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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 February 2004, Volume 47 Issue 1
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Impact of transgenic Cry1A plus CpTI cotton on Helicoverpa armigera(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its two endoparasitoid wasps Microplitis mediator(Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Campoletis chlorideae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)
    REN Lu1,2,YANG Yi-Zhong2*,LI Xuan1, MIAO Lin1, YU Yue-Shu2, QIN Qi-Lian1*
    2004, 47(1):  1-7. 
    Abstract ( 2905 )   PDF (2179KB) ( 1027 )     
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    By concocting a cotton bollworm artificial diet containing 1% leaf powder of transgenic Cry1A plus CpTI cotton “Zhongkang 310” as cotton bollworm diet, a system with a triple nutrition relation consisting of transgenic cottonHelicoverpa rmigeratwo endoparasitoid wasps Microplitis mediator and Campoletis chlorideae was constructed. Six treatments of H. armigera worms were conducted for evaluating the impact of the transgenic cotton on the worm and its parasitoid wasps: (1) fed on nontransgenic cotton; (2) fed on transgenic cotton; (3) fed on transgenic cotton, parasitized byM. mediator; (4) fed on nontransgenic cotton, parasitized by M. mediator; (5) fed on transgenic cotton, parasitized by C. chlorideae; and (6) fed on nontransgenic cotton, parasitized by C. chlorideae. Tracing growth and development of the worms and their parasitoid wasps showed that the transgenic cotton suppressed the growth and development of the worm significantly no matter whether it was parasitized by the wasps or not. The cocooning rate and cocoon weight of the two wasps parasitizing the worms fed on transgenic cotton declined greatly. For M. mediator, the cocooning rate and cocoon weight decreased by 26.1% and 1 mg respectively; and for C. chlorideae, 17.9% and 5.1 mg respectively. The larvae of the two wasps developing in the haemocoele of the worms fed n transgenic cotton grew tardily and some of them showed abnormal observed by dissection. Analysis of hemolymph protein of the worm showed that the total hemolymph protein content of the worm fed on transgenic cotton was lower than that of the control. The results implied that low host hemolymph protein content might lead to the two wasps larvae growing tardily and developing abnormally.
    Purification of antimicrobial peptide MDL-1 from Musca domestica larvae and its effect on Escherichia coli ultrastructure
    GONG Xia, SHI Yong-Hui, LE Guo-Wei*
    2004, 47(1):  8-13. 
    Abstract ( 7524 )   PDF (1859KB) ( 1653 )     
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    The immunized hemolymph was produced from Musca domestica larvae by the inducing of challenging injury and bacteria. The antimicrobial peptide was purified by means of boiled water bath, dialysis and concentration, Tricine-SDS-PAGE preparation, retrieval and renaturation of peptides. The results of amino acids an alysis showed that the molecule weight of the antimicrobial peptide 1 (MDL-1) was 6 200 D. It contained abundant Gly and alkaline amino acids, which had potential activity against Gramnegative bacteria, Escherichia coli. Preparative electrophoresis was an effective way to produce antimicrobial peptides. The anti microbial mechanism of MDL-1 was tentatively studied. The results showed that MDL-1 caused a series of pathological changes on E. coli. MDL-1 was located on the plasma membrane observed with transmission electron microscopy. MDL-1 adhered to bacterial cells by static electricity gravitation in the early stage, and then it was observed that MDL-1 affected on the plasma membrane, disturbed the ordered arrangement of membrane lipid and changed permeability of plasma membrane, with irregular holes appearing in the plasmalemma and cytoplasmic contents of the cells leaking out. Finally, the affected bacteria disintegrated into small fragments and died.
    Effects of high temperature on incidence of pupation,summer diapause and pupal weight of the cotton bollworm,Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner)
    LIU Zhu-Dong, GONG Pei-Yu, WU Kun-Jun, LI Dian-Mo
    2004, 47(1):  14-19. 
