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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 July 2010, Volume 53 Issue 7
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Effect of thermal stress on the generation of ROS, HSP90 and apoptosis in haemocytes of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae
    CUI Ya-Dong, DU Yu-Zhou, LU Ming-Xing, HU Mao-Zhi
    2010, 53(7):  721-726. 
    Abstract ( 3792 )   PDF (1164KB) ( 1119 )     
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    To explore cellular defense against thermal stress in Chilo suppressalis larva, we investigated the effect of thermal stress on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), heat shock protein 90(HSP90)and apoptosis in haemocytes of C. suppressalis larvae by flow cytometry. The results indicated that thermal stress significantly elevated the level of ROS in the 5th instar larva of C. suppressalis. The ROS level in larvae exposed to 33, 36, and 39℃ for 2 h reached 1.71-, 1.69- and 1.38- fold of the control (28℃), respectively, while there was no significant difference in the level of ROS in larvae exposed to 33-39℃. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that HSP90 gene expression could be induced by heat stress. Flow cytometric results revealed that the expression profile of HSP90 at the protein level is highly in agreement with at the mRNA level. The exposure to target temperatures did not lead to any significant apoptotic differences in the larval haemocytes. The study further suggests that ROS can modulate HSP90 gene expression, and increased HSP90 protein synthesis may determine their greater resistance to stressor that elicits the formation of ROS-induced cellular damage, and this inhibits haemocyte apoptosis in the exposed organism.
    Cloning, sequence analysis and detection of tissue-specific expression of the intestinal protein gene SeM-8 from Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) peritrophic membrane
    LI Wen, GUO Wei, ZHANG Xia, LI Jie, SUN Wei-Ming
    2010, 53(7):  727-733. 
    Abstract ( 3484 )   PDF (9054KB) ( 1300 )     
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    Invertebrate intestinal mucin (IIM) is one of the important components of proteins on peritrophic membrane and plays a very important role in the protection against microbial infection of insects. The instestinal protein gene SeM-8 was amplified from 5th instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua by using RT-PCR technique. Sequence analysis showed that its open reading frame (ORF) is 2 703 bp in length, encoding a polypeptide of 900 amino acid residues with the predicted molecular mass of 95.7 kDa. SeM-8 protein shares 48%, 49% and 45% identities in amino acid with homologues from Helicoverpa armigera, Mamestra configurata and Plutella xylostella, respectively. Immuno-localization analysis showed that SeM-8 could be detected in egg, peritrophic membrane, midgut tissue and fecal pellets, but not detected in Malpighian tubules, fat body, salivary glands and haemolymph of 5th instar larvae. The results provided a foundation for pest management by using midgut as target.  
    Attraction of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) by several plant volatiles and aggregation pheromone
    LI Yuan, ZHAO Pei, YIN Chun-Yan, LIU Xiao-Xia, ZHANG Qing-Wen
    2010, 53(7):  734-740. 
    Abstract ( 3864 )   PDF (1045KB) ( 1439 )     
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    The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is one of the most notorious insect pests of potato. Because of its serious resistance to pesticides, an alternative control of CPB is desperately needed. In order to develop an effective attractant for trapping CPB, the behavioral responses of CPB to seven plant-derived volatiles, eight odorous blends, and CPB aggregation pheromone were tested by the Y-tube olfactometer. Field trapping was further conducted based on the results of laboratory behavioral bioassays. The results of laboratory behavioral bioassays showed that 2-phenylethanol was attractive to both sexes. While male beetles were strongly attracted to a three-component blend [comprised of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate + linalool + methyl salicylate] (81.67%), females showed low attraction (63.33%). The addition of aggregation pheromone to the three-component blend increased the attraction percentage of both male (88.33%) and female beetles (83.33%), and reduced the difference between the responses of sexes. The results of field tests indicated that the combination of the pheromone and the blend of three-component plant volatiles exhibited the highest attraction to CPB in the field. So these results provide a basis for the use of the pheromone and plant volatiles as a component of forecast and control of the CPB.  
