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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 December 2008, Volume 51 Issue 12
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    Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of Maruca testulalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) adult and its sensory responses to sex pheromone and plant volatiles
    WANG Xia
    2008, 51(12):  1225-1234. 
    Abstract ( 3767 )   PDF (883KB) ( 1129 )     
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    The structure and olfactory function of antennal sensilla of the bean pod borer Maruca testulalis (Geyer) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were investigated by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electroantennogram (EAG) technology. The results showed that there are five types of sensilla in both male and female antennaincluding sensilla trichodeasensilla chaeticasensilla coeloconicumsensilla auricillica and sensilla styloconicum whereas another type of sensillasensilla cylindricwas observed only in the male antenna. The number of all types of sensilla in both male and female adults was statistically analyzed by dividing the antenna into three sections (basal middle and distal). It was found that the quantity of sensilla was significantly different between male and female in three types of sensilla (sensilla trichodea sensilla coeloconicum and sensilla auricillica). The EAG responses of male and female adults to sex pheromone(E10 E12)-hexadecadienal and (E10 E12)-hexadecadien-1-oland plant volatilescis-3-hexenyl acetate and (l)-linaloolshowed no correlation between the number of sensilla and the EAG amplitude. The sensilla contributed to the sensory responses to pheromone compounds are mainly distributed in 24 distal flagellar segments of the antenna (1/3) but the segments detecting the plant volatiles are distributed in 48 distal flagellar segments of the antenna (2/3)
    Cloning and expression analysis of a heat shock protein 70 gene TCHSP70-4 from Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae)
    LI Ming
    2008, 51(12):  1235-1242. 
    Abstract ( 3434 )   PDF (1316KB) ( 1147 )     
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     In order to study the correlation between the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the adaptation to high and low temperature stress of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval), the cDNA of a HSP70 gene named TCHSP70-4 was cloned by using the species homology and technique of rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) from carmine spider mite. The full-length of TCHSP70-4 cDNA (GenBank accession no.EU977182) was 2 182 bp and the open reading frame (ORF) was 1 959 bp encoding a polypeptide of 653 amino acids, with an estimated molecular mass of 70.9 kDa and an estimated isoelectric piont (pI) of 5.40. It contained the highly conserved functional motifs of the HSP70 family. Comparative quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of TCHSP70-4 gene after the treatments of cold shock (4) and heat shock (40) for 1 h, respectively. The results showed that the mRNA expression of TCHSP70-4 was significantly down-regulated after cold shock and significantly up-regulated after heat shock. The result of TCHSP70-4 gene expression, on one hand, revealed that the gene is of induced HSP70 geneon the other hand, it also revealed that its expression and protective effect were different after cold stress and heat stress.
    Analysis of molecular evolution of BmNPV egt gene
    CAO Guang-Li
    2008, 51(12):  1244-1254. 
    Abstract ( 3548 )   PDF (3781KB) ( 1314 )     
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    The fragment of ecdysone UDP-glucosyltransferase gene (egtwas obtained by PCR from Bombyx mori nuclearpolyhedrosis virus (BmNPV), and sequence analysis showed that it contained the complete ORF of EGT which could form advanced structure of EGT functional region. Furthermore, for exploring the origin of egt, several putative uridine diphosphate glucosyl/glucuronosyltransferase genes (UGTs) of B. mori were electronically cloned. Evolutionary analysis indicated that EGT of BmNPV was of antennal-enriched UGT. Moreover, egt genes from nucleopolyhedrivirus (NPV) and granulovirus (GV) were presumed to originate from insect UGT gene, but the evolutionary origin of GV egt was earlier than that of NPV. During the stage of ancestor species evolving to different insects, the ancestor species of baculovirus might have obtained antennal-enriched UGT, which evolved to egt gene later. In the silkworm genome, part of UGT gene is closely linked with transposon, indicating that baculovirus had obtained egt gene through transfer of the transposon.
    Metabolism of pyrethroids by Helicoverpa armigera cytochrome P450 gene CYP9A12 heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisia
    ZHANG Shuang
    2008, 51(12):  1255-1259. 
