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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
08 May 2006, Volume 49 Issue 2
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    Comparison of four promoters for transient expression of RFP reporter gene in cultured Bombyx mori cells(Bm-e-HNU5)
    WANG Yun,YE Xiang-Qun, WU Yi-Liang, GUI Mu-Yan, ZUO Zheng-Hong
    2006, 49(2):  167-171. 
    Abstract ( 3123 )   PDF (3870KB) ( 1490 )     
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    The red fluorescent protein reporter gene (RFP) was used to construct recombinant plasmids containing four different promoters,i. e., the cytoplasmic actin4 promoter (A4),α-tubulin promoter (α-tub)from silkworm,the Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus immediate early protein promoter (IE)and the fibroin heavy chain gene promoter (Fib), respectively. These recombinant plasmids, i. e., pDsRed-A4,pDsRed-α-tub,pDsRed-Fib and pDsRed-IE, had been constructed successfully by restriction enzyme digestion and PCR analysis,and then were transfected into B. mori cell lines (Bm-e-HNU5)by lipid mediated method to observe the ability of the four promoters to drive RFP reporter gene transient expression in cells. Transfection and transcription experiments indicated that except pDsRed-A4,the other three kinds of recombinant plasmids all transfected Bm-e-HNU5 obviously. The promoters of α-tub,IE and Fib enhanced the transient expression activity of RFP reporter gene in the Bm-e-HNU5, and their activity strengthened sequentially.

    Sequence analysis and expression of cathepsin D in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    YANG Yuan-Ping, LIU Chun, WANG Zi-Long, WANG Gen-Hong, XIA Qing-You
    2006, 49(2):  172-178. 
    Abstract ( 2889 )   PDF (599KB) ( 1546 )     
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    Cathepsin D is lysosomal endoproteolytic enzyme which is thought to play key roles in the developmental and physiological process in organisms. The nucleic acid sequence of reported silkworm cathepdin D was used to tBLASTn search against the silkworm EST database. The ESTs with high score were clustered and assembled into a consensus sequence. Based on the consensus sequence, the aspartic proteases of Bombyx mori was cloned and identified,  termed as BmCtD (GenBank accession number: DQ010007). The cDNA was 1 543 bp at length with an open reading frame of 1 152 bp, and there were alternative splices in BmCtD. The deduced amino acid sequence of the BmCtD shared high similarity with that of cathepsin D in other species. The results of RT-PCR showed that the gene was expressed at all examined  developmental stages and tissues of B. mori.


    Changes in contents of host volatile terpenes under different damaged states and electroantennogram response of Monochamus alternatus Hope to these volatiles
    NING Tiao, FAN Jian-Ting, FANG Yu-Ling, SUN JiangHua
    2006, 49(2):  179-188. 
    Abstract ( 3183 )   PDF (3564KB) ( 1272 )     
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    Based on the analysis of terpene samples in five physiological states of host trees by gas chromatography-mass spectrum, α-pinene has the largest proportion in all states. There are large variations in terpene compositions and their relative contents in stem and branch of healthy Pinus massoniana. With the decline of host pine health, the relative contents of α-pinene significantly decrease and the relative contents of β-pinene significantly increase in stems or branches of baited tree. We conclude that the lower ratio of α-pinene and β-pinene indicates the more declining host health. The contents of α-pinene, β-pinene and β-phellandrene were significantly different between P. massoniana stem and branch in physically damaged states. P. massoniana also has a distinctive terpene composition on the trees damaged by oviposition as well as the up and down part of the stem. In feedingdamaged state, there are large variations in terpene compositions and their relative contents between P. massoniana and Cedrus deodara. The relative contents of α-pinene,β-pinene and β-phellandrene are significantly different in heavily oviposited stem and feeding-damaged branch. The contents of β-pinene and limonene in baited stem after 13 days are higher than those in physically damaged stem after 13 days, but the content of α-pinene varied contrarily. The relative contents of α-pinene and β-pinene in feeding-damaged branch are significantly higher than those in heathy branch, and β-mercene,β-phellandrene and trans-caryophyllene in healthy branch are significantly higher that those in feeding-damaged branch. The relative contents of terpene compositions are significantly different between healthy stem and oviposited stem, except for α-pinene and β-pinene. There are large variations in the relative contents of α-pinene, β-pinene and β-phellandrene in stem or branch between physically damaged, oviposited and feeding-damaged states. In conclusion, α-pinene, β-pinene and β-phellandrene maybe play important roles in regulating the feeding and ovipositing behaviours of Monochamus alternatus Hope. M. alternatus showed a moderate electroantennogram (EAG) response to many volatile terpenes, but there is a significant sexual difference of the relative EAG responses between male and female. The highest EAG response was elicited by β-pinene.

