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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 May 2010, Volume 53 Issue 5
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Sexual differences in main detoxification enzymes and their gene expression in different instars of Bombyx mori larvae
    LIU Hai-Tao, LI Bing, ZHAO Guo-Dong, ZHANG Ting, GAO Rui-Na, WEI Zheng-Guo, SHEN Wei-De
    2010, 53(5):  479-486. 
    Abstract ( 3600 )   PDF (1231KB) ( 1218 )     
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    In order to study the relationship between resistance and sex in male and female Bombyx mori, Thermo enzyme activity measurement and Real Time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR were performed to compare differences of the activities of detoxification enzymes in male and female B. mori larvae and their genetic expression of newly exuviated larvae at different instars. The research demonstrated significant differences in detoxification enzymes and their related genes existed between male and female B mori larvae. The activities of glutathione S-transferases(GSTs)and BmGSTe5 showed higher expression in males than those in 1st-3rd instar females, while the opposite phenomena were found in 4th and 5th instar larvae. The ratios of enzyme activity and gene expression in the male and the female were 3.65 and 5.11, respectively, which were attributed to the fast development of testis in 4th instar larvae. The enzyme activities of acetylcholine esterase(AchE) in the male were 1.48,1.34 and 1.40 times compared to those of the female from 2nd to 4th instars, while its gene Bm-ace1 showed insignificant differences between male and female B. mori at 2nd and 3rd instars. The expression amount of gene Bm-ace2 in the male were 1.75,2.17 and 2.40 times as high as that in the female from 2nd to 4th instars, suggesting that Bm-ace2 plays a more important role in sex differences. The enzyme activities of carboxylesterase (CarE) in male were 1.23 and 1.87 times compared to that in female at 2nd and 3rd instars, and the activity ratios in the female and the male were 1.22 and 1.23 at 4th and 5th instars, respectively. The expression of BmCarE-5 and BmCarE-10 showed the opposite trend to enzyme activities between different sexes, i.e., lowlevel gene expression and high carboxylesterase activity. We so speculate that carboxylesterase mutation phenomenon exists in B.mori. These results break a new road for research on modification of genetic expression products and their function, and make further contribution to the study of relations between the gender and the ability of drug resistence in B. mori. 27 Refs. In Chinese.  
    Cloning and expression pattern analysis of an odorant binding protein gene Alin-OBP1 in the lucerne plant bug, Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae)
    GU Shao-Hua, ZHANG Xue-Ying, ZHANG Yong-Jun, WU Kong-Ming, GUO Yu-Yuan
    2010, 53(5):  487-496. 
    Abstract ( 3771 )   PDF (4154KB) ( 1261 )     
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    In insects,there is now increasing evidence that the odorant binding proteins ( OBPs) are
    involved in olfaction perception and play a key role in transporting hydrophobic odorants across the sensillum
    lymph to the olfactory receptors ( ORs) . In order to better understand the role of OBPs in the olfactory
    system of the lucerne plant bug,Adelphocoris lineolatus ( Goeze) ,we cloned a cDNA encoding odorant
    binding protein 1 of A. lineolatus in the laboratory,which was named Alin-OBP1 ( GenBank accession no.
    GQ477022) . The results of sequencing and sequence analysis showed that the open reading frame ( ORF)
    of Alin-OBP1 was 438 bp in length,encoding 145 amino acids,the predicted molecular weight ( MW) was
    15. 69 kDa,and the isoelectric point ( pI ) was 5. 01. The predicted N-terminal hydrophobic region
    containing 18 amino residues displayed the characteristic features of a signal peptide. Protein signature
    analyses revealed that it shared typical structural features of odorant binding proteins with other insects,
    including six conservative cysteine residues. By RT-PCR and Real-time PCR methods,we determined the
    expression pattern of Alin-OBP1 in different adult tissues and developmental stages of A. lineolatus. It was
    found that Alin-OBP1 was dominantly expressed in the antenna of A. lineolatus. In addition,Alin-OBP1
    was expressed in various nymphal and adult stages at different expression levels and had higher expression
    level in the 5th instar nymphal and adult stages. The results suggest that Alin-OBP1 may play a key role in
    the perception of sex pheromones and other chemical odorants in A. lineolatus.
