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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 August 2010, Volume 53 Issue 8
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Transcriptional changes of cytoskeleton related proteins of Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) after parasitization by the endoparasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)
    ZHU Jia Ying, YE Gong Yin, FANG Qi, LI Yan Min, HU Cui
    2010, 53(8):  831-840. 
    Abstract ( 3506 )   PDF (2016KB) ( 1121 )     
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    To reveal the molecular mechanism of cellular immune response of Pieris rapae suppressed by Pteromalus puparum, the cDNAs of actin, actin depolymerisation factor and tubulin from P. rapae were cloned and their transcription regulated by parasitization of P. puparum was investigated. The results indicated that P. rapae actin cDNA contained an open reading frame of 1 131 bp encoding for 377 amino acid residues with the predicted molecular mass and pI of 41.78 kDa and 5.29, respectively. The homology of P. rapae actin with other insect actins was greater than 90% in amino acids. P. rapae actin was classified as the cytoplasmic type by absence of muscle-specific amino acids and phylogenetic tree analysis. The 1 243 bp cDNA sequence of P. rapae actin depolymerisation factor contained an open reading frame of 447 bp encoding a neutral (pI 7.11) protein of 149 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 16.97 kDa, sharing 97%, 87%, 89% and 72% homology with the homologous sequences of Bombyx mori, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera and Maconellicoccus hirsutus, respectively. Nucleotide sequence analysis of P. rapae tubulin showed the full length cDNA of 1 757 bp with the open reading frame of 1 344 bp encoding a protein of 448 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 50.38 kDa and a pI of 4.86. The cDNA-deduced amino acid sequence of P. rapae tubulin showed 97%, 97%, 87% and 93% homology with that of B. mori beta-tubulin 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. P. rapae tubulin was classified as beta type by phylogenetic evolution analysis. The RT-PCR analysis showed that P. rapae actin, actin depolymerisation factor and tubulin genes were all affected by P. puparum parasitization, as indicated by decreased transcription. It is so inferred that the molecular mechanism of cellular immune response of P. rapae inhibited by P. puparum might be the result of the expression of cytoskeleton related protein genes of P. rapae regulated by P. puparum.

    Cloning of the heat shock protein 70 gene from Chilo suppressalis and the analysis of its expression characteristics under heat stress
    CUI Ya Dong, LU Ming Xing, DU Yu Zhou
    2010, 53(8):  841-848. 
    Abstract ( 3020 )   PDF (1745KB) ( 1004 )     
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    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is one of the most conservative and important proteins in heat shock protein family. Overexpression of HSP70 may obviously improve the survivability of cells, and enhance their tolerance to stress. To investigate the effects of heat stress on HSP70 expression in Chilo suppressalis larvae, RT-PCR and RACE methods were used for cloning the full length cDNA encoding HSP70 from haemocytes of C.suppressalis in this study. The cDNA obtained is 2 102 bp in length, containing an ORF of 1 959 bp, encoding 652 amino acid residues, with a 5′UTR of 81 bp and a 3′UTR of 62 bpCluster analysis confirmed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity with the reported homologous sequences from other insects (73%-97%). Real-time quantitative PCR showed that HSP70 gene expression could be induced by heat stress. The maximal induction of HSP70 gene expression in larval haemocytes of C.suppressalis was achieved at 36. HSP70 protein expression was observed by using flow cytometry. The results revealed that the expression profiles of HSP70 at both the mRNA level and the protein level are highly in agreement with each other.

