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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 August 1997, Volume 40 Issue 3
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    A STUDY ON MITOCHONDRIAL DNA OF DROSOPHILA LINI (DROSOPHILIDAE)
    Wen Shuoyang Xie Li Peng Tongxu
    1997, 40(3):  225-230. 
    Abstract ( 2702 )   PDF (360KB) ( 1008 )     
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    A sibling species of Drosophila lini has been recognized by biochemical analyses(Ohnishi and Watanabe 1984, Kim et al 1993) . Oguma et al (1995) confirmed this fact in their study of courtship behavior and reproductive isolation between Drosophila lini and its siblings. We have conducted on postmating reproductive isolation of this species among populations from China (Taiwan, Guangdong) and Burma, the results indicated that reproductive isolation of populations between China and Burma has occurred, even between two populations (MMY and RGN) within Burma. Mitochondrial DNA of D. lini was extracted by a rapid isolation method (Tamura,1988) with some modifications. The modified method is suitable for large-scale preparation of mtDNA from D. lini 10 restriction endonucleases (Xba I , Ava I , EcoR I , Sac I , Sca I , EcoR V , Hind III , Pvu II , BamH I and Pst I ) were used in this study. The estimated size of D. lini mitochondrial genome was 16.3 kb. Restriction map of D. lini (TAW 3146.1 ) mtDNA was established by double-digestion method, 27 cleavage sites were mapped. Comparison of the restriction map of the D. lini mtDNA to that of D. kikkawai mtDNA with five restriction endonucleases (Xba I , Ava I , Sac I , EcoR I and Hind III ) showed that 83.3 X of the cleavage sites of D. lini were same to those of D. kikkawai. There were three cleavage sites in the conservative large Rrna gene region in D. lini, these three cleavage sites also occurred in other species of Drosophila.
    ON GLANDULARIA MORPHOLOGY OF WATER MITES(ACARI, ACTINEDIDA, HYDRACHNELLAE)AND EVOLUTIONARY THEORY OF THE MITE SOMA
    Jin Daochao Li Longshu
    1997, 40(3):  231-246. 
    Abstract ( 2856 )   PDF (1096KB) ( 1087 )     
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    The essential distribution model of 18 pairs of hydrachnelles' glandularia, including 2 pairs of antennal glandularia (A1, A2), 4 pairs of dorsoglandularia (D1eD4), 4 pairs of lateroglandularia (L1-L2), 4 pairs of epimeroglandularia (E1-E4), and 4 pairs of venteroglandularia (V1-V4), and 2 pairs of non-glandularia seta named ocularia (O1, O2) is defined through comparative studies on more than 120 Chinese species of water mites. It is considered as a primitive distribution scheme from whice the patterns of the glandularia for different families of water mites can be drawn. According to the structural features of the glandularial glands and sclerites, the glandularia are grouped into four distincti types, eylaoides type-the most primitive one, hydryphantoides type, hydrachnoides type and lebertioides type. The lebertioides type ispresent in three higher groups including Lebertioidea, Hygrobatoidea and Arrenuroidea, and is considered to be recent in the evolutionary scale. A new hypothesis, "eighteen-segment theory," of the origin of the mite descending from worm-like ancestor with 18 segments ( I - XVt) and a precheliceral lobe (pl), is proposed through a careful study of the glandularia. The gland structure of hydrachnelles' glandularia shows no similarity to other glandular structures or organs found in all acarides groups. This means that the 18 pairs of glandularia independently derived from 18 intersegmental folds between primary segments of the worm-like ancestor in the course of evolutionof soma with reducing body axis. The "eighteen-segment theory" presumes that the transferring of the ancestor's segments, to reduce body axis, is directed by two stable points, "das 1" between IV and v and "das 2' at area of genital pore. Toward "das 1" and "das2", I , II and pl transfer dorsally and over III and IV , VII-X dorso-anteriorly and over Vand VI , XV - XVIII ventrally and behind the genital pore. The impressive explanation of the theory is given with the terms used by Grand jean. Other theories, "sixteen-segmenttheory" by Grand jean in 1969 and Coineau in 1972 and "twelve-segment theory" by Badern 1982, and phylogenetic points of view on arthropod groups are discussed in detail.
    BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE IN HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA (HUBNER)
    Zhang Youjun Zhang Wenji Han Xilai Li Xuefeng
    1997, 40(3):  247-253. 