    Abstract ( 3119 )   PDF (373KB) ( 1024 )     
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    Summer diapause in cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner), is prolongation of the pupal stage, particularly in males, initiated by high temperature. Weight and weight loss of diapausing pupae and nondiapausing pupae exposed to high alternative temperatures of 33-39℃ were evaluated in the laboratory with normal developmental pupae from larvae reared at 27℃ as the control. In the experiment, pupation incidence at high temperature was significantly lower than that of the control; 63.2% of males and 10.9% of females fell into summer diapause when prepupae were exposed to alternative temperatures of 33-39℃. Weight of diapaused and nondiapaused pupae whose prepupae were exposed to high temperature was lighter than that of control pupae. Weight loss of pupae from 2nd to 5th day after pupation was less in diapausing pupae than those in nondiapausing and control pupae, I.e, 3.62, 13.30 and 5.49 mg respectively. The trend of total weight loss from pupation to emergence was similar to that from 2nd to 5th day after pupation, I.e., 15.60, 49.35 and 26.30 mg in diapausing, nondiapausing and control pupae, respectivley. The curves of weight loss of the three groups showed significant difference. The curve of diapausing pupae was relatively even and was located below the curves of nondiapaused and control pupae. However, when the diapausing pupae were placed at diapauseterminated temperature, the curve of their weight loss of pupae was similar to that of control pupae except longer duration in the former case because diapausing pupae had a period of response about 3 days to terminate diapause. The results indicate that with diapause pupae can reduce metoblism and delay their development under high temperature to survive adverse environment.
    Virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) to female ticks of Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae)
    GAO Zhi-Hua1,YANG Xiao-Long1,LIU Jing-Ze1*,JIAN Heng2
    2004, 47(1):  20-24. 
    Abstract ( 3482 )   PDF (290KB) ( 968 )     
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    Infection of entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae BJ(Sc BJ),S. feltiae Otio(Sf Otio),S. ceratophorum D43(Sc D43) and S. glaseri NC32(Sg NC32) (Steinernematidae),and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora E-6-7 (Hb E-6-7) (Heterorhabditidae) to female Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann was conducted. The nematodes dosage used was 4 000 Ijs/dish. The results showed that the five entomopathogenic nematodes had lethal effects on female H.longicornis.Hb E-6-7 and Sc BJ were the most virulence species to variousdevelopmental stages of female ticks: the cumulative mortality and the LT50 of unfed female ticks from nematodes infection were 82.5%,9.0 d and 75.0%,8.8 d, respectively; feeding female 90.0%,8.0 d and 82.5%,8.0 d; engorged female 93.3%,7.3 d and 86.7%,7.3 d. Sc D43 infection also caused high mortality (80.0%) to engorged female ticks, but the LT50 was relatively long (11.7 d). Lethal effects of Sf Otio and Sg NC32 to this tick were low. Engorged female ticks were more sensitive than unfed and feeding female ticks.
    Susceptibility to insecticides and enzymetic characteristics inthe parasitoid Apanteles plutellae Kurdj.(Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its host Plutella xylostella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)
    WU Gang1 JIANG Shu-REN2
    2004, 47(1):  25-32. 
    Abstract ( 3025 )   PDF (460KB) ( 1079 )     
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    The susceptibility to insecticides in the larval parasitoid Apanteles plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its host Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae),collected in Fuzhou, China, were detected using residual film and leafdip bioassays, respectively. The results showed that organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, avermectins and fipronil were highly toxic to A. plutellae, but chlorfluazuron and Bt were not. However, A. plutellae could survive from the conventional control doses of fipronil, fenvalerate, cypermethrin and acephate if the parasitoid was left in contact with the insecticides only for short time (1 h). In A. plutellae, there were obvious synergisms of piperonyl butoxide (PB), triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl maleate (DEM) on methamidophos, carbofuran, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, avermectins and fipronil, but no synergisms on chlorfluazuron were found. The synergism of PB was the highest. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity could not be inhibited by PB, TPP and DEM, but strong inhibition could be found in carboxylesterase (CarE) activity by PB and TPP, and in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity by DEM, in vivo. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km), the maximal velocity (Vmax) of AChE, and the activities of CarE and GST in A. plutellae were 0.22, 2.08, 4.60 and 0.45fold as those in P. xylostella, respectively. The bimolecular rate constants (Ki) of AChE to methamidophos, dichlorvos and carbofuran in A. plutellae were 14.7, 10.5 and 26.0-fold as those in P. xylostella, respectively. High inhibition of AChE was found in both species when being incubated with insecticides at high temperature, especially in A. plutellae. The results indicated that the high susceptibilities to organophosphates and carbametes in A. plutellae were related to its high sensitivity of AChE to the insecticides, and the oxidative metabolism might be more effective in tolerance to insecticides than non-oxidative metabolism in A. plutellae. In addition, the causes of the intrinsic differences In insecticide selectivity in the two species were also discussed.