    A genome-wide analysis of P450 gene families in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea)
    ZHANG Yun Hua, WANG Qiang, LIU Jing, ZHANG Peng Fei, CHEN Jian Qun
    2010, 53(8):  849-856. 
    Abstract ( 4377 )   PDF (1180KB) ( 1190 )     
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    Cytochrome P450 plays a dominant role in the metabolism of a wide variety of both endogenous and xenobiotic substances. The evolution of P450 gene function was analyzed in the genome of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, using the mRNA and amino acid data. A genome-wide analysis of P450 genes was performed in pea aphid genome by bioinformatical methods. The results showed that sixty-nine P450 genes were discovered in pea aphid genome, which are of a typical superfamily and belong to 13 families and 18 subfamilies. We collected expression sequence tag (EST) evidence for 39 putative P450s genes, which are expressed at the transcriptional level and more likely to be true P450s. Because of significant differences in gene sequences, among 69 P450 genes 18 genes could not partitioned into any group, while the rest 51 P450 genes were partitioned into 10 groups by a criterion that the genes belong to a group when their amino acid identity is more than 60%. Positive selection and gene conversion were analyzed in 8 groups (including 47 genes). Positive selection was detected in only one group (including 9 genes). The positively selected sites with a more than 95% probability were 20T and 27N, located in substrate recognition site (SRS1) and D-helix, respectively. The significant gene conversion events were detected in 3 groups (8 sequences). P450 genes that identified gene conversion events were members of CYP4 family, which were CYP4C, CYP4G and CYP4V subfamily, respectively. Protein similarity between P450 genes with gene conversion was 70%-95%. P450 genes with gene conversion lay in the same scaffold, e.g., M_001944991 and XM_001951794 lay in SCAFFOLD12542, while XM_001945510 and XM_001944057 lay in SCAFFOLD7010. The results suggest that P450 genes may gain new function through gene duplication and gene conversion. Moreover, twenty motifs were identified, of which 5 motifs existed in over 90% of P450 genes.

     

    Solid-phase microextraction of pheromone components of Dendrolimus houi (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) and their characterization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and GC-electroantennographic detection
    KONG Xiang Bo, ZHAO Li Lin, ZHANG Zhen, WANG Hong Bin, BAI Fang Hua, YU Guo Min
    2010, 53(8):  857-863. 
    Abstract ( 3988 )   PDF (854KB) ( 1126 )     
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    With a close-range live specimen sampling technique based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME), the pheromone components of Dendrolimus houi virgin female moths during the calling period were collected in order to increase the quantities of pheromone components. The sampleloaded SPME fiber was introduced onto the gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) or electroantennographic detection (EAD), and the samples were analyzed under oven temperature program condition. The results indicated that large amounts of (5E, 7Z)-5, 7-dodecadien-1-ol (E5, Z7-12:OH) and (5E, 7Z)-5, 7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (E5, Z7-12:OAc) were obtained by SPME CAR/DVB fiber, and trace amounts of (5E, 7Z)-5, 7-dodecadienal (E5, Z7-12:Ald) were also observed in the effluvia. The three compounds sampled by SPME fiber could evoke electroantennographic responses from male moth antennae. Compared with the pheromone gland extraction method with solvent, SPME sampling technique coupled with GC-MS and GC-EAD analysis has some advantages, such as representative sample collecting, relative large quantities of sample obtained, and solvent-free sample preparation technique, etc. Finally, the importance and practical aspects concerning the SPME are also discussed.