    Activity sensitivity of midgut α-amylase in larvae of the armyworm, Pseudaletia separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    2006, 49(2):  189-193. 
    Abstract ( 2796 )   PDF (246KB) ( 1387 )     
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    The effects of different enzymatic buffers, pH value, chloridion, and oxadiazolyl pyridazinone on the midgut α-amylase activity in 5th-instar 2nd-day larvae of Pseudaletia separata Walker were assayed. The results showed that sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.8) and phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) were most beneficial to α-amylase activity in their buffer series with different pH value, with the maximal activity as high as 4.49 and 4.97 U respectively. The activities against 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 mmol/L chloridion showed first decreasing and then increasing in sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.8), whereas they showed only gradually decreasing in phosphate buffer (pH 8.0). Inhibition of 1.4 mmol/L oxadiazolyl pyridazinone against α-amylase activity was as high as 70 percent, and thereafter gradually decreased with the increase of α-amylase protein.

    Features of the prophenoloxidase activating system in crude extracts of Nilaparvata lugens and Myzus persicae
    2006, 49(2):  194-199. 
    Abstract ( 3495 )   PDF (280KB) ( 1061 )     
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    The prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system (proPO-AS) involved in crude extracts of rice planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) and green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was investigated in relation to potentially influential agents. The results showed that as Ca2+ concentration increased from 0.1 mmol/L to 100 mmol/L, the activities of phenoloxidase (PO) in the crude extracts of N. lugens and M. persicae were concentration dependent. The activation of the proPO peaked at 30 mmol/L of the Ca2+ concentration. However, a further increase of the Ca2+ to 100 mmol/L resulted in a decrease in proPO activation. Incubation of the extracts in conjunction with different concentrations of laminarin (from 10-4 mg/mL to 10 mg/mL) witnessed the levels of proPO activation entirely depending on the laminarin concentrations. When different glucans were used as activating agents, laminarin and zysoman significantly enhanced the PO activities whereas the effect of curdlan was not significant compared to a blank control. In contrast, the PO activities were reduced when mannan, dextran or cellulose was added. These results indicated that the β-1,3-glucan effectively activated the proPO present in the extracts of the two insect species with the proPO-AS selectively responding to different glucans. The sequence of adding Ca2+ and phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluorid (a serine protease inhibitor) in the extracts also affected the PO activities.

    The impacts of transgenic cry1Ab rice on the hemocytes of Chilo suppressalis larvae
    2006, 49(2):  200-205. 
    Abstract ( 2791 )   PDF (1980KB) ( 1273 )     
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    This paper deals with the impacts of transgenic rice line KMD1, containing a synthetic truncated toxin gene based on the cry1Ab gene of Bacillus thuringiensis, on the haemocytes of larvae of Chilo suppressalis (Walker). The results showed that transgenic cry1Ab rice affected the hemocytes of 5th instar larvae observably. When the larvae fed on the transgenic cry1Ab rice, the numbers of almost all types of hemocytes except the prohemocytes cystocytes at initial stage were distinctly lower than that of the CK fed on non-transgenic rice Xiushui 11. Because of transgenic cry1Ab rice destroyed all types of hemocytes more or less, the differential hemocyte count and total hemocyte count decreased as the feeding time extended. The percent of prohemocytes after feeding for 36 h reduced sharply, but the proportion of plasmatocytes and granular cells increased, and the numbers of the rest spherules and cystocytes did not change distinctly. The results suggested that the cellular immune system of larvae of C. suppressalis was disturbed severely after their feeding on transgenic cry1Ab rice.

    Immunosuppression effects of venom of pupal endoparasitoid wasp, Diadromus collaris (Gravenhorst) on its host, Plutella xylostella pupae
    LI Wei-Di, HUANG Fang, CHEN Ya-Feng, CHEN Xue-Xin
    2006, 49(2):  206-212. 
    Abstract ( 2966 )   PDF (6586KB) ( 1155 )     
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    The venom of pupal endoparasitoid wasp, Diadromus collaris (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and its immunosuppression effects on the pupae of host Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were preliminarily studied. The total number of hemocytes and the numbers of two types of hemocytes (plasmatocytes and granular cells) increased in the hemolymph of parasitized host pupae as compared with those in non-parasitized hosts. The morphology and behavior of plasmatocytes and granular cells in the hemolymph of parasitized host pupae were also changed. The adhesion and spreading behavior were inhibited in plasmatocytes and granular cells in one day after oviposition. The spreading behavior in plasmatocytes from the host larvae was also suppressed whereas that of granular cells was not significantly affected in the in vitro culture experiments. Isolated crude venom also caused the death and break of plasmatocytes and granular cells. The in vitro culture experiments also indicated that the venom of this pupal endoparasitoid inhibited the phenoloxidase activity of hemolymph of host larvae in a certain extent, especially when the reaction time is up to 40, 60 and 80 minutes. The venom SDS-PAGE showed that nine protein bands were present, ranging from 9 to 50.2 kD, including 50.2, 30.5, 28.2, 25.1 and 12.6 kD, which were similar to proteins acted as the inhibitors for host development and immunity in other parasitoidhost systems. The results above demonstrated that venom of D. collaris could impair cell and humor-mediated immune responses of the host.