    Abstract ( 3127 )   PDF (364KB) ( 1299 )     
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    Mechanisms of insecticide resistance were studied in a field-selected resistant population (HJ-R) of Helicoverpa arrnigera. The fifth instar larvae of HJ-R strain possessed higher activity of esterase, glutathion S-transferase, monooxygenase than that of susceptiblestrain (HD-S) . There was no significant difference between the two strains in sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase to insecticide. The central nervous system of HJ-R strain showed 2-3 time more insensitive to the action of fenvelerate. The metabolic detoxication was the main reason of resistance to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides. The monooxygenase seems to be the most important mechanism of carbamate resistance in HJ-R population. The resistance to pyrethroids were caused by both target insensitivity and metabolic detoxication of monooxygenase and esterase.
    THE SECOND MALE VIBRATIONAL SIGNAL OF BROWN PLANTHOPPER NILAPARVATA LUGENS (STAL) AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN COMPETITIVE REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR
    Fu Qiang Chen Wei Zhang Zhitao Tang Xiaoqing
    1997, 40(3):  254-260. 
    Abstract ( 2667 )   PDF (442KB) ( 1163 )     
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    The second male vibrational signal (SMVS) of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) and its significance in competitive reproductive behavior were studied in laboratory. The results are as following: 1. SMVS was only emitted by co-living males.This SMVS behavior was, while closely associated with density and age of males, also influenced by environmental temperature and the existence of females. 2. In the course of courtship and mating the males emitting SMVS became increasingly dominant with 70.2 % successful mating, males with no SMVS, however, showed only 14.9 %. 3.The percentage of mated N. lugens was (45.7±18.3)% with the playback of the SMVS record, which was much lower than those with no playback signal (CK) or playback of female vibrational signal (FVS) and first male vibrational signal (FMVS) . The playback of SMVS, on the other hand, had no obvious influence on the percentage of S. furcifera mated. The resultsindicated that SMVS is a species-specific competitive reproductive signal of N. lugens.
    THE ROLE OF ECDYSTEROIDS ON DIAPAUSE OF HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA
    Wang Fanghai Gong He
    1997, 40(3):  261-264. 
    Abstract ( 2415 )   PDF (243KB) ( 1201 )     
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    The ecdysteroids in the haemolymph of larvae and pupae from diapause andnon-diapause destined Helicoverpa armigera were measured by radioimmunoassay. It wasfound that the ecdysteroid titer in the prepupal stage of diapause-destined pupa was higherthan that of non-diapause-destined one. There was magnificent difference in titer of ecdysteroids between diapause and non-diapause pupae of H. armigera, the ecdysteroid titer in the diapause pupae was much lower. Pupal diapause in H. armigera could be immediatelyterminated with the injection of 20-hydroxyecdysterone.
    COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE NICHE OF OSMIA EXCAVATA ALFKEN AND O. JACOTI COCKERELL IN APPLE ORCHARDS
    Yang Longlong Wu Yanru Zhou Weiru
    1997, 40(3):  265-270. 
    Abstract ( 3074 )   PDF (335KB) ( 1247 )     
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    The niche of the two native bees, Osmia excavata Alfken and O. jacoti Cockerell, released in apple orchards was comparatively studied in eastern China. The result indicates that the niche breadths (B), niche overlaps ? and interspecific comptition coefficients (a) on time (day and seasonal), space, nutrition and nesting dimensions are different in the two species. The niche overlap and interspecific competition coefficient on nutrition between O. eaccavata and O. jacoti are significantly maximal, with values of 0.9690 and0.9994 respectively. Those on day time dimension are 0.7960 and 0.9350.The measure ments of the two species for space and seasonal time dimensions are relatively small and approximate, with C values of 0.6500 and 0.6710, and a values of 0.8213 and 0.8234 separately. These differentiations reduced the competitive relation between the two species. The competition for nesting tubes is the minimum, with a C value of 0.4930 and a a value of 0.6052. The trophic and time niche breadths of O.excavata greater than those of O dactotishow that the former species is more effective in apple pollination for its higher specificity.
    COMPOSITIONS OF GRASSHOPPER SPECIES OF DIFFERENT HABITATS IN XILIN RIVER DISTRICT, INNER MONGOLIA
    Yan Zhongcheng Chen Yonglin
    1997, 40(3):  271-275. 
    Abstract ( 3260 )   PDF (272KB) ( 1231 )     
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    This paper deals with the study on the compositions of grasshopper species of different habitats in Xilin River District, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. 21 species of grasshoppers are got in the 8 sample sites (5 habitat forms) . The compositions of grasshopper species vary among these habitats. Grasshopper species are plentiest in the sanddune (sand belt) which locates at the north bank of Xilin River, about 40kin long and 10km wide. Species living in the typical steppe can live in the sand dune, but some species only live in the sand dune. Sand dune in the region is the "reservoir of grasshoppers" for typical steppe. The commonness species, also dominant species, are euryhabitat selection species, and they are important pests to pasture grasses.