    Expression pattern of sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMP) in adults of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) and its relation with Gqα
    SU Hong Hua, WANG Gui Rong, GUO Yu Yuan
    2010, 53(8):  864-869. 
    Abstract ( 3465 )   PDF (2999KB) ( 1497 )     
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     Insect olfaction is important for insects to detect the food, reproductive partners, oviposition sites, hosts, prey or predators. Sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMP) and Gq alpha subunit (Gqα) were thought to be involved in signal transduction in insect olfaction. In order to make clear the spatial expression pattern of snmp and understand whether Gqα is the direct downstream binding protein of SNMP, semi-quantitative RT-PCR method was used to learn the expression pattern of snmp in antennae, head, thorax, abdomen, legs, wings, proboscis, labial palpus and maxillary palpus of adult Helicoverpa armigera, and yeast two-hybrid technique was used to investigate the relationship between SNMP and Gqα. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR results showed that snmp was expressed not only in the antennae of adult H. armigera, but also in proboscis, labial palpus, maxillary palpus and legs. Yeast two-hybrid screening results showed that Gqα did not directly interact with SNMP. These results suggest that SNMP plays some roles not only in odor detection but also in taste recognition, and SNMP maybe forms a complex with an olfactory receptor (OR) and then binds with Gqα, which needs our further investigation.
    Effects of cantharidin on four metabolizing enzymes and PPO in Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    MA Yan, LIU Rui Rui, MA Zhi Qing, ZHANG Ya Lin
    2010, 53(8):  870-875. 
    Abstract ( 3730 )   PDF (895KB) ( 1090 )     
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    In order to reveal the insecticidal activity and mechanism of cantharidin, the effect of cantharidin on activities of carboxyl esterase (CarE), phosphatases, glutathione S-transferase (GST), O-demethylase of cytochrome P450 and PPO in larvae of  Mythimna separata (Walker) were assayed. The results showed that CarE in the treated insects was distinctly activated and at 48 h after treatment their specific activity was 1.68 times that of the control. ACP activity showed no distinct change at 6 h and 12 h after treatment, but was activated at 24 h after treatment and significantly different from the control (P0.05). The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was inhibited obviously, and the inhibition became more intensive as the exposure time prolonged. The activity of O-demethylase was first inhibited, and then activated. GST activity was first activated, and then inhibited. PPO activity was strongly inhibited by cantharidin both in vitro and in vivo. It is so inferred that catharidin can affect the metabolic enzymes distinctly, and the inhibition on ALP and PPO may be related to its toxic effect.

     

    Effects of sublethal dosage of abamectin and pyridaben on life table of laboratory populations of Tetranychus turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae)
    GU Qing Yi, CHEN Wen Bo, WANG Li Jun, SHEN Jun, ZHANG Jian Ping
    2010, 53(8):  876-883. 
    Abstract ( 3500 )   PDF (1177KB) ( 1159 )     
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     In order to provide the theoretical basis for integrated control of Tetranychus turkestani in Xinjiang province, the sublethal effects of abamectin and pyridaben on experimental populations of T. turkestani were studied. A leaf disc bioassay was employed to examine the effects of sublethal dosage of abamectin and pyridaben on adults and eggs of experimental populations of T. turkestani by means of life tables. The results showed that the fecundity, averagelongevity and egg hatchability of the adults treated by two sublethal concentrations (LC10 and LC20) of abamectin and pyridaben were shortened obviously. The periods of egg, larva, nymph and preoviposition were greatly longer than those of the control, while the adult period and female longevity were significantly shorter than those of the control. The net reproduction rate (R0), finite rate of increase (λ), survival rate and average number of eggs laid per female per day in first filial generation were markedly decreased compared to the control. The intrinsic rates of increaserm dropped from 0.37 to 0.17-0.29. The mean generation time (T) were all shortened than the controls except for abamectinLC20. The population doubling time (Dt) was prolonged. When the eggs were treated by these two sublethal concentrations (LC10 and LC20) of abamectin and pyridaben, the intrinsic rates of increase rm dropped from 0.32 to 0.11-0.22. The net reproduction rate (R0), the mean generation time (T) and finite rate of increase (λ) were decreased, but the population doubling time (Dt) was extended. The periods of larva, nymph and preoviposition were greatly longer than those of the control, while the adult period and female longevity were dramatically shortened than those of the control. The survival rate and average number of eggs laid per female per day were significantly decreased. These results demonstrated that the sublethal dosage of abamectin and pyridaben could decrease the developmental rate of laboratory populations of T. turkestani, which has positive significance toward developing integrated pest management strategies.