    Effects of high temperature on life table parameters and the susceptibility to avermectin of progenies in insecticide-resistant and susceptible Plutella xylostella L.(Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)
    ZHUANG Hua-Mei, WUANG Kuan-Fu, Liu Qun, LIU Fang, SUN Zuo-Yang, ZHOU Fang, WU Gang, ZHAO Shi-Xi
    2010, 53(7):  741-747. 
    Abstract ( 3544 )   PDF (1025KB) ( 1256 )     
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    To investigate the effects of high temperature on biological fitness and evolution of insecticide resistance, the life-table parameters and susceptibility to avermectin in the progenies of insecticide-resistant and -susceptible populations of Plutella xylostella were studied. The results showed that both resistant and susceptible populations displayed significantly lower development duration (D), net reproduction rate (R0), innate rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), total fecundity number, average longevity of female adult, daily fecundity number and hatchability at 33.5℃ as compared to those at 25℃. There were no significant differences in rm, λ, D and daily fecundity number between resistant population and susceptible population. although R0 of resistant population was slightly lower than that of susceptible population at 25℃(87% of the susceptible population). However, compared to the susceptible population, the resistant population had significantly lower R0 (75% of the susceptible population), rm (64% of the susceptible population), average longevity of female, total fecundity number and hatchability at 33.5℃. The avermevtin resistance declined greatly in the progenies of resistant population after the insects were reared at 33.5℃ for one generation. However, no great decrease of avermectin resistance was found in the progenies of susceptible population under the same treatment condition. The results suggest that the biological fitness of resistant population was eventually lower than that of susceptible population at both high and normal temperatures. In particular, the fitness of resistant population was far lower than that of susceptible population under high temperature condition. Significantly lower biological fitness of resistant population under heat stress might result in the sharp decline of avermectin resistance in the progenies of resistant population when the insects were reared at 33.5℃ for one generation.
    Effect of seed dressing with neonicotinoid insecticides on food utilization and development of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae
    GUO Jian-Guo, ZHANG Hai-Ying, LIU Yong-Gang, Lü He-Ping, GUO Wen-Chao
    2010, 53(7):  748-753. 
    Abstract ( 3818 )   PDF (1012KB) ( 1274 )     
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    In order to study digestive absorption and development of potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata larvae feeding on the potato leaves grown from seed tubers (planting for 90 d) dressed with thiamethoxam and imidacloprid (18 g a.i./100 kg), nutritional index of larvae such as food intake, body weight gain, food utilization efficiency, food conversion rate and approximate digestibility and pupal weight were tested with weighing method in the laboratory. The results indicated that the larvae feeding on the potato leaves grown from seed tubers dressed with 70% thiamethoxam ZF had significantly lower food intake, body weight gain, pupal weight, food utilization efficiency, food conversion rate, approximate digestibility and relative growth rate, and significantly longer developmental duration than those feeding on the leaves grown from seed tubers dressed with 10% imidacloprid WP and the blank control(P<0.05). On the contrary, seed dressed with 10% imidacloprid WP caused significant lower food intake and body weight gain in 3rd and 4th instar larvae compared with the blank control(P<0.05), while there were no significant difference in pupal weight, body weight gain in 1st and 2nd instar larva,food utilization efficiency, food conversion rate, approximate digestibility, relative growth rate and developmental duration than the blank control(P>0.05).The results suggest that 70% thiamethoxam ZF significantly inhibited larval food intake, causing it unable to meet their nutrient needs for growth and development. When L. decemlineata larvae fed on the potato leaves grown from seed tubers dressed with 70% thiamethoxam ZF, approximate digestibility and relative growth rate can be significantly reduced, and the developmental duration obviously prolonged, which may facilitate to reduce the seasonal number of generations so as to decrease the harm.
    Effects of polycultural manipulation on population dynamics of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and its natural enemies in rice-based ecosystems
    LIN Sheng, YANG Guang, YOU Min-Sheng, YAO Feng-Luan
    2010, 53(7):  754-766. 