    Cloning, expression, and purification of Der fI gene and its immunological characteristics
    ZHU Jian-Qi, LIU Zhi-Gang, GAO Bo, JI Kun-Mei, XING Miao
    2006, 49(2):  213-218. 
    Abstract ( 3155 )   PDF (569KB) ( 1135 )     
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    Der fⅠ is a major allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae, which can induce the typeⅠallergy. In this study, the live mites of South China area which had been identified and cultured were picked. The total RNA was extracted. The Der fⅠ gene fragment was amplified with RT-PCR, cloned into pMD18-T vector, and sub-cloned into the expression vector pET. The recombinant plasmid pET24a-Der fⅠ so constructed was expressed through the induction of IPTG. The expressed Der fⅠprotein was purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). Recombinant Der fⅠ protein was expressed in E. coli host strain BL21 star in the form of inclusion body, and its allergenicity was confirmed by the western blot.

    Microstructure of the inner alimentary canal in Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae)
    ZHANG Xiao-Min, GUO Ya-Ping, XU Jing, MA En-Bo
    2006, 49(2):  219-229. 
    Abstract ( 3395 )   PDF (10157KB) ( 1315 )     
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    The microstructure of Oxya chinensis alimentary canal was systematically observed with scanner and scanning electron microscope. The results show that the inner walls of the esophagus consist of longitudinal ridges, with teeth at the front tip. The crop is composed of two parts. The front part has a small bulge, which is formed by V-shape belt and the V-shape ridges on either side of the belt. Teeth are seen only at the front tip of the inner walls. The rear part of the crop has a large bulge, which is composed of lance ridges, fan-shape ridges and irregular ridges. There are teeth on the top part of the ridges. The teeth in the inner walls of the foregut are mainly of single tooth. All the teeth point to the back except the ones on the stomodaeal valves, which point to the front. The front part of the proctodaeum consists of 12 pyloric valves, with teeth on the inner walls. The ileum and colon are composed of six longitudinal ridges, with teeth on the inner walls of the colon. There are teeth on the inner walls of the rectum except the rectal pad. The teeth of the proctodaeum are mainly tufted teeth, all pointing to the back except the ones in the inner walls of the rectum, which point to the attachment ring. A new scheme for zoning of foregut was proposed based on our observation.


    Changes in the protein content in haemolymph and activities of protective enzymes of Pieris rapae infected by Paecilomyces fumosoroseus(Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes)
    ZHANG Xian-Hong, WANG Hong-Min, LI Wen-Ying, HE Yun-Chun, HAO Chi
    2006, 49(2):  230-234. 
    Abstract ( 3293 )   PDF (234KB) ( 1127 )     
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    Changes in the protein content in haemolymph and activities of protective enzymes of Pieris rapae infected by Paecilomyces fumosoroseus were assayed. The results indicated that  the protein content in haemolymph of the 3rd and 4th instar larvae of the P. rapae infected by P. fumosoroseus decreased obviously. The SOD, POD and CAT activity of the infected P. rapae was significantly lower than that of the control not infected. The effect on the 3rd instar larvae of P. rapae was more obvious than on the 4th instar. In addition, the GSTs activity of the 3rd and 4th instar larvae of P. rapae was higher in the early period of infection, but was lower in the late period of infection than that of the healthy P. rapae in the corresponding period.

    Inhibition effects of cyhalothrin on the delayed rectifier potassium current in the central neurons of Helicoverpa armigera
    WANG Yong, HE Bing-Jun, WU Chun-Lin, LIU An-Xi
    2006, 49(2):  235-240. 
    Abstract ( 3131 )   PDF (250KB) ( 1214 )     
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    The effects of cyhalothrin on the delayed rectifier potassium current in the central neurons of Helicoverpa armigera were studied using the patch clamp technique for the first time. The results showed that before application of cyhalothrin, 81% and 39% cells were activated at -30 mV and -40 mV (n=21), respectively. In 15 min after cyhalothrin (10-5 mmol/L) application, 63% and 38% cells were activated at -40 mV and -50 mV (n=8), respectively. The amplitude of the current decreased significantly after application of cyhalothrin and the inhibition percentage reached 37.7% in 1 min (n=19). After the application, activation curve shifted to the negative direction and the value of Vh changed significantly, but the k value did not change remarkably. In conclusion, the results suggest that under the action of cyhalothrin, the potassium channels can be activated more easily and current amplitude can be inhibited significantly, this is related to the nervous insensitivity,and potassium channels of Helicoverpa armigera central neurons are the action targets of pyrethroid insecticides.