    Effect of nutritional status on the parasitism and host feeding behavior of Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) females
    ZHANG Yi Bo, LIU Wan Xue, WAN Fang Hao, LI Qiang
    2010, 53(8):  884-890. 
    Abstract ( 3546 )   PDF (1104KB) ( 1160 )     
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     In order to investigate the host-feeding behavior of Diglyphus isaea (Walker), the oviposition behavior and the trade-off between the two behaviors in different nutritional status, we compared the influences of the parasitism, host-feeding and the lethal capability of female D. isaea on Liriomyza sativae Blanchard larvae that were supplied with the distilled water (hungry), diet with honey and that without honey, respectively. The results showed that under the condition of no-choice, parasitoids in the three kinds of nutritional status had higher parasitism rate on the late instar larva, higher feeding rate on the mid-instar larva, and the mortality and the lethal capability had significant difference. Parasitoids in the three kinds of nutritional status had no lethal capability to the early instar larva. Under the condition of choice, the hungry parasitoids had the lowest parasitism rate (5.0%±1.6%) and the highest feeding rate (16.0%±2.9%), especially the feeding rate of the late instar larvae amounted to 91.9% of all instar larvae. When honey were supplied, the feeding rate (8.3%±0.9%) and the mortality (17.7%±1.1%) of the parasitoid was the lowest; however, its parasitism rate (13.3%±1.1%) and the mortality (28.4%±1.8%) were the highest when no honey was supplied. In conclusion, the parasitoids feeding hosts have stronger lethal capability than those feeding honey, and the parasitoids supplied with host food have stronger activity than those not supplied with host food.

     

    Optimization and application of microencapsulated artificial diet for Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)
    TAN Xiao Ling, WANG Su, LI Xiu Lian, ZHANG Fan
    2010, 53(8):  891-900. 
    Abstract ( 3753 )   PDF (1387KB) ( 1225 )     
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    Orius sauteri is an important biological control agent and the massive factory production breeding of this agent is the core point in application processing. Based on the original artificial diet prescription, our present experiments promoted the artificial diet model for O. sauteri by microencapsulation technology. We confirmed the influences of sodium alginate, chitosan and the proportion of core material to wall-forming material on the yield rate, embedding rate, moisture rate and sensory evaluation level of microencapsulated artificial diet by orthogonal experiments. The results indicated that the influential order of ingredients to the yield rate successively was the proportion of core material to wall-forming material > sodium alginate > chitosan. The influential order of ingredients to embedding rate, however,  was chitosan > sodium alginate > proportion of core material to wall-forming material. Furthermore, the sodium alginate influenced the moisture rate most and then chitosan. We observed similar tendency in sensory evaluation, and the corresponding optimum prescription was sodium alginate 2.0%, chitosan 0.6% and the proportion of core material to wall-forming material 13. Based on the embedding rate, we set the optimum prescription of microencapsulation as sodium alginate 1.0%, chitosan 0.8% and the proportion of core material to wall-forming material 11, and a diet of this prescription was used to compare the development status between the O. sauteri fed on the optimum artificial microcapsulated ated and CK (fed on Tetranychus cinnabarinus). The results showed that there were significant differences in 1st and 2nd instar developmental duration. O. sauteri female adults showed significantly shorter life span on artificial diet than on CK. However, there was no significant difference in the emergence rate between two treatments. O. sauteri showed significantly lower oviposition duration, fecundity and hatch rate when feeding on artificial diet microcapsules although we did not observe any difference in pre-oviposition period at all. The intensive analysis of artificial diet effects showed that the respiratory quotient of O. sauteri fed on artificial diet was significantly lower than that on CK. However we observed a converse tendency in comparison of average creeping speed.