    Abstract ( 3200 )   PDF (849KB) ( 859 )     
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    Enhancement in cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidative metabolism is a major factor responsible for pyrethroid resistance in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, and constitutive overexpression of CYP9A12 was associated with pyrethroid resistance. To examine the involvement of cytochrome P450 gene CYP9A12 in pyrethroid metabolism, we measured the metabolism of deltamethrin, cyhalothrin, fenpropathrin and bifenthrin by CYP9A12 expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The metabolism rates of heterologously expressed CYP9A12 against deltamethrin, cyhalothrin and fenpropathrin were 8.58, 5.85 and 3.94 pmol/min·mg protein, respectively. No fenpropathrin metabolism was detected in CYP9A12 containing yeast cell lysates. This study showed that CYP9A12 has the capacity to metabolize several pyrethroids, providing direct evidence for the involvement of CYP9A12 in pyrethroid resistance in H. armigera.
    Sublethal effects of four insecticides on the development and reproduction of Adelphocoris suturalis Jakovlev (Hemiptera: Miridae)
    LI Guo-Ping
    2008, 51(12):  1260-1264. 
    Abstract ( 3463 )   PDF (862KB) ( 858 )     
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    The sublethal doses LC10, LC20, and LC30 of chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, cyhalothrin, and imidacloprid to the 1 day-old adults of Adelphocoris saturalis Jakovlev were determined in a glass-vial bioassay, and the sublethal effects of four insecticides at the LC20 dose on A. saturalis were studied. The results showed that the four insecticides significantly reduced the longevity of female and male adults and prolonged the hatching period, while not significantly affected the egg hatching rate. Chlorpyrifos and endosulfan significantly shortened the preovipositon period. Cyhalothrin and imidacloprid significantly decreased the eggs laid per female. After the survived individuals were treated with chlorpyrifos at the LC10 and LC30 doses cross-mated with the untreated adults, the longevity of female and male adults was also reduced. Different cross types at the LC10 dose all decreased the eggs laid per female and the hatching rates, and prolonged the hatching period. The survival rates of subsequent nymphs of LC30♀×CK and LC30♀×LC30 were significantly lower than that of the control. These results showed that the sublethal doses of the four insecticides had adverse effects on fecundity of A. saturalis, and mating of treated adults with untreated ones also has an adverse effect on fecundity of their offsprings. This study provides certain guidance for designing the regional IPM program for A. saturalis.
    Physical and biochemical mechanisms of resistance of different rice varieties to the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    WANG Qi-Xiang
    2008, 51(12):  1265-1270. 
    Abstract ( 4308 )   PDF (995KB) ( 1169 )     
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    Cnaphalocrocis medinalis outbreak occurred in recent years in rice production region of China. To breed and extend resistance variety in pest management, the present paper investigated the relationship of silica content, silica grain diameter and wax content in rice leaf and biochemical index in five common rice cultivars, including Yangfujing 8, Yangdao 6, Yangjing 9538, Huaidao 9 and Ningjing 1, with resistance to rice leaffolder C. medinalis, and compared the differences in biochemical responses in larvae feeding on different rice varieties using scanning electron microscope and biochemical detection. The results showed that silica content of resistant varieties, Ningjing 1 and Huaidao 8, was significantly higher than that of susceptible varieties, but there were no significant differences in silica grain diameter among different varieties. Wax content in leaf blade of Ningjing 1 was significantly higher than that of other varieties, indicating that silica and wax contents in leaf surface were associated with resistance of rice to the insect. POD and SOD activities in resistant variety were significantly higher than those in susceptible variety, while MDA level in resistant variety was significantly lower than that in susceptible variety. Correspondently, enzyme activities in rice leaffolder larvae were related to rice variety. POD and GST activities in larvae feeding on resistant variety were significantly higher than those feeding on susceptible variety, while SOD activity in larvae feeding on resistant variety was significantly lower than that feeding on susceptible variety, indicating that resistant rice varieties had toxic effects on the larvae of C. medinalis.
    Seasonal variation in cold tolerance of the multicolored ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) adults
    ZHAO Jing
    2008, 51(12):  1271-1278. 
    Abstract ( 3471 )   PDF (9195KB) ( 1060 )     
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     In this study, seasonal variation in cold tolerance of Harmonia axyridis adults were investigated by measuring their supercooling point (SCP), water content, total fat content and cold survival ability. The results indicated that cold tolerance of the adults varied obviously  with seasons. The pre-winter adults had higher tolerance to low temperature than the summer and post-winter adults. Summer adults with cold acclimation (5, 5 d) before the occurrence of low temperatures showed higher cold tolerance. The SCPs and the water and fat content of the female and male adults varied remarkably in different seasons. The SCPs of female and male adults were highest in July (-7.6 and -8.0, respectively) while lowest in January (-18.1 and -16.9, respectively); the water contents of female and male adults were highest in September (66.87% and 68.01%, respectively) while lowest in February (52.94% and 51.53%, respectively). The SCP and water content of over-wintering adults were significantly lower than those in other seasons. But the total fat contents of pre-winter female and male adults (50.07% and 47.93%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in other seasons
    Diversity of chigger mites on small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan, China
    DONG Wen-Ge
    2008, 51(12):  1279-1288. 
