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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
03 March 2006, Volume 49 Issue 1
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    EAG responses of Campoletis chlorideae Uchida to plant volatiles and host pheromone gland compounds
    YAN Zeng-Guang, YAN Yun-Hua, KANG Le, WANG Chen-Zhu
    2006, 49(1):  1-9. 
    Abstract ( 4826 )   PDF (1722KB) ( 1642 )     
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    Electroantennogram (EAG) responses of the generalist parasitoid Campoletis chlorideae Uchida to a range of plant volatiles and host pheromone gland compounds were investigated. The EAG responses were maximal for the C5-C7 alcohols, and declined as the carbon chain-length of compounds increased or decreased. Aliphatic aldehydes, acetones, acids and esters could also trigger significant EAG responses. All monoterpene hydrocarbons elicited low EAG response, while oxygenated monoterpenes elicited relatively high responses. Three aromatic compounds elicited significant EAG responses. Compounds that showed significant EAG responses at dose of 100 μg elicited dose-dependent EAG response, while α-pinene and (E)-caryophyllene evoked little responses at all tested dosages. All tested host pheromone gland compounds elicited significant EAG response at the dosage of 100 μg and 1 000 μg. Tested with 100 μg and 1 000 μg of host pheromones, the male parasitoids showed responses two times as high as that of the female. The role of plant volatiles in host location behavior of the parasitoid was discussed.

    Nutrient-water fluxes and uptake along the midgut of Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae)
    Bassey E. AKPAN, Tonye G. OKORIE
    2006, 49(1):  10-15. 
    Abstract ( 3444 )   PDF (1889KB) ( 1348 )     
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     Circulation of water and nutrients in the midgut of Zonocerus variegatus was studied to determine the flux pattern and its possible implication in the adaptation of the insect to hydrogen cyanide. Histological sections of midgut cells were observed. Gradients of K+, Na+ and protein along midgut were determined. The permeability of midgut segments to K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and methyl blue was observed. The midgut (ventriculus and gastric caeca) was histologically similar, and made of columnar cells with striated borders. The nutrients varied in concentration in the different midgut segments. The substances tested for permeability passed through the midgut segments. It was concluded that the entire midgut was involved in food and water absorption. There was no counter flow of fluids from the posterior midgut as in most orthopterans. One-way movement of the gut contents prevents accumulation of toxic substances to injurious levels, enabling the insect to favourably tolerate hydrogen cyanide in cassava leaves.


    Expression of the melittin gene from Apis cerana cerana in baculovirus system
    SHI Wan-Jun, ZHANG Chuan-Xi, CHENG Jia-An
    2006, 49(1):  16-21. 
    Abstract ( 3025 )   PDF (1552KB) ( 1154 )     
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     A cDNA fragment encoding melittin from Apis cerana cerana was obtained by restriction enzyme digestion from the recombinant plasmid pGEM-AccMT, and inserted into the multiple cloning site of the pBacHTeGFPT to construct the recombinant donor plasmid pBacHT-GFPTAccM, which was transposed to the target Bacmid in E. coli (DH10) by Tn7 transposition function. Then Bacmid-GFPTAccM recombinant genome DNA was used to transfect Tn-5B1-4 cell of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, mediated by lipofectin. The expressed protein band of about 34 kD was determined by SDS-PAGE, and the thin layer scanning showed that the expression amount of GFPT-AccM fusion protein was about 3% of the total cell protein. Western blotting and the cytopathic effect of Tn cell after infection of Bacmid-GFPTAccM at different time proved that the fusion protein GFPT-AccM  had been successfully expressed in Tn-5B1-4 cell.


    Isolation, purification and characterization of metallothioein from Boettcherisca peregrina (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)
    WU Guo-Xing, LI Kai, YE Gong-Yin, HU Cui, CHENG Jia-An
    2006, 49(1):  22-28. 
    Abstract ( 3276 )   PDF (370KB) ( 1281 )     
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    The metallothioneins (MT) in Boettcherisca peregrina larvae were induced and produced after their feeding on the dietary containing 800 μg cadmium chlorides per gram diet for 48 hours. Two forms of MTs (MT-Ⅰ and MT-Ⅱ) were isolated and purified from the supernatant of the whole body homogenates from the larvae after exposure to cadmium chlorides, using gel chromatography on Sephadex G-50, ion-exchange chromatography on UNOTM Q1, and desalination on Bio-Gel P-6. Molecular weight for both MT-Ⅰ and MT-Ⅱ was 9 kD. Both MT-Ⅰ and MT-Ⅱ contained 7 cadmium atoms and 20 sulfhydryl groups per molecule, and showed the spectral characteristic of cadmium-thionein, i.e. a broad shoulder at 254 nm. As to amino acid composition, the content of cysteine residues was the highest, accounting for 36.6% and 31.8% of all amino acids for MT-Ⅰ and MT-Ⅱ respectively; however, the contents of aromatic amino acid and histidine were very low, just sharing 1%-2% of all amino acids.