    Automatic acoustical identification of insects based on MFCC and VQ
    ZHU Le Qing, WANG Hong Bin, ZHANG Zhen
    2010, 53(8):  901-907. 
    Abstract ( 2741 )   PDF (4022KB) ( 1323 )     
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    This study aims to provide general technicians who manage pests in production with a convenient way to recognize insects. A simple and viable scheme to identify insect voiceprints automatically is introduced using a sound parameterization technique that dominates speaker recognition technology. The acoustic signal was preprocessed and segmented into a series of sound samples.  Mel-frequency cepstrum coefficient (MFCC) was extracted from the sound sample, and a feature model was trained using Linde-Buzo-Gray algorithm to generate vector quantization (VQ) codebook from above MFCC. The matching for a test sample was completed by finding the nearest neighbour in all the VQ codebooks. The method was tested in a database with acoustic samples of 70 different insect sounds. The recognition rate above 96% was obtained, and an ideal time performance was also achieved. The test results proved the efficiency of the proposed method.

     

    A taxonomic study of the genus Blattella Caudell,
    WANG Zong Qing, CHE Yan Li, FENG Ping Zhang
    2010, 53(8):  908-913. 
    Abstract ( 3469 )   PDF (2581KB) ( 2128 )     
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    In the present paper, Blattella Caudell is reviewed and nine species of Blattella are taxonomically studied from China, including one new species, B. singularis sp. nov., which is described and illustrated. A key to species from China is provided.

     

    Identification of differentially expressed genes in Laodelphax striatellus (Homoptera: Delphacidae ) under RSV stress
    XIAO Dong Lai, DENG Hui Ying, XIE Li Yan, WU Zu Jian, XIE Lian Hui
    2010, 53(8):  914-919. 
    Abstract ( 3480 )   PDF (1575KB) ( 1093 )     
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    Rice stripe virus (RSV) is mainly transmitted by insect vector Laodelphax striatellus in circulative-propagative and transovarial manners. The interaction between RSV and L. striatellus is largely unknown. To investigate the effects of RSV on gene expression in L. striatellus, viruliferous and virus-free L. striatellus populations were detected to reveal the differentially expressed genes with five random primers and three anchor primers by differential display RT-PCR (DDRTPCR). Furthermore, positive-cross test was performed to find optimal conditions of DDRT-PCR by analyzing six critical parameters including cDNA template, random primer, anchor primer, dNTPs, Mg2+ and Taq. The results showed that the optimal conditions of DDRT-PCR (25 μL) included cDNA template 3.0 μg, random primer 2.0 μmol/L, anchor primer 2.5 μmol/L, dNTPs 200 μmol/L, Mg2+ 2.0 μmol/L, and Taq 2.0 U. Thirty-five differentially expressed cDNA fragments were isolated by DDRT-PCR. Six of them were verified by RNA dot blot hybridization, and four positive cDNA fragments were obtained. Three positive cDNA fragments were from viruliferous L. striatellus population and shared high homology with 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1D gene, gyrase B gene and 60S ribosomal protein L40 gene, respectively. The positive cDNA fragment from virusfree L. striatellus population had no similarity with sequences in NCBI nucleotide databases. The optimal DDRT-PCR system and the differentially expressed cDNA fragments obtained might provide a basis for further study on interaction between RSV and L. striatellus.

     

    A real-time TaqMan PCR assay to detect sacbrood virus in honeybee and honeybee products
    SONG Zhan Yun, WANG Zhen Guo, FENG Xin, LIU Jin Hua, WEI Chun Yan, CAI Yang, MENG Qing Feng, ZHOU Liang
    2010, 53(8):  920-925. 
    Abstract ( 3264 )   PDF (5225KB) ( 1249 )     
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     To establish a rapid and effective quarantine method of the honeybee sacbrood virus disease, we developed a real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of bee sacbrood disease using TaqMan probes. A pair of specific primers and a probe used in this assay were designed based on a highly conserved region in sacbrood bee virus. The assay was shown to be sensitive, detecting less than 1.0×102 copies/μL, and specific for the detection of sacbrood bee virus. Cross-reaction with acute bee paralysis virus, deformed wing virus and black queen cell virus was not observed. The coefficient of variation in the stability experiments was 1.6%. A reliable diagnostic result can be obtained just within 4 h. The assay proved to be a rapid, sensitive, specific and repetitive method for rapid detection of sacbrood bee virus from honeybee and honeybee products in quarantine.

