 191.83 and 160.12 day-degree, respectively. The effective accumulated temperature of the whole generation was 555.04 day-degree. The generation survival rate, preoviposition time, number of nymph produced by one female and population trend index all reached the highest at 23℃, being 82.30%, 41.67 days, 35.42 and 14.58, respectively. Population trend index at 17℃ and 29℃ were 8.44 and 9.06 respectively, which were not suitable for the incre ment of L. lucorum population.
    Effects of several potential spatial repellents on the hostseeking behavior ofAedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae)
    HAO Hui-Ling, DU Jia-Wei
    2008, 51(11):  1220-1224. 
    Abstract ( 3596 )   PDF (1170KB) ( 939 )     
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    Host-seeking behaviors of Aedes albopictus after treatments with spatial repellents at a certain concentration for given time were studied. The results indicated that mosquitoes after treatments with citral, eugenol, linalool, geraniol, anisaldehyde at concentrations of 0.013-0.500 μg/cm3 for 24-96 h, respectively,  all showed different degrees of reduction in host seeking ability, of which geraniol and anisaldehyde were more effective. But citronellal was ineffective in reducing the host seeking ability of Aedes albopictus in all the test levels. Mosquitoes which had lost the host seeking ability after above treatments with geraniol, citral, eugenol, linalool and anisaldehyde were able to recover to the normal ability when fed the normal 6% syrup diet for some time, but the mosquitoes after a treatment with 0.250 μg/cm3 of anisaldehyde for 96 h showed a long continually inhibitory response for host seeking ability. These initial laboratory results clearly showed that anisealdehyde and geraniol could be promising spatial repellents against Ae. albopictus and may play a major role in the new repellent technology.