    Toxicity of neem seed extract to Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) relative to its allozyme genotypes
    LU Fu-Ping, ZHAO Dong-Xiang, LIU Ye-Ping, WANG Ai-Ping, CHEN Qing
    2006, 49(2):  241-246. 
    Abstract ( 3564 )   PDF (242KB) ( 1960 )     
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    The relationships between the susceptibility to neem seed extract and the allozyme genotypes were examined in the first instar nymphs of Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) for two polymorphic enzyme loci of Pgi and Mdh using allozyme analysis. Acute exposures of the insect to 5.2 mg/mL (LC50 value) neem seed extract resulted in 51.8% mortality in 24 h. Under the given experimental conditions, insect mortalities were significantly different among certain genotypes and alleles. At locus Pgi, the insects with the Pgi-bb genotype displayed the highest mortality (84%), whereas those with Pgi-aa and Pgi-cc showed the lowest mortalities (0 and 7%, respectively), which were significantly different from that of Pgi-bb. At locus Mdh, the insects with the genotype Mdh-cc and Mdh-aa exhibited the highest mortality (93%), but no mortality was observed in the insects with the genotype Mdh-cc. These results clearly indicated that the insects with genotype
    Mdh-aa and Mdh-cc were significantly different from those with other three genotypes Mdh-ab, Mdh-bb and Mdh-bc in response to neem seed extract. In contrast, the mortalities of the insects with the Pgi-a and Mdh-c allele were the lowest, and were significantly different from those with other alleles. Our studies showed that individuals of T. papillosa with different genotypes had significantly different responses to neem seed extract. Such distinct relationships between the insect susceptibility to neem seed extract and its allozyme genotypes may allow us to use certain genotypes and alleles as genetic markers to assess the susceptibility of T. papillosa to neem seed extract.

    Resistance evolution and change of detoxification enzyme activity in a strain of Helicoverpa armigera selected with a mixture of fenvalerate and phoxim
    YANG En-Hui, LIN Yan, WU Yi-Dong
    2006, 49(2):  247-253. 
    Abstract ( 3736 )   PDF (301KB) ( 1140 )     
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    The resistant YS-FP strain of Helicoverpa armigera was selected from the susceptible YS strain with a mixture of fenvalerate and phoxim (a.i., 1∶10) for 16 generations. Compared with the YS strain, the YS-FP strain developed 14.7-fold resistance to the mixture itself, 2.170-fold resistance to fenvalerate and 3.1-fold resistance to phoxim. During 16 generations of continuous selection with the mixture, the cotoxicity coefficient decreased gradually after a brief increase at F2, and the interaction between fenvalerate and phoxim against the YS-FP strain changed from synergism to antagonism. The YS-FP strain had significant cross resistance to three pyrethroids (cypermethrin, deltamethrin and cyhalothrin), triazophos and methomyl, but no cross resistance to endosulfan, spinosad and emamectin. The cytochrome P450 oxidase O-demethylation activity in midguts of 6th instar larvae from the YS-FP strain was 10-fold of that from the YS strain; and the glutathione S-transferase activity (CDNB conjugation) and esterase activity (to the substrate αnaphthyl acetate) of 3rd instar larvae from the YS-FP strain were 1.7 and 2.4-fold respectively compared with the YS strain. The selection of the fenvalerate and phoxim mixture in the YS strain of H. armigera resulted in broad-spectrum cross resistance, multiple metabolic resistance mechanisms (especially enhanced cytochrome P450 oxidase) and antagonistic effect between fenvalerate and phoxim. The results suggested that the role of such fenvalerate and phoxim mixture in resistance management of H. armigera could be limited and temporary.

    Inhibition of ATPase activity in mitochondria of Chilo suppressalis by nine common insecticides
    LI Hai-Ping, FENG Tao, TAO Ling-Mei, LIU Xue, JIANG Hui,LIN Rong-Hua, LIANG Pei
    2006, 49(2):  254-259. 
    Abstract ( 3685 )   PDF (274KB) ( 1513 )     
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    The characteristics of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase in mitochondria of Chilo suppressalis and inhibition of these two types of ATPases by nine common insecticides, i.e., deltamethrin, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, salifluofen, endosufan, methamidophos, carbofuran and triazophos, were determined. The results indicated that the optimum pH value of Na+-K+-ATPase was 7.4, and the optimum temperature 37℃ for both Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase . The Michaelis constant (Km) of Na+-K+-ATPase hydrolyzing ATP was 0.42 mmol/L, not significantly different from that of Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase (0.40 mmol/L). The maximum velocities (Vmax) hydrolyzing ATP were 302.47 nmol/(mg·min) for Na+-K+-ATPase and 128.04 nmol/(mg·min) for Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase , respectively. When the final concentration of insecticides was 1×10-4 mol/L, the order of inhibition of to Na+-K+-ATPase by five pyrethroids insecticides was deltamethrin> bifenthrin> cyfluthrin> cyhalothrin and salifluofen, The percentage of inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase activity was 40.12%, 39.69%, 27.27%, 19.49%, and 18.71%, and the percentage of inhibition of Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase was 29.27%, 23.78%, 19.88%, 11.64% and 14.34% by the above five pyrethroids respectively when the concentration of inhibitors was 1×10-4 mol/L. The potential of endosufan inhibiting the Na+-K+-ATPase activity was same as its potential inhibiting Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase , and the percentage of inhibition was 17.46%. Methamidophos and carbofuran possessed the potential of inhibition to Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase , but no inhibition to Na+-K+-ATPase when their final concentration was 1×10-4 mol/L. The inhibition of ATPase activity by nine insecticides was increased with the increasing of insecticide concentration from 1.6×10-7  to 1×10-4 mol/L. 