    Abstract ( 3548 )   PDF (1671KB) ( 1288 )     
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    To explore the effects of the mosaic arrangement of paddy and non-paddy habitats on the rice leaf folder [Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée), RLF] and its natural enemies, experiments were carried out during 2007 and 2008 by outdoor sampling, using suction sampler and pitfall trap, and indoor examining for identification and classification of the samples at the Wuyishan Experimental Station of Institute of Applied Ecology (IAE), Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (FAFU). The polycultural manipulations were arranged by mosaic patterns of paddy plots intercropped with non-paddy plots, which included the plants of chili, ginger, maize and peanut. Monocultural fields of paddy plants were set as controls. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the abundance of RLF and its parasitoid guild between polycultural and monocultural fields. The abundance of predatory arthropods (spiders and insects) in paddy within polycultural fields was significantly less than that within monocultural fields, but the results were reverse in paddy borders, with significantly higher ground-dwelling predators in polycultural fields. This may mainly be due to the preference of predatory arthropods, especially predatory insects, for migrating from paddy into non-paddy habitats within polycultural fields.
    Simulation of control effectiveness of several secondary metabolites against populations of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae)
    ZHONG Ping-Sheng, LIANG Guang-Wen, ZENG Ling
    2010, 53(7):  767-772. 
    Abstract ( 3208 )   PDF (3219KB) ( 951 )     
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    To research the effect mechanism on ecological control of population of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), the control effect of secondary metabolities against BPH was simulated and evaluated using state space equation and factor-adding analysis method. The different combining of alcohol extracts from Mikania micrantha, Eupatorium odoratum and Melia azedarach employed BPH population, and constructed the control model of Nilaparvata lugens population system. Based on the data from different stages, the values of systematic matrix were fitted, and the control effect of secondary metabolities against BPH was simulated. The results showed that the secondary metabolites of Mikania micrantha, Eupatorium odoratum, Melia azedarach applied alone, could drastically decrease the population quantity of BPH, yet the population trend index (I) was still above 1.00, which could not control BPH population to a sustainable decrease. Either two or three kinds of secondary metabolites simultaneously could control the increase of BPH population effectively. Meanwhile, the control mechanism of secondary metabolites on BPH population was its deterrent effect, especially in the initial stages of population development. The egg number of BPH was reduced significantly due to the strong deterrent effect on adults of BPH. As a result, the population number and the harm of BPH population were reduced significantly.
    Life tables of the laboratory population of the peach fruit borer, Carposina sasakii Matsumura at different temperatures
    LI Ding-Xu, WANG Hong-Wei, WANG Jia-Yang,KANG Zhao-Kui, DONG Jun-Feng, SHEN Zuo-Rui
    2010, 53(7):  773-779. 
    Abstract ( 3242 )   PDF (2598KB) ( 1238 )     
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    In order to explore the effects of temperature on the population growth of the peach fruit borer, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, we investigated the developmental durations, survivorships, and/or fecundity of this pest in the laboratory under the conditions of 17, 20, 23, 26, 29, and 32(±1) ℃, 80%±7% RH and a photoperiod of 15L:9D (Light : Dark), and then, constructed life tables of the laboratory population of the C. sasakii in each of the temperature except 32℃. The results showed that the developmental duration decreased with the temperature increasing from 17℃ to 32℃. The longest duration of the generation was 70.19 days observed at 17℃, the shortest was 27.42 days at 32℃, and the relationship between developmental rates and temperatures could be simulated by the Logistic model. The percentage of neonatal larvae bored into fruit increased with the increasing temperature, while the relationship between the percentage (y) of larvae exited from fruit and temperature (x) could be described by the equation: y=-0.5638x2+27.882x-269.18 (R2=0.9801,P<0.01). The cocooning rate of larvae and the emergence rate of pupa differed insignificantly over the temperature of 17~29℃, but decreased sharply at 32℃. Adult lifespan and fecundity of the female decreased with the temperature increasing, and the highest mating rate of the female and population trend index were found at 23℃, but both the survival rate of immature stage and the intrinsic rate of increase were the highest at 26℃. Relationship between the generation survival rate (S), the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and temperature (x) could be described by the equations: S = -0.073x3+4.626x2 - 92.019x + 596.57(R2=0.9832), rm = -0.0008x2+0.0409x-0.4438 (R2=0.9851, P<0.01). So, it is concluded that temperature has great effect on the development of C. sasakii, and the most suitable temperature range for this pest is from 23℃ to 26℃, during which there are higher intrinsic rate of increase and higher index of population trend.