    THE EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORIENTAL ARMYWORM, MYTHIMNA SEPARATA (WALKER) (LEPIDOPTERA. NOCTUIDAE)
    Wang Jinzhong Ding Jianyun Wang Zongshun
    1997, 40(3):  276-282. 
    Abstract ( 3382 )   PDF (4942KB) ( 1146 )     
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    Embryonic development of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata(Walker) requires 93 h for eclosion at (25-3-1)℃. The zygote nucleus is slightly posterior to the center of the egg at 0.5 h. The cleavage nuclei continue to divide, and migrate toward the periplasm through 8 h when blastoderm begins to form at the periphery. The germ band is formed in the posterior region of the egg at 10 h. Gastrulation begins at 20 h. The stomodeum invaginates at 28 h, followed by the proctodeum at 32 h. The midgut rudiment arises at 42 h by fusion of anterior and posterior mesenteron rudiments. The midgut closes at 54 h and Malpighian tubules are well developed, nearly simultaneous with blastokinesisby 42 h. Neuroblasts appear at 20 h, brain formation begins at 32 h, and ventral nerve cord is defined by 40 h. Formation of the tracheal system begins at 40 h and is completed by 68 h. Procuticle is first secreted on the mandibles at 68 h and progresses steadily backward until the entire body enclosed in cuticle by 87 h. Dorsal closure begins at 42 h with dorsal growth of the lateral walls of ectoderm. Fusion of the two lateral walls occurs at 54 h and completes before hatching.
    THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF MALPIGHIAN TUBULES OF WHITE WAX SCALE
    Xu Tianrui Liu Chenguang Wu Cibin
    1997, 40(3):  283-287. 
    Abstract ( 2982 )   PDF (3184KB) ( 1022 )     
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    The ultrastructure of Malpighian tubules of white wax scale, Ericerus pelaChavannes was studied in 1993-1994. The results are summarized as follows. According to our observation, Malpighian tubules of white wax scale consist of two yellow beaded distal tubules and one common tubule, which joins the gut. The structure of basal tubules and common tubule cells are similar. The Malpighian tubules of this insect possess non-collagen basement membrane, highly infolded basal foldings, and long and packed microvilli. There are 3-7 microtubules in each microvillus which carries out exocytosis. There are a few mitochondria distributing randomly and lots of ribosomes in the cytoplasm of Malpighian tubules. The cytoplasm is full of two sorts of mineraluric acid concretions designated as laminated concretion and irregular concretion. The excretion pattern of Malpighian tubules of white wax scale is a special one, in which the store-excretion pattern is primary and the ion-gradient excretion pattern is secondary.
    A STUDY ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND LIFE HISTORY OF ALLOTHROMBIUM OVATUM (ACARIFORMES:TROMBIDIIDAE)
    Zhang Huijie Li Jianshe Xian Shuanshi
    1997, 40(3):  288-296. 
    Abstract ( 2718 )   PDF (2499KB) ( 1171 )     
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    Allothrombiurn ovaturn is an ectoparasitic natural enemy of the cotton aphidAphis gossypii in North China. By laboratory rearing and field observations, it was found that this mite has one generation a year in Shanxi Province and overwinters in egg stage in soil. The developmental durations of egg stage, prelarva, larva, nymphochrysalis, nymph, preadult and adult were found to be 220.3, 19.5, 22.0, 12.0, 13.0, 13.0 and 59.0 days respectively at the mean annual temperature 13.7℃. Its seasonal occurrence was recorded in the field in Shanxi Province. The larvae appear in late spring and early summer, and the nymphs and adults emerge in summer and autumn. The morphology and habits of the developmental stages are described.
    A NEW GENUS AND NEW SPECIES OF HETERONEMIIDAE FROM GUANGXI, CHINA (PHASMATODEA: HETERONEMIIDAE)
    Chen Shuchun He Yunheng
    1997, 40(3):  297-299. 
    Abstract ( 2110 )   PDF (132KB) ( 1113 )     
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    In the present paper, a new genus and a new species of Heteronemiidae are described. The type specimens are kept in the Insect Collection of China Agricultural University. All measurements in descriptions are in mm.