    Abstract ( 3360 )   PDF (1141KB) ( 1779 )     
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     The aim of the present study was to study the species diversity, community structure, similarity, distribution and niche of chigger mites on the body surface of 3 303 small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Dali, Yunnan by using Shannon-Wiener, hierarchical cluster analysis (SPSS 13.0) and Levins'niche. The investigated site was located in the wild rodent-type plague focus, one of 11 known plague foci in China and also an important focus of both tsutsugamushi disease and epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF), where stand alongside three cordilleras surrounding the Erhai Lake, namely Eastern Wuliang Mountain, Southern Ailao Mountain and Western Cangshan Mountain. The three confined oriented areas with different landscapes are within the same zone with similar longitude, latitude, altitude and zoological location, which forms an inartificial barrier's isolation by Erhai Lake. A total of 3 303 small mammal hosts were captured from the three differently oriented areas belonging to 7 families, 15 genera and 21 species in 4 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia and Carnivora), 56 895 individuals of chigger mites collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts were identified as 3 subfamilies, 13 genera and 109 species. The abundance, distribution and diversity of chigger mites vary among different populations of host species and habitats. Chigger mites spent a considerable time off hosts (only the larvae are ectoparasites) and so are strongly affected by the off-host environment (temperature, precipitation and habitat). Host-specificity of chigger mites is very low, the similarity of chigger mite communities is not highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy and this implies that the co-evolution between small mammals and chigger mites has not reached a high degree, and the above ecological characteristics of chigger mites might strengthen the chigger mites' potential ability of transmitting some mites born diseases among different small mammal hosts.
    Morphometric studies on Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria
    Anopheles gambiae complex; morphometric analysis; sibling species; seasonal population; Abeokuta; Nigeria
    2008, 51(12):  1289-1292. 
    Abstract ( 3022 )   PDF (1022KB) ( 1565 )     
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    Morphometric analysis of Anopheles gambiae complex was carried out in Abeokuta metropolis. Six characters including the antennal length, wing length, proboscis length, fore leg length, mid leg length and hind leg length, were measured in 364 individual samples of Anopheles gambiae complex collected between August 2005 and July 2006 using light traps. The monthly mean length of each character was subject to regression analysis while co-efficient of difference (CD) was used to determine the presence of sibling species. The results revealed that the mean length in each character was higher for the wet season population as compared with the dry season population. However, the regression analysis showed that the variation was not season specific (P>0.05). Only the antennal length and wing length indicated two distinct populations when subjected to co-efficient of difference (CD>1.28), while other characters indicated one population. The results therefore suggest that the antennal length and wing length may be of significant value in sorting siblings of A. gambiae complex in the study area.
    Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR technique and its applications in entomological studies
    WANG Guang-Hua
    2008, 51(12):  1293-1303. 
    Abstract ( 3200 )   PDF (1270KB) ( 1057 )     
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    Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR is a laboratory technique for quantitative measurement of the DNA template concentration by monitoring the fluorescent signal in each of DNA amplification cycle. This technique is accurate, speedy, sensitive and specific. It has been widely used in such fields as bioengineering, quarantine, microbe identification and classification, food safety inspection and medical science. In this article, the principles, characteristics and recent advances in fluorescent probes of the real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR assay, and its applications in entomological studies were reviewed.
    Preparation of the antiserum to HassGαq of Helicoverpa assulta(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its immunolocalization in the antenna
    QIAO Qi
    2008, 51(12):  1304-1308. 
    Abstract ( 3197 )   PDF (3558KB) ( 814 )     
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    The objective of this study is to localize G protein αq subunit of Helicoverpa assulta (HassGαq) in the male antennae for the further research about the role of HassGαq in olfactory signal transduction in H. assulta. Balb/c mice were immunized with HassGαq protein expressed in prokaryotic cells to produce antiserum. The prepared antiserum and the purchased anti-Gq/11α antiserum were used in Western blot after male antennal homogenate of Helicoverpa assulta was separated by SDS-PAGE. The results indicated that the prepared antiserum could react with HassGαq, and also the non-target proteins, suggesting that several transcripts of HassGαq or other G protein α subunits may be expressed in male antennae. In addition, anti-Gq/11α antiserum could detect HassGαq with high specificity. Accordingly, the expression sites of HassGαq in adult male antennae were examined by immunocytochemical method using anti-Gq/11α antiserum. The results revealed that HassGαq was associated with trichodic sensilla and basiconic sensilla as immunolabelling were typically observed inside and at the base of the two kinds of sensilla. It is so inferred that HassGαq may be involved in olfactory signal transduction in H. assulta.