    Separation and characterization of vitellin of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)
    DAI Hua-Guo, YI Wei-Xian
    2006, 49(1):  29-33. 
    Abstract ( 2977 )   PDF (604KB) ( 1139 )     
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    The vitellin of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) was assayed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and different dyeing methods. The results indicated that the vitellin is a kind of protein containing sugar and fat. The molecular weight of the vitellin was 314 kD, consisting of three subunits with molecular weight of 148 kD, 124.5 kD and 39.6 kD respectively. Immunity experiment showed that the vitellin only existed in reproductive period of female adults of N. lugens. The vitellin of N. lugens was species-specific, and not reactive with the vitellin of the white back planthopper (Sogatella furcifera).



    Changes in the hemolymph of female Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) after infection by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae)
    GAO Zhi-Hua, YANG Xiao-Long, LIU Jing-Ze JIAN Heng
    2006, 49(1):  34-37. 
    Abstract ( 3184 )   PDF (250KB) ( 976 )     
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    For increasing our knowledge on the pathology of entomopathogenic nematodes to ticks, the changes of total protein level, esterase activity and esterase bands in the hemolymph of female Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann after infection by the nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora E-6-7 (Hb E-6-7) were detected. The results showed that in 12 h after infection, the total protein in the hemolymph increased sharply to a maximum (92.21 μg/μL) and declined later, to 49.06 μg/μL in 24 h after infection and 34.25 μg/μL in 48 h after infection. The female esterase activity in the hemolymph showed no significant change during 0-12 h after infection, and it rapidly increased from 24 h after infection (OD24h=0.1840, OD36h=0.1940,OD48h=0.2165), showing significant difference with the control. PAGE analysis revealed that nematode infection resulted in the change of esterase electrophoresis profile, mainly with the bands a and b disappeared and a new band cappeared. The above results indicated that Hb E-6-7 infection could cause the changes of total protein and esterase in the hemolymph of female H.longicornis, and these changes might be related to the resistance and adaptation of ticks to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Contents of the spermatheca of the grasshopper Oedaleus infernalis Saussure (Orthoptera: Acrididae)
    HE Jian-Ping, XI Geng-Si, LU Jian, WEI Xian-Hui
    2006, 49(1):  38-44. 
    Abstract ( 3080 )   PDF (6863KB) ( 1015 )     
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    The contents of the spermatheca of the grasshopper Oedaleus infernalis Saussure were assayed with histochemistry and affinity-histochemistry methods. Spermathecae before and after mating were stained with PAS, bromophenol blue and Sudan black B. The results showed that the contents of spermatheca included carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, and there were clear differences in these contents in gland cells and spermathecal lumen between spermathecae before and after mating. These contents were in higher content in spermathecae after mating than in those before mating. This suggested that mating stimulated secretion by gland cells and resulted in accumulation of carbohydrates and proteins in the spermathecal lumen and duct. However, the content of lipids shown with Sudan black B staining showed no distinct differences in spermathecae before and after mating. Affinity-histochemistry results indicated that carbohydrates and proteins in spermathecae were present most in the form of glycoproteins, and oligosaccharides of these glycoproteins consisted mainly of mannose, galactose and glucose.


    Effect of Congo red on peritrophic membrane of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and its viral-enhancing activity
    ZHANG Xiao-Xia, LIANG Zhen-Pu, PENG Hui-Yin, ZHANG Zhong-Xin, TANG Xian-Chun, LI Gang, ZHAO Shu-Ling, XIAO Yu-Zhou, ZHANG Wan-Ju
    2006, 49(1):  45-49. 
    Abstract ( 3068 )   PDF (1748KB) ( 1289 )     
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    The morphology, structure and component of normal peritrophic membrane (PM) were observed, and the disruptive effect of Congo red (CR) on the PM of larvae and its viral-enhancing activity to HaNPV in Helicoverpa armigera were studied. The results indicated that the PM of H. armigera resembled typeⅠ, which spread nearly the whole midgut and presented as a vacuole. The normal PM was colorless, transparent and stretchy. The PM dyed by CR appeared as a bisque netlike structure. When the 5th instar larvae were reared on the diets with different concentrations of CR, the larvae synthesized fragile PM fragments instead of intact PM after consuming the artificial diets with 1.5% and 2.0% CR for 2.5 h. However, the resumptive experiments testified the disruptive effect could be restored by rearing the larvae on the diet without CR. Although 1.0% CR did not affect the growth of larvae, it could enhance the sensitivity of larvae to virus infection, shorten the killing time by virus, and cause the mortality of 5th instar larvae as high as 63%.