    NOTES ON LARVAE OF SIX SPECIES OF THE GENUS RHYACOPHILA PICTET (TRICHOPTERA: RHYACOPHILIDAE) FROM CHANGBAI MOUNTAIN
    Yu Li
    1997, 40(3):  300-302. 
    Abstract ( 2623 )   PDF (162KB) ( 976 )     
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    This paper provides a key for larvae of six species of genus Rhyacophila (ineluding their characteristics of forms, structures and distributions) from Changbai Mountian: Rhyacophila hokkaidensis Iwata n. rec. , Rh. Narvae Navas n. rec. , Rh. YamanakensisIwata n. rec. , Rh. Impar Martynov n. Rec. , Rh. Retracta Martynov and Rh. Lata Martynov.
    A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS TORODORA FROM XIZANG AUTONOMOUS REGION (LEPIDOPTERA:LECITHOCERIDAE)
    Wu Chunsheng
    1997, 40(3):  303-304. 
    Abstract ( 2240 )   PDF (95KB) ( 1007 )     
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    Since the publication of author's "A study of the Chinese Torodora Meyrick,1894, and descriptions of new species", another new species has been found in Xizang Autonomous Region, China. This is the first record of genus Torodora from Xizang. Thus, the total number of Chinese species of this genus amounts up to 31. Description of this newspecies is reported in this paper. The type specimen is kept in the Institute of Zoology,Aeademia Sinica.
    THREE NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS PHAONIA FROM FANJING MOUNTAIN, CHINA (DIPTERA: MUSCIDAE)
    Xue Wanqi Chen Hongwei Cui Yongsheng
    1997, 40(3):  305-310. 
    Abstract ( 2209 )   PDF (330KB) ( 1011 )     
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    The present paper deals with three new species of the genus Phaonia collected from Guizhou Province. Type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Shenyang Normal College.
    A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS TUCKERELLA FROM CHINA (ACARIFORMES: TUCKERELLIDAE)
    Lin Yanmou Fu Yueguan
    1997, 40(3):  311-313. 
    Abstract ( 2375 )   PDF (122KB) ( 1121 )     
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    In this paper a new species of Tuckerella from China is described. The type specimens is deposited in the Plant Protection Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences.
    A NEW GENUS OF TROMBICULID MITE OF THE SUBFAMILY GAHRLIEPIINAE (ACARI: TROMBICULIDAE)
    Wang Dunqing Pan Fenggeng Yan Ge
    1997, 40(3):  314-316. 
    Abstract ( 2397 )   PDF (128KB) ( 986 )     
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    A new genus of trombiculid mite Wuella gen. Nov. ex Pitymys sikimensis on June 16, 1993 from Gongri, Cuona County of Xizang is described. Type specimen is deposited in the Medical Entomology Collection Gallary, Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing.
    TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE SUBFAMILY ERIOPHYINAE FROM CHINA(ACARI ~ ERIOPHYIDAE)
    Liu Manping Kuang Haiyuan
    1997, 40(3):  317-319. 
    Abstract ( 2126 )   PDF (136KB) ( 993 )     
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    This paper reports two new species of Eriophyinae from China. All measurements are in micron. Type specimens are deposited in Nanjing gricultural University.
    INDUCED PLANT RESISTANCE TO PHYTOPHAGOUS INSECTS
    Lou Yonggen Cheng Jiaan
    1997, 40(3):  320-331. 
    Abstract ( 2613 )   PDF (717KB) ( 1625 )     
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    Changes in ontogeny, morphological character, physiological state, nutritional quality and secondary chemicals of plant could be induced by prior damage. The induced changes might have general negative effects on the behavior, development, survival and fecundity of successively occurred phytophagous insects because a change will reduce plant nutritional value, stimulate plant to produce poisonous chemicals or release synomone attractive to their natural enemies. Induced plant resistance could be an on-off response, be turned onin a relative short time when plants are damaged to above a certain threshold and causes plant show an individual and population effect on phytophagous insects due to its transmission within a plant and between plants. Induced plant resistance is variable among plantspecies, varieties, individuals and developmental stages and could be influenced by plant density, damage position and level, soil fertility and water content. Two aspects in this area, the mechanism of plant causing induced resistance and its relative importance on controlling phytophagous insects, should be studied further for convincing conclusions in the future.
    CHANGES OF CONTENTS OF SOME SUBSTANCES INCOTTON LEAVES INDUCED BY COTTON BOLLWORM HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA (HUBNER) ATTACK
    Tang Deliang Wang Wugang Tan Weijia Guo Yuyuan
    1997, 40(3):  332-333. 
    Abstract ( 2032 )   PDF (111KB) ( 1008 )     
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