    Effects of leaf thickness and gossypol gland density of cotton on its resistance to Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür)(Hemiptera: Miridae)
    LIN Feng-Min, WU Di, LU Yan-Hui, ZHANG Yong-Jun, WANG Mo, WU Kong-Ming, GUO Yu-Yuan
    2010, 53(7):  780-785. 
    Abstract ( 4060 )   PDF (824KB) ( 1071 )     
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    To investigate the relationship between the resistance of cotton to Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) and the leaf characteristics, the resistance levels of different cotton varieties to A. lucorum were evaluated in the field, and the leaf thickness, the leaf epidermis thickness and the gossypol gland density of cotton leaves during different growth stages were measured in the laboratory. The results indicated that Jinmian 26, Jifeng 989, Chang D and Yazhoumian had high resistance to A. lucorum. The leaf thickness, the leaf epidermis thickness and the gossypol glands density of cotton leaves during different growth stages were significantly different among different varieties. The host resistance to A. lucorum showed significant correlation with the leaf epidermis thickness and the gossypol gland density of cotton leaves at bolling stage (y=20.673+0.415x,R2=0.305,P=0.012;y=1.049+0.049x,R2=0.207,P=0.044). The results suggest that cotton varieties with thinner leaf epidermis and more gossypol glands at a certain growth period can be used to minimize the damage by A. lucorum.  
    Oviposition behavior of female adults of Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and the morphology and chemical composition of their oviposition secretion
    LIAO Yong-Lin, LIN Dang-En, WU Wei-Jian, FU Yue-Guan
    2010, 53(7):  786-793. 
    Abstract ( 3389 )   PDF (4203KB) ( 1389 )     
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    The behavioral sequence of the oviposition process can be quite distinct in the spiralling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): egg spirals covered with silken wax that the adult whitefly deposits on foliage. Females were recorded with a digital camera in order to analyze their oviposition behavior. The morphology of silken wax produced by female adults was examined by stereoscope and scanning electron microscope and its chemical components were determined by GC/MS. One female alone could lay a typical egg spiral. Once another female joined in, the oviposition behavior could take place as first traversing the typical spirals and then around the spirals, only across the pioneer spirals, or directly around the pioneer spirals. The female adults secreted their silken wax with white color and intertwined structure. The main components of oviposition secretion were long-chain saturated hydrocarbons (66.21%) and aromatic esters (26%), together with several other acids and phenols. Three iodine compounds (10.64%) as well as straight-chain hydrocarbons with carbon atoms ranging from C8 to C30 were identified in saturated hydrocarbons. Three aromatic esters with carbon atoms ranging from C16 to C24 were found, and the relative content of dibutyl phthalate (21.19%) was greater than others. Possible roles of the silken wax in attracting the crawlers, protecting against natural enemies and providing a barrier to other herbivores are discussed.  
    Flower-visiting insects and behavior of nectar-robbers associated to Clematis heracleifolia
    LIANG Zhi-Pin, LI Hou-Hun, HU Bing-Bing1, ZHAO Tie-Jian, REN Xiu-Bai
    2010, 53(7):  794-801. 
    Abstract ( 3737 )   PDF (1467KB) ( 1344 )     
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    Most flowers of Clematis heracleifolia DC. droop greatly, which need pollinating insects for pollination. However, there has been no report on the flower-visiting insects of C. heracleifolia so far. During two years’ field investigation, we observed twenty-seven insect species visiting the flowers of C. heracleifolia. Seven of them are nectar robbers, of which one is involved in the primary and secondary nectar robbing, two are the primary robbers, and the other four are the secondary robbers; Xylocopa appendiculata Smith is the main nectar robber, and its activities affect the foraging behaviors of other flower-visiting insects and the pollination of C. heracleifolia. Among other twenty flower-visiting insects, Lobocla bifasciata (Bremer et Grey), Gonodontis aurata Prout, Bombus sp. and Systropus sp. are the dominant species; Oxycetonia jucunda Faldermann and Ducetia japonica (Thunberg) rarely visit flowers, but feed on the flowers only. Through investigation of the flowervisiting insects and study on the behavior of the nectar robbers, reference data can be acquired for the pollination and protection of C. heracleifolia.