    Modulations by CTX of the L-type Ca2+ channels in the central neurons of the cyhalothrin-resistant and cyhalothrin-susceptible cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera
    ZHAO Qiang, LI Jie, LIU Yan-Qiang, FAN Xian-Lin, JI Qing, LIU An-Xi
    2006, 49(1):  50-57. 
    Abstract ( 4489 )   PDF (381KB) ( 1566 )     
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    Cholera toxin (CTX) activates the α_subunit of stimulatory heterotrimeric G-proteins (Gαs) and stimulates voltage-gated L-type (Ca2+(L)) channels, which may be primary targets of pyrethroids. To investigate the potential mechanisms underlying the resistance to pyrethroids in agriculturally important insect pests, we examined the modulations by CTX of Ca2+(L) channels in the central neurons of the cyhalothrin-resistant (Cy-R) and cyhalothrin-susceptible (Cy-S) cotton bollworms (Helicoverpa armigera). Neurons were isolated from the 3rd-4th instar larvae of the Cy-R and Cy-S cotton bollworms, respectively. The isolated neurons from each group were cultured for 12-16 h in an improved L15 insect culture medium with or without CTX (700 ng/mL). Barium currents (IBa) through Ca2+(L) channels were recorded by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The results showed that CTX increased the IBa peak current density by 36.1 % and caused a hyperpolarizing shift by 5 mV in the I-V curve in the Cy-S neurons, but had no such effect in the Cy-R neurons. Moreover, CTX exerted little effects on other parameters such as the activation potential, reverse potential, activation and inactivation curves in either Cy-S or Cy-R neurons. No significant differences of the parameters mentioned above in the Ca2+(L) channels were detected between the Cy-S and Cy-R neurons cultured without CTX. The results suggest that the Gs-adenylyl cyclase (AC)-cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA)-Ca2+(L) channel signal transduction pathway may exist in cotton bollworm neurons, and the reduced sensitivity of Ca2+(L)channels to the CTX modulation in the Cy-R neurons (but not in the Cy-S neurons) may account for the reduced nerve sensitivity in the pyrethroids-resistant insects.

    Detection of storage proteins in different developmental stages of Mythimna separata and the effect of celangulin Ⅴ on their content
    MA Cai-Xia, LIU Hui-Xia, WU Wen-Jun
    2006, 49(1):  58-63. 
    Abstract ( 2749 )   PDF (497KB) ( 1294 )     
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    The storage proteins in Mythimna separata were studied by means of native PAGE, SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The results indicated that there were two storage proteins (SP-1 and SP-3) in M. separata. SP-1 was detected on the 2nd day of the 6th instar of M. separata, and its concentration in the hemolymphincreased with the age and reached to a peak on the last day of the 6th instar. SP-1 disappeared in the hemolymph when the larva ceased feeding. In the adult stage only SP-3 was found. SP-3 as persistent storage protein appeared in the fat body of pupa, and was continuously expressed till the adult stage. SP-1 was composed of two subunits of the molecular size of 94 kD and 100 kD respectively. SP-3 was composed of one subunit in size of 94 kD. The native molecular weights of these two storage proteins were all 550 kD. Analysis of the amino acid compositions of SP-1 showed that the content of aromatic acids (Phe and Tyr) was 8.16% and the content of methionine 3.06%. The contents of the storage proteins in 2nd, 3rd, 4th day of the last instar larvae treated with celangulin Ⅴ in the sublethal dosage were markedly lower than that in the control group. But beyond the 5th day of the last instar, no difference was tested in the contents of the storage proteins and the number of eggs laid per female adult between the group treated with celangulin Ⅴ and the control.