    Analysis on spatial distribution and dynamics of Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner)eggs, based on GIS and GS
    WANG Zheng-Jun, LI Dian-Mo*,XIE Bao-Yu
    2004, 47(1):  33-40. 
    Abstract ( 2699 )   PDF (1724KB) ( 1190 )     
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    In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and geostatistics (GS) methods were used to analyze the spatial structure and simulate the spatial distribution with the historical data of the 2nd generation eggs densities of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), which were collected from 36 monitoring points in Hebei Province during 1980 to 1997. The study areas lie in central and southern part of Hebei Province, and amounted to 93 539 km2, about 51.5% of the whole provincial area. Results showed that the eggs were correlated spatially In the study areas, but degrees of correlation were all lower and different from year to year and area to area. Proportion of spatial variation changed from 3.54% to 61.67%; the distance range of spatial dependence varied from 115.92 to 487.08 km. The time series analysis showed that the quantity of H. armigera was always in fluctuation during 1980 to 1997. During the period of 1980 to 1991, the quantity was low with average density of 330 eggs per a hundred plants, and its range was 122-706 eggs per a hundred plants. However, the egg quantity became high remarkably during 1992 to 1997 with average density of 1 877 eggs per a hundred plants, and its range was 264-4 023 eggs per a hundred plants. Based on the outbreak map of the 2nd generation of H. armigera, it was found that the spatial distribution patterns were aggregated in all years, but the collective degree was changed with time and the proportion of the spatial correlation component. The density grades of egg distribution were high in the southwest, but low in the northeast in the study areas. From the northeast to the southwest, the densities of eggs increased gradually. The highest grades of density were found in the areas of Fuping, Quyang, Xingtang, Lingshou, Pingshan, Handan, Cixian, Linzhang and Weixian, and the lowest in Zunhua, Yutian, Fengrun, Tangshan and Fengnan. The density of eggs was not only related to location, but also to time. On the whole, outbreak was the heaviest in 1992 and heavier in 1993 and 1995, while moderate in the 1981 and 1990 and the lightest in 1987. The outbreak number in the 1980s was significant lower than that in the 1990s. The results were consistent with that of the time series analysis. Based on the pertinent reports and our study, It was suggested that the higher air temperature, especially warmer winter was the main factor which triggered outbreak of the H. armigera in the 1990s. It was also suggested that in west and southwest outbreak areas, numerous mountains, abundant vegetation, higher wheat cultivation proportion, and lesser rainfall in June, should be important factors leading to the outbreak of H. armigera.
    Effect of rice variety and fertilization timing on egg parasitism of Sogatella furcifera in the single-cropping season rice field
    ZHU Zeng-Rong, JIANG Ming-Xing, QIU Jun-Huai, CHENG Jia-An
    2004, 47(1):  41-47. 
    Abstract ( 2918 )   PDF (440KB) ( 947 )     
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    To understand the effect of rice variety and fertilization timing on egg parasitism of the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae) by parasitoids, experiments with “trap” rice plants of two varieties (indica-japonica hybrid combination Xieyou 413 and japonica Xiushui 11) were set up in the habitats created by the combinations of the two rice varieties and fertilizations at two different dates in the single-cropping season rice plots in Hangzhou, China. The location of egg masses of S. furcifera laid in plants of Xieyou 413 were higher and the clutch size of egg masses was larger than that of those laid in plants of Xiushiu 11. The parasitism of S. furcifera eggs by Anagrus spp. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) was significantly affected by rice varieties used as traps, but not by rice varieties and nitrogen fertilization timing in the field. The parasitism (24%) in Xieyou 413 as trap was significantly higher than that (12%) in Xiushui 11 as trap. The parasitism in the plants (Xieyou 413 vs Xiushui 11: 17% vs 9%) grown in the field was more significantly influenced by rice varieties than by fertilization timing. The results implied that rice variety was an important factor in enhancing the biocontrol of the planthopper. Additionally, the estimation of egg parasitism by trapping approach was significantly correlated with that by dissection of rice plants sampled from fields.