    Effect of low-dose chemical pesticides on distribution and activity of carboxylesterase and acetylcholinesterase in the wolf spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae)
    WANG Zhi, FU Xiu-Qin, SONG Da-Xiang, YAN Heng-Mei
    2006, 49(2):  260-264. 
    Abstract ( 2822 )   PDF (222KB) ( 1213 )     
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    By using ultraviolet spectroscopy, a comparative study was made on the distribution and activities of carboxylesterase (CarE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in Pardosa pseudoannulata collected from different rice fields, pest-controlled chemically or biologically. The results showed that the activity of AChE in any part of the body, including cephalothorax with the corresponding value 1.251 nmol/(mg·min), abdomen 0.467 nmol/(mg·min) and appendages 0.760 nmol/(mg·min), of P. pseudoannulata from biologically controlled rice field was higher than that (including cephalothorax with the corresponding value 0.895 nmol/(mg·min), abdomen 0.445 nmol/(mg·min) and appendages 0.724 nmol/(mg·min)) in the spiders from chemically controlled rice field. On the contrary, the activity of CarE in every subsection of the spiders, including cephalothorax with the corresponding value 0.158 nmol/(mg·min), abdomen 0.708 nmol/(mg·min) and appendages 0.115 nmol/(mg·min), from chemically controlled rice field was higher than that (including cephalothorax with the corresponding value 0.122 nmol/(mg·min), abdomen 0.593 nmol/(mg·min) and appendages 0.073 nmol/(mg·min)) in the spiders from biologically controlled rice field. This proved that the spider developed a certain degree of resistance for pesticide in chemically controlled rice field. AChE distributed mainly in the cephalothorax of spiders, while CarE was mainly found in abdomen. This distribution pattern was fit for the mechanism of resistance to pesticide, which was tentatively explored in this paper. The results also suggested that the resistance of P. pseudoannulata to methamidophos was unlikely to be formed within in a short period of time,  and there must exist a long period of adaptation of rice to pests and pests to spiders.

    Insecticidal activities of propiconazole against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    ZHAO Hai-Zhen, ZHANG Zhi-Xiang, LIAO Mei-De, ZHANG Jing-Li, XU Han-Hong
    2006, 49(2):  265-270. 
    Abstract ( 3254 )   PDF (269KB) ( 1056 )     
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    On the ground of studying the cytotoxicity of 11 kinds of pesticides, propiconazole, which had the highest toxicity against Spodoptera litura (SL) cells, was chosen to further investigate its toxicology. The results showed that the mortality of SL cells treatment by propiconazole at concentration of 100 μg/mL was 98.08%. The LC50 value of propiconazole against SL cells was 20.31 μg/mL 36 h after treatment. Propiconazole reduced the protein content of SL cells obviously. When injected with propiconazole at concentration of 0.5 μg/larva for 72 h, the blood content and the number of corpuscles of the 4th instar larvae decreased by 26.80% and 25.26% respectively; while at concentration of 1.0 μg/larva, they decreased by 37.67% and 36.32% respectively. Under the both concentrations, the weight of larvae decreased notably. In addition, propiconazole reduced the total sugar and protein content in hemolymph of S. litura larvae. After treatment for 96 h and 120 h, the LD50 values of propiconazole against 4th instar larvae of S. litura were 0.59 μg/larva and 0.45 μg/larva respectively. The high toxicity of propiconazole against cells and larvae of S. litura implied the possibility for propiconazole analog in controlling insect pests.

    Community structure and dynamics of soil insects in a ragweed habitat
    SUN Gang, FANG Yan, YIN Xiu-Qin
    2006, 49(2):  271-276. 
    Abstract ( 3632 )   PDF (236KB) ( 1188 )     
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    Profile sampling method,macro-group classification method,and statistical method were used to study the community structure and dynamics of soil insects in ragweeds Ambrosia artemisiifolia and A.trifida habitats.Forty-six families of soil insects (adults and larvae were separately counted)belonging to 12 orders were collected.On the level of order,the individual number of Collembola was absolutely dominant(amounting to 80.879% of the total individual number of soil insects),followed by Hymenoptera (8.765%),Coleoptera larvae(3.951%),and Diptera larvae (3.093%),while the rest orders together amounted to 3.312% of the total.Among the 46 families,three families, i.e., Onychiuridae(amounting to 32.756% of the total individual number of soil insects),Tomoceridae(18.869%),and Isotomidae (18.178%), were dominant.The number of individuals and groups of soil insects increased with the proceeding of growth season and attained the maximum value in August.Ragweeds reduced the individual number and community diversity of soil insects. According to the results of monthly ANOVA and LSD,in August and September the individual number and diversity indices of soil insects in the control plot without ragweeds were significantly higher than those in ragweed plots.Ragweeds showed expellant effects on some groups of soil insects,and in the whole growth season of ragweeds, Carabidae adults,Dasytidae larvae,Jassidae, Histeridae,and Phloeothripidae were never found in ragweed habitats.The restrictive impacts of ragweeds on soil insects were more remarkable in pure ragweed community and in the bloom of plant growth.Vertically, soil insects aggregated mainly in surface soil profile.