    Influence of temperature on development and reproduction of experimental populations of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
    ZHOU Zhao Xu, LUO Jin Cang, LU He Ping1, GUO Wen Chao
    2010, 53(8):  926-931. 
    Abstract ( 3723 )   PDF (764KB) ( 1203 )     
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    To research the influence of temperature on the development and reproduction of experimental populations of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), and then provide some basic data for the control and prediction of pest, the development and reproduction of every stage of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) were observed at five temperatures (15, 19, 23, 27 and 31) in the laboratory. The developmental threshold temperature and effective accumulated temperature of different stages of the Colorado potato beetle were calculated. The results showed that the developmental rate of the Colorado potato beetle increased with the rise of temperature from 15 to 31. The generation survival rate of the Colorado potato beetle decreased in the order of 2723193115, suggesting that excessively high or low temperature was unfavorable to the survival. The developmental threshold temperatures required for egg stage, 1st instar, 2nd instar, 3rd instar, 4th instar, whole larval stage, pupal stage and egg-adult period were 9.14, 10.50, 8.17, 10.28, 9.04, 9.59, 10.23 and 10.90, while the effective accumulated temperatures were 73.26, 43.22, 39.23, 34.05, 161.97, 273.02, 100.38 and 542.58 degree-days, respectively. It is so concluded that the influence of temperature on the developmental duration, survival rate and reproduction of experimental populations of the Colorado potato beetle was remarkable.

     

    Length-weight relationships for aquatic beetles (Coleoptera) in a marsh in Iran
    M. Saeed HEYDARNEJAD
    2010, 53(8):  932-935. 
    Abstract ( 3080 )   PDF (471KB) ( 2356 )     
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    The aim of the investigation was to determine length-weight relationships (LWR) as an alternative method for determining insect biomass. The LWR were calculated for seven aquatic beetles species caught at Choghakhor Marsh in Iran. Individuals samples were dried at 60 for 24 h, cooled in a desecrator, and weighted to the nearest 0.001 g. Each beetle was also measured for body length to the nearest 0.1 mm. The parameters of LWR (a and b values) were estimated by linear regression on the transformed equation: Log W=log a + b log L. The results indicated that the parameter b on LWR varied between 2.315 and 3.117. Significant LWR with high correlation coefficient (r2) were found for all species examined. The obtained relations can be used in the determination of the weight of the beetle and they are also useful in addressing many ecological questions. The application of the LWR presented here should be restricted to the observed length ranges.

     

    Scanning electron microscopy studies of antennal sensilla of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
    XI Yu Qiang, YIN Xin Ming, LI Xue Jun, ZHU Chao Dong, ZHANG Yan Zhou
    2010, 53(8):  936-942. 
    Abstract ( 3780 )   PDF (6803KB) ( 2228 )     
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    In this paper, the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of female and male Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) is described using scanning electron microscopy. Seven morphological sensillar types were recognized in both sexes. They are sensilla trichodea (ST), sensilla chaetica typeⅠ (SChⅠ), sensilla chaetica typeⅡ (SChⅡ), sensilla basiconica (SB), sensilla coeloconica typeⅠ (SCⅠ), sensilla coeloconica typeⅡ (SCⅡ) and elongated sensilla placodea (SP). The number of sensilla trichodea (ST) is the largest in all sensilla. Sensilla coeloconica typeⅡ (SCⅡ) is only found in female and its number is the least. The shape and structure of most antennal sensilla between male and female adults were not basically different.

    Key Words: Lysiphlebus fabarum; antenna; sensilla; ultrastructure; morphology; scanning electron microscopy