    Olfactory responses of Trichogramma ostriniae Pang et Chen to kairomones from eggs and different stages of female adults of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée)
    BAI Shu-Xiong, WANG Zhen-Ying*, HE Kang-Lai, WEN Li-Ping, ZHOU Da-Rong
    2004, 47(1):  48-54. 
    Abstract ( 2786 )   PDF (401KB) ( 1149 )     
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    Trichogramma ostriniae Pang et Chen is the dominant egg parasitoid wasp of Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). Olfactory response of T. ostriniae to kairomones emitting from the different stages of ACB female adults, their accessory glands and eggs were measured by using a four-arm olfactometer in the laboratory. The results indicated that airborne chemicals from egg masses, (E)-12-tetradecenyl acetate(E12.14: Ac, a component of ACB sex pheromone), matedfemales before their first oviposition and their accessory glands stimulated an intensive search behavior by T. ostriniae females; however, volatiles from virgin females or females after their first oviposition and their accessory glands did not elicit the parasitoid's movement.
    Performance of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acarina: Tetranychidae) reared with different host plants
    PANG Bao-Ping, ZHOU Xiao-Rong, SHI Li, MU Hong-Bo
    2004, 47(1):  55-58. 
    Abstract ( 2762 )   PDF (205KB) ( 1300 )     
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    Influence of five host plants on development and reproduction of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara was investigated at 28℃ in the laboratory. The results Indicated that there were significant differences in the durations of different developmental stages, fecundity, egg production per day, net reproductive rate (R0), finite rate of increase (λ), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), mean generation time (T) and the days needed to double population size (DDP) when reared with these host plants. The time needed by females to complete a generation on cucumber, kidney bean, soybean, eggplant and corn were 9.3, 9.3, 9.6, 11.0 and 11.6 days, respectively. The viposition time lasted 9.9, 11.2, 12.9, 15.8 and 17.9 days, respectively on eggplant, cucumber, kidney bean, corn and soybean. Both fecundity and R0 of the mite were the highest on soybean, and the lowest on eggplant. The survival rates on soybean, corn, cucumber, kidney bean and eggplant were 93.6%, 91.7%, 89.8%, 84.3% and 61.6%, respectively. The survival curves fell into DeeveyⅠ. The mite displayed a decreasing preference on the five host plants in the following order: soybean, corn, cucumber, kidney bean and eggplant.
    Impact of habitat quality on metapopulation structure and distribution of two melitaeine butterfly species
    CHEN Jie-Jun1, WANG Yi-Fei1, LEI Guang-Chun2, WANG Rong-Jiang2, XU Ru-MeI1
    2004, 47(1):  59-66. 