    Resistance selection of Plutella xylostella by Cry1Ac toxin and Bt formulation and biological fitness of the resistant populations
    YANG Feng-Shan, WU Qing-Jun, Xu Bao-Yun, CAO Li-Bo, ZHU Guo-Ren, ZHANG You-Jun
    2006, 49(1):  64-69. 
    Abstract ( 2770 )   PDF (233KB) ( 1334 )     
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    Two diamondback moth populations, DBM.1Ac-R30 and DBM.Bt-R46, with resistant ratios of 24.36 to Cry1Ac and 38.16 to Bt were obtained after 30 and 46 generations of selection with Cry1Ac toxin and Bt formulation respectively in the laboratory. The basic biological properties, such as developmental, reproductive and  survival characteristics, of the above two resistant populations and their unselected parent population DBM.Bt-S were studied. The results showed the DBM.1Ac-R30 and DBM.Bt-R46 had a fitness value of 0.75 and 0.65 relative to the susceptible DBM.Bt-S population, respectively. These resistant populations showed reproductive disadvantages, including lower number of eggs laid and hatching rate, prolonged larval period, lower sex ratio (♀∶), and shorter life-span and less number of female adults compared with the susceptible population.

    Field-evolved resistance to Bt δ-endotoxins and Bt formulation in Plutella xylostella from the southeastern coast region of China
    WANG Chong-Li, WU Shu-Wen, YANG Yi-Hua, WU Yi-Dong
    2006, 49(1):  70-73. 
    Abstract ( 3097 )   PDF (194KB) ( 1170 )     
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    Levels of resistance to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac,Cry2Aa and Bt formulation (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, Btk) in four field populations of Plutella xylostella collected respectively from Huizhou of Guangdong Province (GD-HZ), Fuzhou of Fujian Province (FJ-FZ), Hangzhou of Zhejiang Province (ZJ-HZ) and Nanjing of Jiangsu Province (JS-NJ) during the autumn of 2003 and the spring of 2004 were investigated. Compared with the susceptible PHI-S strain, the GD-HZ population exhibited high level resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac (168 and 120_fold respectively), middle level resistance to Btk (47-fold) and low level resistance to Cry1Aa and Cry2Aa (5.8 and 5.6-fold, respectively). The FJ-FZ, ZJ-HZ and JS-NJ populations showed similar resistance levels, with middle level resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac (8 to 28-fold), low level resistance to Btk (3.5 to 7-fold) and no resistance to Cry1Aa and Cry2Aa. So, it was proposed that the rotations of Btk with other Bt subspecies or other kinds of bioinsecticides should be encouraged in order to delay resistance development of P. xylostella in southeastern China.

    Insecticidal activities of two active components from a Chinese indigenous plant,Sinacalia tangutica (Maxim.) B. Nord against Musca domestica vicina Macquart adults
    ZHOU Li-Juan, HUANG Ji-Guang, XU Han-Hong, WU Ren-Hai
    2006, 49(1):  74-79. 
    Abstract ( 3300 )   PDF (291KB) ( 1412 )     
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    Insecticidal activities of two active components, Z,Z,Z-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic and Z,Z-9,12-octadecadienoic, isolated from Chinese indigenous plant,Sinacalia tangutica (Maxim.) B. Nord,against adults of Musca domestica vicina Macquart and their effects on physiological and biochemical factors of the house fly were studied by bioassay tracking. The results showed that M. domestica vicina exhibited typical exciting symptoms similar to that with neurotoxins after being treated with Z,Z,Z-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic and Z,Z-9,12-octadecadienoic at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. These two chemicals possessed poison effect on adult house flies, with LC50 values 24 h after the treatment being 026 mg/mL and 0.43 mg/mL, respectively. But they showed weak contact poison against adult house flies, with the corrected mortalities 48 h after the treatment at the concentration of 1 mg/mL being 21.54% and 4.08%, respectively. These two chemicals had no obvious effect on AChE activity, but exhibited obvious effect on POD activity and the content of total glycogen, of adult house flies. Z,Z,Z-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic caused increases of Na-K-Mg-ATPase and Ca-ATPase activities while Z,Z-9,12-octadecadienoic caused a decrease of Mg-ATPase activity.