    Influence of edge effect on diversity of ground-dwelling beetles across a forest-grassland ecotone in Wolong Natural Reserve, Southwest China
    YU XiaoDong, LUO Tian-Hong, ZHOU Hong-Zhang, YAN Jian
    2006, 49(2):  277-286. 
    Abstract ( 3605 )   PDF (421KB) ( 1307 )     
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    This paper studies the influences of edge effect on ground-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera) across a forestgrassland ecotone, where the forest interior, the forest-grassland edge and the grassland are compared using beetle diversity (abundance and composition in family level) as the main indicator. The study was conducted in Wolong Natural Reserve (102°52′-103°24′E, 30°45′-31°25′N), Sichuan, Southwest China. Beetles were collected with pitfall traps in 45 plots along five replicated transects extending 100 m from the edge into the forest interior and 100 m into the grassland, with a 25 m interval between different plots. During the field research, a total of 4 736 beetles were collected. Of these beetles belonging to 28 families, Carabidae comprised 49.5%, Staphylinidae 23.5%, and Elateridae 13.0% of the total, being considered as dominant groups. From forest interior to forest edge and then to grassland, family abundance decreased in sequence, but family diversity and evenness increased in sequence. Based on the family composition and abundance, ground-dwelling beetles from the forest interior and those from the grassland were separated from each other by PCoA ordinations; but the beetle assemblages in the forest edge were similar to those found in both the forest interior and grassland, suggesting that the beetle assemblages on the forest edge were dispersed from both of the two adjacent habitats. Seasonal dynamics of family richness and abundance in the forest edge were more similar to the forest interior than to grassland. Predators and scavengers of grounddwelling beetles showed the similar seasonal changes between the forest interior and edge, while the seasonal variation of the phytophagous in the forest edge was more similar to that in grassland. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that litter cover was the most important factor determining the family diversity and evenness of ground-dwelling beetles, and litter depth and canopy cover affected the family abundance. The results indicated the forest edge had obviously different composition of ground-dwelling beetles from that in forest interior at the family level. Since increasing forest fragmentation would result in more edge, it is so necessary to preserve a large enough area of undisturbed deciduous broad-leaved forest for protecting the diversity of ground-dwelling beetles.


    Statistical inference on the intrinsic rate of increase of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus on different mulberry cultivars (Morus L.) under laboratory conditions
    WU Fu-An, Zhou Jin-Xing, YU Mao-De, WANG Qian-Ling, XU Li, LU Cheng, JING Cheng-Jun
    2006, 49(2):  287-294. 
    Abstract ( 3309 )   PDF (407KB) ( 1144 )     
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    For wisely detecting resistance difference of mulberry cultivars to the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval, statistical inference on the intrinsic rate of increase of the mite on different mulberry cultivars (Morus L.) was conducted using Jackknife technique based on the life table data of the mite bred under laboratory conditions at 28±1℃, 75%±10% RH and a photoperiod of 16L∶8D with different mulberry cultivars. The results showed that the rm values of Xinong6071 (M. bombycis Koidz., 2x), Hetianbaisang (M. alba Linne, 3x), Xinyizhilai (M. alba Linne, 2x) and Dashi (M. atropurpurea Roxb., 3x) were 0.41894 (0.41043-0.42746), 0.37065 (0.36604-0.37526), 0.36171 (0.35778-0.36563) and 0.35253 (0.34757-0.35748), respectively. Pairwise comparison t-tests were performed based on the respective ranks in Jackknife samples between different treatment groups with their respective P values. The results indicated that there existed significant difference between the rm values of the mite on different mulberry cultivars, and the susceptibility of the four cultivars of mulberry weaked sequentially in the order above.