    Abstract ( 2519 )   PDF (514KB) ( 1181 )     
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    We studied the impact of habitat quality factors on the metapopulation structure and distribution, and thus the persistence of two species of melitaeine butterflies, Melitaea phoebe and Euphydryas aurinia, on a metapopulation scale in Chicheng County, Hebei Province, China. These two species coexist in a network of discrete habitat patches within a range of 10 km2, larvae feeding on their specific host plants Stemmacantha uniflora (Compositae) and Scabiosa tschiliensis (Dipsacaceae) respectively. However, their nectar resources are almost the same during the adult flight period. The main flight period for E. aurinia is about one month earlier than M. phoebe, with an overlap of only about seven days. The host plants of these two melitaeine butterflies also have a great impact on their occurrence, but act in different ways. Density of the host plant has a great effect on the occurrence of M. phoebe, whereas the height of the host plant is important for E. aurinia. The abundance and distribution of nectar resources are positively correlated to the abundance and distribution of the two butterfly species. The vegetation diversity, evenness, and cover correlate negatively with the occurrence of E. aurinia, but not related to M. phoebe, while the vegetation height has a positive effect on the two butterfly species. We have also considered and discussed the impact of slope aspect, gradient, and irradiation of the habitat patches. Therefore, when discussing the factors affecting metapopulation structure and dynamics, we should pay attention not only to the patch size and Isolation but also the quality differences among patches. Four major points can be well concluded: 1) The specificity of larval host plants and the time segregation of adult feeding permit the co-existence of the two species in this small and patchy system. 2) The nectar resource is a major limiting factor and prone to being affected by weather stochasticity. The fluctuations in nectar resources can explain the dynamic rises and falls of these butterfly metapopulations from 1998 to 2000. 3) The differences between flight and food searching ability of the two butterfly species, as well as the differences between the features and spatial distribution of the two host plants species determined the different metapopulation structures of the two butterfly species. These results supported one of our former conjectures that E. aurinia is a classical metapopulation, and M. Phoebe is a source-sink metapopulation. 4) It is the spatial pattern and quality of the habitat patches (as determined by other factors, e.g., topographic features) interacting with the insects' behavior (e.g., plant preference and flight behavior) that determined the metapopulation structure and distribution of these two butterfly species.
    Reproductive isolation mechanisms between three Oxya species (Orthoptera: Catantopidae)
    ZHU Dao-Hong1,2, ANDO Yoshikazu2
    2004, 47(1):  67-72. 
    Abstract ( 3027 )   PDF (340KB) ( 986 )     
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    hree rice grasshoppers, Oxya japonica, O. chinensis formosana and O. Yezoensis are extremely similar in morphology. Here we studied their reproductive isolation mechanisms by interspecific cross experiments. For sympatric species, ethological isolation was found to be strong, but not complete, in reciprocal crosses between O. japonica and O. chinensis formosana, and between O. Japonica and O. yezoensis; however, even where mating had occurred there was no sperm transfer. For allopatric species, asymmetric ethological isolation was apparent in crosses between O. chinensis formosana and O. yezoensis: females of O. Chinensis formosana readily accepted males of O. yezoensis, but females of O. yezoensis show reluctance to males of O. chinensis formosana; however, in either reciprocal cross sperms were transferred. These results supported the conclusion that reproductive isolation evolves slower in allopatric species or populations than sympatric species or populations.
    Genetic structure of four geographic populations of Locusta migratoria manilensis in China
    LI Chun-Xuan1,2, MA En-Bo1*, ZHENG Xian-Yun1, GUO Ya-Ping1
    2004, 47(1):  73-79. 
    Abstract ( 3267 )   PDF (363KB) ( 1073 )     
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    The genetic structure of the four geographic populations of the Oriental migratory locust Locusta migratoria manilensis was analyzed using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. Among 20 loci of 13 isozymes identified, the higher the percentage of polymorphic loci (P=70%-80%), the lower the observed overall heterozygosity (Ho=0.023-0.032). The result from Chi-square test for the genotype frequencies showed the genotype frequency at most loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except Adk-1, Gdh-1, G3pd-1 and Pgm-1 Based on F-statistics (average Fst= 0.0606), an extremely small genetic differentiation among the four populations was observed. It appeared that the long-distance migration of the locust enhanced gene flow and decreased genetic differentiation. The divergence among four populations was revealed using Nei’s genetic identity (I) and Roger’s genetic distance (D). The higher the genetic identity, the smaller the genetic distance observed between Shanxi-Linyi and Shanxi-Yongji populations (I=0.964, D=0.175), and between Jiangsu-Peixian and Henan-Zhongmou populations (I=0.957, D=0.160). The results indicated that there was a positive relationship between genetic differentiation and geographic distance.
    A taxonomic review of the genus Coptotettix Bolivar from China (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae)
    ZHENG Zhe-Min1, OU Xiao-Hong2, JIANG Guo-Fang3
    2004, 47(1):  80-85. 