    Population dynamics of Aphis gossypii Glover in transgenic cotton fields and an analysis of the related influencing factors
    YANG Yi-Zhong, LU Yan-Hui, XUE Wen-Jie, LIU Yang, YANG Hai-Yan, LI Xiao-Hui, WANG Feng, YU Yue-Shu
    2006, 49(1):  80-85. 
    Abstract ( 3268 )   PDF (243KB) ( 1393 )     
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    In order to study the population dynamics of Aphis gossypii in the transgenic cotton fields and to analyze the related influencing factors, we constructed the life tables of natural populations of A. gossypii across three continuous generations on three transgenic cotton cultivars and their two parental lines as the controls in Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province in 2003. The results showed the population trend index (I) of A. gossypii in three transgenic cotton fields was higher than that of the non-transgenic conventional cottons in the first and second generation, but slightly lower than that of the control in the third generation of A. gossypii. The population trend index of three continuous populations on the transgenic cotton “Guokang 22" was 5.40, 41.21% higher than that on its control “Simian 3"; and the population trend indexes of three continuous populations on the transgenic cotton “Sukang 103" and “Zhongkang 310" were 49.54% and 65.79% higher than that on their control “Sumian 12" respectively. By analyzing the index of population control (IPC), we found that the control index of parasitism in the transgenic cotton fields was smaller than in the non-transgenic conventional cottons in most time, but there was almost no difference in the IPCs of predation and other influencing factors between three transgenic cotton cultivars and two non-transgenic conventional cottons.

    Dynamics of zeatin riboside content in leaves and roots of two rice varieties at two developmental stages under the infestation stress by the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)
    LIU Jing-Lan, QIU Zheng-Hua, WU Jin-Cai, WANG Peng, YU Jian-Fei, WANG Fang
    2006, 49(1):  86-92. 
    Abstract ( 2771 )   PDF (277KB) ( 995 )     
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    The response of zeatin ribosides (ZRs) in roots and leaves at different developmental stages of two representative rice varieties to N. lugens nymph infestation was studied using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated that ZR content at the heading stage of Zhendao 2 was more sensitive to N. lugens infestation compared with that at the grain filling stage, with significant reduction of ZR contents in roots and leaves at 3, 6 and 9 days after 15, 30, 60 and 120 nymphs/plant infestations compared with the control. For the grain-filling stage of Zhendao 2, N. lugens infestation did not result in significant reduction of ZR content in roots and leaves except ZR contents in leaves at 9 days after 15, 30, 60, 120 nymphs/plant infestation and ZR content in roots at 9 days after 120 nymph/plant infestations. However, the response of ZR in Xieyou 63 to N. lugens stress was different from Zhendao 2: ZR contents in leaves at 3 days after 15, 30 and 60 nymph infestation increased significantly at the heading stage, and there were no significant alterations of ZR content at the grain filling except with significant increase of ZR contents in leaves at 6 days after 30, 60, 120 nymphs/plant infestation and at 9 days after 120 nymphs/plant infestation. The results demonstrated that the effect of N. lugens infestation on ZR content varied with rice variety and developmental stage.

    Association between the damage of Xylotrechus rusticus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and the compositions and contents of amino acids in different poplar strains
    YAN Shan-Chun, LI Jin-Guo, WEN Ai-Ting, CHENG Hong, XU Wei, ZHANG Yu-Bao
    2006, 49(1):  93-99. 
    Abstract ( 3021 )   PDF (271KB) ( 1132 )     
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    The amino acid compositions and relative contents of phloem and xylem in different poplar strains, including 35-yr-old Populus pseud-simonii,24-yr-old P. pseudo-simonii×P. nigra,24-yr-old P. simonii×P. nigra,16-yr-old P. koreana,27-yr-old P. simonii and 40-yr-old P. simonii, were detected by high performance liquid chromatography method with AccQ\5Tag precolumn derivatization. The relationship between amino acid and the damage of Xylotrechus rusticus to poplars was also evaluated. The results showed that fifteen amino acids including Ala,Arg,Asp,Cys,Cyss,Glu,Gly,Ile,Leu,Lys,Phe,Pro,Ser, Thr and His were detected in the phloem at 2.5 m height of stem of tested poplar strains; the kinds of amino acids in the xylem were similar to that in the phloem, except that Val instead of His was present in the xylem. In the phloem, the relative contents of the same amino acids in different poplar strains were remarkably different, but there was no significant correlation between amino acid relative contents and the ratio of damaged trees. In xylem, the relative contents of the same amino acids in different poplar strains were also remarkably different, but there was significant positive correlation between amino acid relative contents and the ratio of damaged trees. The results suggested that the higher the amino acid relative contents in xylem, the better for the growth and development of Xylotrechus rusticus larvae. In P. pseud-simonii, the 15 kinds of amino acids were all present with their contents in rather balanced level in the xylem, and the rate of damaged trees was as high as 84%. In P. simonii× P. nigra, only 4 kinds of amino acids were present with their contents in relatively lower level, and in P. koreana, 13 kinds of amino acids were present with their relative contents not balanced; the both strains showed high resistance to Xylotrechus rusticus. The rate of damaged trees showed no correlation with  the relative contents of amino acids in different heights of trees examined, and this may be related to the oviposition habit of Xylotrechus rusticus L., which only lays eggs in cracks of old bark.