    A review of the genus Systolederus Bolivar (Orthoptera: Tetrigoidea) from China, with descriptions of a new species
    ZHENG Zhe-Min, OU Xiao-Hong
    2010, 53(7):  802-808. 
    Abstract ( 3190 )   PDF (958KB) ( 984 )     
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    The genus Systolederus Bolivar from China is reviewed, with 11 species recorded, including a new species, Systolederus brachynotus sp. nov., from Yunnan. A key to species of Systolederus from China is provided. Type specimens of the new species are kept in Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University and the Museum of Southwest Forestry University.
    Molecular biology of the occlusion-derived virus envelope proteins
    XIANG Xing-Wei, WU Xiao-Feng
    2010, 53(7):  809-817. 
    Abstract ( 3277 )   PDF (1490KB) ( 1247 )     
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    Studies on the baculovirus envelope proteins are important to reveal the mechanism of viral entry and nuclear transporting and targeting of the envelope proteins and also fundamental for the development of new strategies for insect control. Recent researches showed that the envelope proteins of occlusion-derived virus (ODV) include ODV-E25, ODV-E66, ODV-E56, ODV-E18, ODV-E28, P74, PIF1, PIF2, PIF3, GP41, ODV-EC27, ODV-E35, ODV-EC43,BV/ODV-E26,P91 and ORF 150. This article reviewed the recent research achievements about the structure and function of the baculovirus envelope proteins. Most envelope proteins are related to per os infection, cell cycle regulation, and the trafficking of envelope proteins. The mechanism of trafficking of ODV envelope proteins, their interaction with insect midgut and the OB matrix, and the protein-protein interaction of ODV structural proteins will be the focus of future research.
    Construction of the full-length cDNA clone of Ectropis oblique picorna-like virus
    LIN Mei-Juan, XIE Jian, ZHANG Jia-Min, YE Shan, HU Yuan-Yang
    2010, 53(7):  818-823. 
    Abstract ( 3054 )   PDF (2265KB) ( 1140 )     
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    The viral total RNA was extracted from dead larvae of the tea looper, Ectropis oblique infected by E. oblique picorna-like virus (EoPV). Five pairs of primers were designed according to the published sequence of EoPV to amplify 5 overlapping fragments covering EoPV genome. These fragments were subcloned to pMD18-T vector and assembled. The full-length cDNA of p-EoPV was cloned to pET-28a and proved by sequencing and restrictive digestion. Comparing to the published sequence, this clone possessed an 8-amino acid mutation and a 1-amino acid deletion. This study represents the first step towards understanding the mechanism of EoPV replication.  
    Establishment and application of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR for detection of Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus
    QIAO Lu-Qin, QU Liang-Jian, WANG Yu-Zhu, ZHANG Yong-An, YANG Zhong-Qi, TAO Wan-Qiang, GUAN Ling
    2010, 53(7):  824-830. 
    Abstract ( 3491 )   PDF (24625KB) ( 972 )     
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    Primers were designed based on polyhedrin from Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus in order to establish the detection method of SYBR GreenⅠ real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR for HcNPV, and the standard curve of SYBR GreenⅠreal-time fluorescence quantitative PCR for polyhedrin was established through PCR amplification, ligation of target genes and vector, transformation, identification of recombinant plasmid and DNA sample detection. Statistic analysis showed that there was a good linear relationship between Ct value and the logarithmic value of plasmid concentrations (R=0.998). The sensitivity of the method was 101-1×102 copies/μL, and wide detection range of 5 orders of magnitude was obtained. Larvae infected at different time were sampled and detected by the method, and the results showed that there was a good linear relation between the logarithmic value of the multiples of gene copies and the infection time (R= 0.987). The results show that the detection method for HcNPV is of high sensitivity, reproducibility and credibility, which will facilitate the epizootiology and the standardized production for insect virus.