    Abstract ( 2541 )   PDF (327KB) ( 1042 )     
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    The taxonomy of Chinese species of the Tetrigidae belonging to the genus Coptotettix Bolivar is revised. Altogether 12 species have been recorded, of which 2 species, C. longtanensis sp. Nov. and C. rupticosta sp. Nov. are described as new to science. One species, C. fugongensis Zheng et Mao is identified as a new synonym of C. ongjiangensis Zheng et Wei. One species, C. interrupta Zheng et Mao is transferred to the genus Hedotettix as a new combination, Hedotettix interrupta (Zheng et Mao, 1997). A key to the Chinese species is provided.
    A systematic study on the genus Commatarcha Meyrick, with descriptions of three new species (Lepidoptera: Copromorphoidea: Carposinidae)
    LI Hou-Hun
    2004, 47(1):  86-92. 
    Abstract ( 2650 )   PDF (6448KB) ( 1089 )     
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    Eleven species of the genus Commatarcha are recorded in this paper. Among them, three species, C. angustiptera sp. Nov., C. fanjingshana sp. Nov. and C. guangxiensis sp. Nov., are described as new to science. A key to all the known species of the genus is given. Photographs of the adults and genital structures of the new species are provided. The type specimens are deposited in the Department of Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.
    A systematic study of Eonympha Meyrick in the world (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae)
    WANG Shu-Xia, LI Hou-Hun
    2004, 47(1):  93-98. 
    Abstract ( 2498 )   PDF (6318KB) ( 1087 )     
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    The present paper describes two new species of the genus Eonympha from China: Eonympha fanjingshana Wang et Li, sp. Nov. and Eonympha basiprojecta Wang et Li, sp. Nov. Eonympha hesperanthes (Meyrick), comb. Nov. is transferred from the genus Erotis to the present genus. The photographs of the new species and the transferred species are provided. A key to all the described species in the world is given.
    Pollinator fig wasp and fig propagation
    ZHEN Wen-Quan1, Zhu Chao-Dong1, Yang Da-Rong2, Huang Da-Wei1*
    2004, 47(1):  99-105. 
    Abstract ( 4757 )   PDF (2378KB) ( 1012 )     
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    he fig pollination is widely regarded as one of the models for studying the coevolved mutualism. This synthesis of the researches on fig pollination attempts to interpret the morphological adaptations between figs and fig wasps, to review the pollinating behaviors of fig wasps, to summarize the pollination models in monoecious and dioecious figs, and to discuss the host specificity of pollinators. Finally, the prospect of fig wasp studies in China is outlined.
    Learning in phytophagous insects
    LI Yue-Hong, LIU Shu-Sheng
    2004, 47(1):  106-116. 
    Abstract ( 2857 )   PDF (755KB) ( 1586 )     
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    Learning is defined as a change in behavior with experience. Several kinds of learning, including habituation, aversion learning, associative learning, sensitization and induction of preference, have been identified in phytophagous insects. Phytophagous insects have the ability of learning in both larval and adult stages. However, larval diet and experience of feeding do not have direct influence on adult behavior. Learning in phytophagous insects is related to dietary range, types of host stimuli and the specialtemporal distribution dynamics of host plants. The ability of learning may enable phytophagous insects to cope with a complex and dynamic plant environment more effectively, enhance their efficiency of host utilization and thereby increase their fitness. Understanding learning in pest insects can provide important information for the tactics of pest management such as habitat manipulation and behavioral control.
    Host range and cross infection of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses from Dendrolimus spp.
    ZHAO Tong-Hai1, CHEN Chang-Jie1, XU Jing2, ZHANG Qing-Wen2
    2004, 47(1):  117-123. 