    Attraction of face fly Musca autumnalis De Geer(Diptera: Muscidae) to ornamental plants Euonymus europaeus and E. kiautschovicus
    JIANG Jin-Wei
    2008, 51(12):  1309-1312. 
    Abstract ( 3733 )   PDF (1058KB) ( 1218 )     
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    Experiments in attraction of face fly Musca autumnalis De Geer females to ornamental plants Euonymus europaeus and E. kiautschovicus were conducted in the laboratory with Y-shaped glass olfactometer. The two plant species could attract face fly female adults, but E. europaeus was better in attraction of face flies than E. kiautschovicus. Female face flies responded more actively to odors of flowers of Euonymus plants than to odors of leaves, but leaves also played some roles in attraction when applied alone, and synergized the attraction of flowers when used together. Flowers of E. europaeus were extracted with several solvents, and the results showed that water or methanol extracts were better in attraction than hexane extracts. Frozen flowers showed similar attraction effects to fresh ones.
    Bionomics of the tachinid parasitoid Nemorilla maculosa (Diptera: Tachinidae) adults
    CHEN Hai-Xi
    2008, 51(12):  1313-1319. 
    Abstract ( 3403 )   PDF (1134KB) ( 1081 )     
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    The tachinid fly Nemorilla maculosa Meigen (Diptera: Tachinidae) is an important parasitoid of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and other lepidopterous pests. Bionomics of this parasitoid, however, has been less understood. The emergence, mating duration, lifetime fecundity and lifespan of N. maculosa adults in relation to various types of supplemental nutrition were investigated under laboratory conditions (22, L16D8). The results showed that N. maculosa adults emerge mostly during hours of 08: 00-10: 00 and 14: 00-16: 00 of the day although they could emerge at any time of the day. Males emerge usually one day earlier than females. Males mate at the second day after emergence while females mate immediately after emergence. Mating duration of the fly could last 10-54 min but mostly last 20-30 min. Number of eggs laid per female is 154.1 on average. Longevity of female and male is 26.6 and 10.2 days on average, respectively, and differs significantly under the same environmental condition. The preoviposition period of females is 3.8 days on average, and the durational time of egg-laying is 15.5 days on average. Feeding with 10% honey, glucose and sucrose solution showed no significant effect on lifetime fecundity of N. maculosa adults, but the flies fed with water or pure hungered laid significantly less eggs than those fed with sugar solution mentioned. Lifespan of female flies fed with various types of supplemental nutrition were significantly greater than that fed with only water or nothing. Lifespan of the males, however, was not significantly different whether they were fed with supplemental nutrition or not. Lifetime fecundity of the female adults was significantly and positively correlated to their lifespan when they were fed with various types of supplemental nutrition. The significances of these findings were finally discussed.
    Effects of environment color on developmental characteristics and reproduction capability of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
    WANG Su
    2008, 51(12):  1320-1326. 
    Abstract ( 3551 )   PDF (1140KB) ( 849 )     
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    In laboratory conditions, the effects of environment color on development, variation of body length and weight gain, and reproduction capability of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were investigated through rearing the beetle with differently colored containers. The results showed significant effects of different environment colors on the developmental duration of H. axyridis larvae in each instar. The total duration of postovarian development, however, was not significantly different among different color treatments although the effect of environment color on the pupal duration was significant. The different color treatments showed no significant effects on body length increase in 1st and 2nd instar, but the body length increase in 3rd instar in red color treatment was significantly less than in other color treatments. We also found significant effect of environment color on body weight gain. Especially, the weight gain in 4th instar was significantly greater than in other instars in each colored treatment and accounted for over 50% weight gain in the duration of total postovarian development. Although the mating duration of H. axyridis was not significantly different among different color treatments, the pre-oviposition duration was significantly shorter in yellow and green treatments than in other treatments. In addition, the observation results of fecundity showed that the accumulated amount of eggs in 48 h was significantly less in red and natural light treatments than in other treatments.