    Effect of leaf mining by Liriomyza sativa larvae on photosynthesis of some crops
    ZHANG Hui-Jie, DUAN Guo-Qi, ZHANG Zhan-Bei, LIANG Zhe-Jun, ZHANG Dong-Mei, XU Qi, WANG Xiao-Min, XU Ai-Ling, LIU Zhen
    2006, 49(1):  100-105. 
    Abstract ( 3448 )   PDF (247KB) ( 1165 )     
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    CI-310 portable photosynthesis system was used to measure effects of leaf mining by Liriomyza sativae larvae on photosynthesis of some crops. The results  showed that with the increase in the mined area grade of leaf by miners, the photosynthetic rate (Pn),stomatal conductance (Gs),transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal limiting value (Ls) in castorbean Ricinus communis and kidney bean Phaseolus vulgaris generally decreased. Positive relations existed in the above two crops between different treatment grades and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci)variation. After the palisade tissue of castorbean and cucumber Cucumis sativus leaves were mined by L. sativae larvae, their chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll contents were decreased compared with that of the control; and the higher the mined grade, the greater the decrement. There were negative relations between the mined grade of leaf and total chlorophyll contents, their coefficient of correlation was -0.93 for castorbean and -0.95 for cucumber. After the mesophyll of kidney bean, cucumber and suakwa vegetable sponge Luffa cylindrica were mined, the leaf fresh weights of different grades showed no regularity in variation.

    Application of rough-set theory and fuzzy clustering analysis in insect taxonomy
    DU Rui-Qing, ZHANG Zheng-Tian, LIU Guang-Liang, WU Fu-Hua
    2006, 49(1):  106-111. 
    Abstract ( 3146 )   PDF (246KB) ( 1167 )     
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    Based on 7 math-morphological features (MMFs), such as form parameter, lobation, sphericity, etc. extracted from the images of 28 species of insects of the Hemiptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, the application of rough-set theory and fuzzy clustering analysis in insect taxonomy was evaluated. Then, based on the data prepared with rough-set theory analysis, fuzzy clustering analysis with 7 indexes or 3 indexes was made separately to assess their efficiency. The results showed that when used as indexes in taxonomy at the order level, the MMFs were ranked in the following order according to their importance: (hole number, sphericity, circularity)>(roundness, eccentricity)>(lobation, shape-parameter). The classification correctness based on roughset theory is higher than that based on fuzzy clustering analysis; and the correctness of fuzzy clustering analysis with 3 indexes based rough-set theory is also higher than that with 7 indexes. Evaluated by their application in insect taxonomy, the rough-set theory is more efficient compared with statistical analysis method. The method of fuzzy clustering analysis with the index filtrated by rough-set theory has high application prospect in insect taxonomy.

    A taxonomic study of the genus Alulatettix Liang (Orthoptera: Tetrigoidea: Tetrigidae) from China
    DENG Wei-An, ZHENG Zhe-Min, WEI Shi-Zhen
    2006, 49(1):  112-117. 
    Abstract ( 2691 )   PDF (322KB) ( 1196 )     
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    The genus Alulatettix Liang from China was reviewed, with 11 species recorded, including two new species: Alulatettix qinlingensis sp.nov. and Alulatettix interrupta sp.nov. Key to species of Alulatettix from China is provided. Type specimens are kept in the Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University.


    Genetic regulators involved in ecdysone-induced programmed cell death in Drosophila
    LI Qing-Rong, DENG Xiao-Juan, YANG Wan-Ying, HUANG Zhi-Jun, ZHONG Yang-Jin, CAO Yang, XIA Qing-You
    2006, 49(1):  118-125. 
    Abstract ( 3930 )   PDF (330KB) ( 1314 )     
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    Recent reports on programmed cell death (PCD)(or apoptosis) in Drosophila reveal that during metamorphosis, binding of ecdysone to the complex of ecdysone receptor and ultraspiracle results in expression of the transcription factors that are primarily and secondarily responsive to PCD signals in the regulatory networks. These transcription factors activate the expression of inducers (Reaper, Hid, and Grim) of apoptosis and the activated inducers suppress activity of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins, resulting in onset of the caspase-dependent apoptosis. The genetic regulators that are involved in the ecdysone-induced programmed cell death in Drosophila and their relationship between each other were reviewed in this article.