    Abstract ( 2758 )   PDF (446KB) ( 1056 )     
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    Since DsCPV-1 (Dendrolimus spectabilis cytovirus 1) was discovered and separated from Dendrolimus spectabilis in 1965 in Japan, there have been 6 isolates of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus separated respectively from D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, D. p. tehchangensis, D. p. wenshangensis and D. superans in China. Electrophoretic analysis of the genome dsRNA of these CPV isolates showed that they all should be classified into the cytovirus 1 as the DsCPV-1. These Dendrolimus spp. CPV isolates can infect 35 species of insects in 10 families of Lepidoptera and have a well infectious ability and cause high mortality on many of them, so they also could be used in the control and these insects could be used as candidates for alternate hosts to produce Dendrolimus spp. CPV pesticides. The genome profiles of the viruses obtained from some insects infected by these Dendrolimus spp. CPV isolates are different from that of the inoculants, but related closely, if not identical, to viruses from these insects. These may be explained as that the occult viruses of hosts were activated by other viruses.
    Effects of transgenic Bt rice on the biological characteristics of Apanteles chilonis (Munakata) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
    JIANG Yong-Hou1, FU Qiang2, CHENG Jia-An1, YE Gong-Yin1, BAI Yao-Yu1, ZHANG Zhi-Tao2
    2004, 47(1):  124-129. 
    Abstract ( 3099 )   PDF (338KB) ( 1016 )     
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    Effects of rice transformed with cry1Ab (KMD1) on the biological characteristics of a parasitoid Apanteles chilonis (Munakata) through its host Chilo suppressalis were studied in the laboratory, using the 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of C. suppressalis fed on the transgenic rice for a given time as hosts. The results showed that parasitized rates of host larvae fed on KMD1 were significantly (3rd instar) or very significantly (4th and 5th instar) lower than those of the control. Percentages of cocoon formation for hosts fed on KMD1 significantly reduced for the 3rd and 4th instar. Developmental period of the parasitoid pupa from hosts (3rd instar) fed on KMD1 was significantly shorter. Longevity of the male wasp from the 5th instar larva fed on KMD1 was significantly shorter. Length of wasp cocoon of KMD1 treatment was significantly shorter than the control. But no significant differences were detected in the developmental period of egg to larva, cocoon mass size, wasp emergence rate and sex ratio of the parasitoid between KMD1 treatment and the control.
    Bionomics of the Yunnan pine weevil, Pissodes yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    ZHANG Hong-Rui1, YE Hui1*, XU Chang-Shan2, LU Jun1
    2004, 47(1):  130-134. 
    Abstract ( 3275 )   PDF (306KB) ( 1073 )     
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    The Yunnan pine weevil, Pissodes yunnanensis Langor et Zhang, is an insect pest species discovered recently on the Yunnan pine, Pinus yunnanensis. It is mainly distributed in the central and northwestern Yunnan, and certain areas in Guizhou and Sichuan provinces. The weevil was univoltine. In Lijiang, northwestern Yunnan, the adults emerged from mid-April to mid-July, and oviposited from late June to August. It had four larval instars, which infested the Yunnan pine from early July until the next March, and overwintered as grown-up larvae inside the pine stems. Pupae appeared in March. Oviposition occurred mostly in the terminal leaders and the upper lateral branches. After one year of the weevil infestation, the damaged terminal leaders or branches usually withered, and consecutive infestation of two or three years resulted in young pine death.
    Mass trapping and control efficacy on the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (L.) with synthetic sex pheromone lures at high altitudes in Hubei
    WANG Xiang-Ping1, ZHANG Zhong-Ning1*, LEI Chao-Liang2, ZHAO Yu-Chao3, WU Dan-Xu3
    2004, 47(1):  135-140. 
    Abstract ( 3216 )   PDF (324KB) ( 1066 )     
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    The effects of synthetic sex pheromone lures in controlling the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (DBM) were assayed at high altitudes(about 1 800 m) in Hubei in 2002. The results showed that there were two peaks in first crop of cabbage, with moth catches being 11.7±2.4, and 9.2±1.0 per trap, respectively; in second crop of cabbage there were three peaks, with the moth catches being 70.9±8.0, 16.1±2.5, and 11.1±1.9 per trap, respectively. In the second crop, the correlation between moth density and moth catches per trap was significant, y=0.0116x+0.1614 (r=0.9213, P=0.0011). Use of synthetic sex pheromone lures could decrease the number of DBM moths and reduce insecticide applications.