    Functional response and searching behavior to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens by the wolf spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata under low-dose chemical pesticides
    WANG Zhi, SONG Da-Xiang, ZHU Ming-Sheng
    2006, 49(2):  295-301. 
    Abstract ( 3481 )   PDF (358KB) ( 1126 )     
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    The functional response and searching behavior to the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens by its predator, the wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata treated with the fittest low-dose concentration of 3 chemical pesticides were studied in the laboratory. The results showed that the predating number of the predator to the prey was significantly higher under the fittest low-dose pesticides (volume ratio of pesticide to water is 2∶5 000 for methamidophos, 12∶5 000 dimehypo, and 1∶20 d-allethrin, respectively) than those without treatment of pesticide or treated by high-dose pesticides. Although all predating functional responses were in accordance with the HollingⅡ model, the functional response of the spiders treated by low-dose chemical pesticides was obviously stronger than those without treatment of pesticide or treated by high-dose pesticides. The time spent in handling and/or killing a brown planthopper (Th) by the spiders treated by the fittest low-dose pesticides were 0.45, 0.32 and 0.35 times, respectively, less than that by the spiders without treatment of pesticide. The time consumed by the spiders treated under the high-dose pesticides (volume ratio of pesticide to water is 8∶5 000 for methamidophos, 28∶5 000 dimehypo, and 6∶20 d-allethrin, respectively) were 9.70, 13.60 and 13.62 times, respectively, as much as that by the spiders treated under the fittest low-dose pesticides. The searching pattern of the spiders to BPH over rice plant was non-random. The searching efficiency decreased with the increase of prey density under the same chemical pesticide concentration. In the same BPH density, the searching efficiency of the predator varied more under different concentrations of pesticide. Under the influence of the fittest low-dose pesticides, the searching efficiency of the predator was the highest, and the total staying time and searching distance of the spiders were 1.56, 1.49, 1.48 times and 1.36, 1.42, 1.39 times as much as those under no pesticides, respectively. The results further proved that application of lowdose chemical pesticides might enhance spiders' efficiency of controlling pests and their relative activities to insect pests.

    Division of larval instars of the citrus borer, Agrilus auriventris Saunders (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)
    WEI Shu-Jun, ZHENG Hong-Hai, HUANGFU Wei-Guo, SHI Zu-Hua, CHEN Xue-Xin
    2006, 49(2):  302-309. 
    Abstract ( 3176 )   PDF (4620KB) ( 1262 )     
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    The citrus borer, Agrilus auriventris Saunders, burst to attack citrus trees in recent years in some areas of Zhejiang Province, China. The larval instar numbers should be determined before further studying on its life history, biology and IMP. In this study, larval samples of different instars were collected from both the field and the laboratory, and four variables were measured, including the width of peristoma, the width of urogomphi, the length of urogomphi and the left lateral length of urogomphi. Based on frequency histograms and Dyar's law, the larvae of citrus borer were divided into 5 instars. Of the four variables measured, the width of peristoma provided the best division of instars. The average width of peristoma of the 1st instar larvae was 0.1196±0.0013 mm, the 2nd instar 0.2008±0.0030 mm, the 3rd instar 0.3304±0.0041 mm, the 4th instar 0.5150±0.0049 mm and the 5th instar 0.7844±0.0040 mm. The best linear regression equation of the width of peristoma against the instar numbers was: y=-0.0766+exp (-1.9883+(0.3675)×x)(R2=0.9876).

    A taxonomic study of the subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Hainan, China
    LIN Ming-Guang, YANG Zu-Jiang, WANG Xing-Jian, LI Ji-Yong, LI Wei-Dong
    2006, 49(2):  310-314. 
    Abstract ( 3858 )   PDF (3297KB) ( 2180 )     
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    The subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Hainan Province, China, is surveyed and reviewed. The following 14 species are recognized: Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel), B. (B.) latifrons (Hendel), B. (B.) rubigina (Wang et Zhao), B. (B.) wuzhishana Lin et Yang sp. nov., B. (Sinodacus) hochii (Zia), B. (Zeugodacus) abbreviata (Hardy), B. (Z.) caudata (Fabricius), B. (Z.) cilifera (Hendel), B. (Z.) cucurbitae (Coquillett), B. (Z.) diaphora (Hendel), B. (Z.) scutellata (Hendel), B. (Z.) tau (Walker), Dacus (Callantra) haikouensis Wang et Chen, Dacus (Dacus) hainanus Wang et Zhao. B. (B.) wuzhishana Lin et Yang sp. nov. is differentiated from all other congeners of Bactrocera by having: 1) 2 large black spots on sides of face; 2) 2 lateral postsutural yellow vittae on scutum rather narrow and short, extending to a level with postsutural supra-alar setae; 3) costal band confluent with vein R2+3 and slightly expanded apically; and 4) fore femora entirely black, mid femora black with the basal 1/2 yellow, hind femora black with the basal 3/5 yellow; abdomen entirely black. A check list and key to species of the Dacinae from this island is provided.




    Advances in insect physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology in the last three years in China mainland
    XU Wei-Hua
    2006, 49(2):  315-322. 
    Abstract ( 3214 )   PDF (304KB) ( 1882 )     
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    The research articles from the field of insect physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology in the last three years published on international journals by Chinese scientists are introduced and commented in this review paper. A great progress has been made in China in the field, especially sequencing for genome and expressed sequence tags, molecular marker for genome and correlative researches in utilizing genomic sequence information. But a great gap still exists between domestic and international levels, such as cloning of novel or important genes and identifying their functions. We expect more pretty research present in the coming years.