    Effects of forestry practices and forest fragmentation on beetle diversity and conservation strategies
    YU Xiao-Dong, LUO Tian-Hong, ZHOU Hong-Zhang
    2006, 49(1):  126-136. 
    Abstract ( 4166 )   PDF (373KB) ( 1517 )     
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    Forest fragmentation is inextricably linked to the fate of biodiversity, resulting in the decline of abundance and species richness. Forestry, a widespread and pervasive human activity, plays an important role in forest fragmentation and reforestation. In this paper we reviewed the effects of forestry practices and forest fragmentation on beetle diversity on three ecological scales. On the small scale, forestry affects species associated with micro-habitats of natural old-growth forest, for the forest management or logging usually removes or destroys the characteristic micro-habitats. On the local scale, species richness (α-diversity) for some taxa (e.g. ground beetles) may increase after the clear-cuts, as forest generalists persist and numerous open-habitat species appear; however, some old-growth forest specialists tend to disappear from these activities. On the biogeographical scale, the intensive forestry activities (e.g. logging or reforestation with plantation) tend to homogenize forest habitats and lead to decline or extinction of sensitive forest species. Based on these findings, three reasonable advices useful for developing a “new forestry" approach were proposed, with which forest biodiversity can still be maintained under the pressure of timber harvesting. Firstly, undisturbed old-growth forests must be set aside to sustain forest specialist species and to serve as sources for re-colonization. Secondly, since the above reserves might not be enough in size and representing enough habitat types, ecologically sound timber-harvesting practices must be developed in accordance with natural disturbance regime as guidelines. Thirdly, to avoid the homogeneity of reforestation, the restoration of habitats and the process of natural regeneration must be conducted according to the rule of natural disturbance (e.g. fire).

    Detection and analysis of spinosad residue in the body fluid of Cotesia plutellae larvae with HPLC
    LI Zeng-Mei, WANG Wen-Li, WU Hui-Ming, LIU Shu-Sheng, LIU Yin-Quan, TANG Zhen-Hua
    2006, 49(1):  137-141. 
    Abstract ( 3242 )   PDF (196KB) ( 1296 )     
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    HPLC was used to investigate whether spinosad applied to parasitized host larvae could reach parasitoid larvae developing inside the hosts. Plutella xylostella larvae of a strain highly resistant to spinosad were used as hosts to rear the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae. When the parasitoids had developed to the stage of early instar larva, the host larvae were treated with 50 mg/L spinosad on the terga by topical application and then fed with cabbage leaves treated with 50 mg/L spinosad to allow the host larvae and the parasitoid larvae to develop. Three days after treatment, the parasitoid larvae inside the host were collected by dissecting the host larvae. The body fluid of P. xylostella and the bodies of parasitoid larvae were then analyzed with HPLC. Both of the active components, spinosyn A and spinosyn D, of spinosad were detected in the body fluid of host larvae and in the bodies of parasitoid larvae, and the residue concentrations were 2.79 mg/L and 0.94 mg/L in the host and the parasitoid respectively. The results demonstrate that spinosad applied to the host larvae can in turn reach inside the parasitoid larvae through penetration of cuticle and/or feeding of host hemolymph by the parasitoid larvae, and subsequently acts on the parasitoid larvae.

    Olfactory responses of Plutella xylostellato polyamines
    ZHANG Zhi-Chun, WANG Man-Qun, WANG Nan, LI Juan, ZHANG Guo-An
    2006, 49(1):  142-145. 
    Abstract ( 2834 )   PDF (197KB) ( 1070 )     
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    Olfactory responses of Plutella xylostella to polyamines were measured using a Y-tube olfactometer in the laboratory. The results indicated that the diamondback moth adults both unmated and mated had an obvious orientation response to the three polyamines tested (spermine, spermidine, and putrescine) compared with distilled water; but no significant difference in their choice between these three polyamines. Except that unmated males had an obvious orientation response to putrescine compared with cabbage juice and mated male had an obvious orientation response to cabbage juice compared with spermine, the moths had the same orientation response to the three polyamines and cabbage juice.