    Inheritance and evolution of the sex pheromone communication system of lepidopterous moths
    ZHAO Xin-Cheng, WANG Chen-Zhu
    2006, 49(2):  323-332. 
    Abstract ( 2986 )   PDF (449KB) ( 1321 )     
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    The sex pheromone communication is one of the chemical communications which are universal and ancient in nature. Most lepidopterous moths rely on the species specific sex pheromone communication for mate finding and reproductive isolation between species. The processes for inheritance and evolution of speciesspecific sex pheromone communication are always a part of the process of speciation. Although no direct evidence for that the splitting of sex pheromone communication initializes the process of speciation, the research results for polymorphic pheromone channel and genetic architecture of pheromone communication system indicated the sex pheromone could shift and pheromone acceptor could track the shift. In this paper, we reviewed the research progresses of inheritance and evolution of sex pheromone communication system and discussed the role of pheromone communication system for speciation.



    Research progress in tritrophic interactions among host plants, the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its parasitoids
    GAO Yan, LUO Li-Zhi
    2006, 49(2):  333-341. 
    Abstract ( 3152 )   PDF (337KB) ( 1537 )     
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    The interactions of host plants, the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), and its natural enemies was summarized. The mechanism and inducement of plant inducible resistance induced by the beet armyworm were introduced. The author clarified the synthesis and function of volicitin that elicits herbivore-induced plant volatiles, and the characteristics and ecological function of herbivoreinducible plant volatiles and wound-induced defense proteins in regulating the interactions of host plants, the beet armyworm, and its parasitoid natural enemies. The roles of plant inducible resistance in biological control of the beet armyworm and the research exploring new resistant varieties of crops in future were also discussed.

    Strawberry pollination by Bombus lucorum and Apis mellifera in greenhouses
    LI Ji-Lian, PENG Wen-Jun, WU Jie, AN Jian-Dong, GUO Zhan-Bao, TONG Yue-Min, HUANG Jia-Xing
    2006, 49(2):  342-348. 
    Abstract ( 3813 )   PDF (261KB) ( 1247 )     
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    Bumble bees and honey bees are important pollinators, but bumble bees are more efficient than honey bees for pollinating fruits and vegetables in greenhouses, which is mainly due to the different activity patterns in pollination between bumble bees and honey bees.The behaviour and activity patterns of Bombus lucorum and Apis mellifera for pollinating strawberry in greenhouse were comparatively studied. The results showed that their behaviour on the flowers was quite similar, but activity patterns were different. B. lucorum visited flowers at 8:00-8:05 earlier than A. mellifera at 9:25-9:40, and ended at 15:55-16:05 later than A. mellifera at 15:20-15:30 B. lucorum began visiting flowers at lower temperature (12-13℃) than A. mellifera did (>15℃); moreover A. mellifera did not visit flowers in the early morning or cloudy day. The diurnal activity time of individual B. lucorum (271.43±4.48 s)was significantly longer than that of A. mellifera (180.00±2.64 s). The foraging time of B. lucorum was 105.71±1.16 s,  significantly longer than that of A. mellifera (76.43±3.83 s). B. lucorum spent 3.81±0.42 s on shuttling between flowers, significantly shorter than that of A. mellifera (6.0±0.48) s. B. lucorum visited more flowers per minute (8.44±0.44) than A. mellifera did (2.38±0.15). A. mellifera bees were not particularly selective between strawberry flower with different ages, and they visited 34% young flowers per day. In contrast, B. lucorum strongly selected young flowers, and up to 55% of the flowers visited were young (P<0.05); B. lucorum visited 75% young flowers at 9:00-12:00, whereas A. mellifera visited 31% young flowers at the same time. B. lucorum bees moved around more than did A. mellifera, and they frequently visited only one or two flowers in a patch and then flew some distance along the rows or between rows, with a mean “row length" per visit sequence of 5.2 m. In contrast, the mean “row length" for all A. mellifera visit sequences was just 1.1 m. It was so concluded that B. lucorum bumble bees are more efficient pollinators for greenhouse strawberry than A. mellifera honey bees.



    Observation on the antennal sensilla of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) with scanning electron microscope
    SUN Hong-Xia, HU Xin-Jun, SHU Ying-Hua, ZHANG Gu-Ren
    2006, 49(2):  349-354. 
    Abstract ( 3178 )   PDF (3463KB) ( 1340 )     
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    Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is one of most important pests of rice. Morphology of antennal sensilla of S. furcifera was observed with scanning electron microscope. Three types of sensilla and a kind of sensilla cluster were observed on the antenna of the adult, and no morphological difference was found in these sensilla between the male and female adults. The number of sensilla increased with the development of S. furcifera nymph, especially after ecdysis and eclosion.