    Sequencing and sequence analysis of the wsp gene of Wolbachia in Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)
    MIAO Hui, HONG Xiao-Yue, XIE Lin, XUE Xiao-Feng, ZHANG Chun-Ling
    2006, 49(1):  146-153. 
    Abstract ( 2938 )   PDF (482KB) ( 1286 )     
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    By using specific primer for wsp gene of Wolbachia and PCR method, we investigated the Wolbachia infection of twelve populations of Tetranychus urticae Koch in China. These populations were from Xingcheng in Liaoning Province, Changli in Hebei Province, Changsha in Hunan Province, Zhengzhou in Henan Province, Xuzhou in Jiangsu Province, Lanzhou in Gansu Province, Kunming in Yunnan Province, Tai’an in Shandong Province, Shihezi in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Yinchuan in Ningxia Autonomous Region, Meixian in Shaanxi Province and Shanghai. The results showed that all the populations were infected with Wolbachia. Their sequences were submitted to GenBank and the accession numbers assigned are AY585714, AY585712, AY785376, AY785375, AY585713, AY785374, AY785371, AY712954, AY712955, AY785372, AY785377 and AY785373, respectively. By analyzing the wsp gene sequences of Wolbachia in T. urticae and constituting the phylogenetic tree, we found that they were similar to or completely identical with the wsp gene sequences of some strains of Wolbachia of Ori group in B supergroup. Since the branches of clusters are parallel, there is no evident geographic distribution clustering between different populations.

    Characteristic analysis of respiratory signals in four species of cockroaches
    YAO Qing, ZHAO Ruo-Qiong, SHEN Zuo-Rui
    2006, 49(1):  154-159. 
    Abstract ( 2779 )   PDF (262KB) ( 1139 )     
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    In 20℃, respiratory signals of four species of cockroaches including Periplaneta americana, P. brunnea, P. australasiae, Blattella germanica were sampled and analyzed with infrared CO2 analyzer. The results indicated that they all  exhibited the respiratory model of discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC). A DGC was divided into two periods,including an interburst period and a burst period. There were some differences among DGC characters of different species. A DGC period of P. americanawas about 24.55 min, obviously longer than that of P. brunnea (11.67 min) and P. australasiae (10.75 min), and it was only 4.41 min for B. germanica. The proportion of interburst period duration to DGC duration in P. americana was the highest with the mean value 57%, which was 48%, 37% and 36% for B. germanica, P. brunnea and P. australasiae respectively. The CO2 release rate per body weight in B. germanica was the highest, and there was no obvious difference among the rest three species. The CO2 release volume of burst period increased with the increase of DGC duration in the four species. The CO2 release rate per body weight decreased with the increase of DGC duration in P. americana and B. germanica, but their correlations were not obvious in P. brunnea and P. australasiae. The CO2 release rate and CO2 release volume of burst period had positive correlation with body weight in other three species except B. germanica. Body weight did not influence the durations of DGC, interburst period and burst period and the DGC frequency in all four species.

    Population dynamics of main pests in the culture containing transgenic Bt cottonseeds for the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus
    WANG Yin-Xia, XU Bao-Liang, ZHANG Qing-Wen, MA Yan-Yan
    2006, 49(1):  160-166. 
    Abstract ( 3015 )   PDF (334KB) ( 1264 )     
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    For evaluating the effects of transgenic Bt cottonseeds, the population dynamics of main dipteran and mite pests in the cultures containing transgenic Bt cottonseeds and non-transgenic cottonseeds for the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus planted in the cage were investigated. The results showed that the population of Lycoriolla pleuroti and mites in the culture containing non-transgenic cottonseeds was higher than in the culture containing transgenic cottonseeds. With the increase of both transgenic and non-transgenic cottonseed content in the culture, the occurrence of L. pleuroti decreased. But for Scatopse spp., the effect of non-transgenic cottonseeds was stronger than that of transgenic cottonseeds, and the population of Scatopse spp. showed a clear decreasing tendency with the increase of the non-transgenic cottonseed content. With the increase of cottonseed content, the population of Megaselia spp. increased in the culture containing non-transgenic cottonseeds, but decreased in the culture containing transgenic cottonseeds. The effect of transgenic cottonseeds on Megaselia spp. was stronger than that of the non-transgenic cottonseeds when the content of cottonseed was low,  while this tendency was in contrary when the content of cottonseed was high.