    Olfactory responses of green lacewings, Chrysoperla sp.(carnea group)and Mallada desjardinsi on mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis(Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) fed on cotton
    Sudhida GAUTAM, Ashok Kumar SINGH, Ram Dass GAUTAM
    2010, 53(5):  497-507. 
    Abstract ( 3607 )   PDF (2931KB) ( 2221 )     
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    Host-habitat location of the green lacewing predators, Chrysoperla sp. (carnea group) and Mallada desjardinsi (Navas)(Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) depends on the foraging decisions and behavioral responses towards the plant odors released at various phases. The response of mated adults and mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis) infesting cotton were studied to understand the tritrophic interactions. Results revealed that both male and female perceived the green leaf volatiles emanating from the cotton plant. All the stages of the plant were responsible for the orientation of the predator and the mealybug. Higher amounts of the saturated hydrocarbons in the infested cotton leaves revealed better responses of the chrysopid adults. The efficacy of the predators can be increased in the fields by releasing the predators at the infested and flowering phase of the plant. Efficient biological control depends on the ability of the natural to establish on the plant and devouring of the pest.
    Expression of a vegetative insecticidal protein gene vip3A from Bacillus thuringiensis in B. subtilis
    QIU Si-Xin, FAN Xiao-Jing, HONG Peng-Xiang, GUAN Xiong, HU Fang-Ping
    2010, 53(5):  508-516. 
    Abstract ( 3856 )   PDF (2245KB) ( 1041 )     
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    Bacillus subtilis is commonly engineered to express insecticidal and antagonistical proteins. In order to develop a B. subtilis strain that expresses Vip3A protein and construct insecticidal and antagonistical strains, we fused a vip3A gene isolated from a B. thuriginensis strain WB7 to a promoter derived from the ribosomal subunit protein S4 promoter of B. subtilis strain 168, and then inserted this expression cassette into pAD123, an Escherichia coi-B. subtilis shuttle vector. An obtained plasmid (pADpvip) was then introduced into B. subtilis strain 168 and an antagonistic endophytic strain BS-2 which was isolated from chili pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Detection of vip3A expression by SDS-PAGE showed that an 88 kDa band appeared in the protein samples prepared from the pADpvip transferred cells of the strain 168, but was not shown in the samples of strain BS2 that contained the same plasmids, indicating that the vip3A was only expressed in strain 168. Fermentation broths of engineered strains derived from strain 168 and BS-2 were subsequently tested for their insecticidal activities. Second-instar larvae of oriental leafworm (Spodoptera litura) were fed with Chinese cabbage leaves treated with the bacterial suspensions at a concentration of 107CFU/mL. The suspension of five engineered strains (168vip1-4, 6) derived from strain 168 resulted in 87.64%-92.13% larval mortality at 72 h after treatment, while the fermentation broths of the transferred strain BS-2 showed no toxicity to the larvae. The results of toxicity test showed that the 72-h LC50 value of strain 168vip2 for the 2nd- instar larvae was 0.0194 mL/mL. These results lay the foundation for further work to improve expression of the Vip3A proteins in B. subtilis strains and to construct a B. subtilis strain that expresses both Vip3A and antagonistical proteins.  
    Effects of hexaflumuron on phenoloxidase activity in Spodoptera litura(Fabricius)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    JIAO Yan-Yan, LIU Yong-Jie, QIU Xiu-Cui, LIU Hui
    2010, 53(5):  517-524. 
    Abstract ( 3224 )   PDF (1275KB) ( 1169 )     
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    【Objective】To investigate the effects of hexaflumuron on phenoloxidase (PO) activity in the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura(Fabricius) larvae.【Methods】The activities of phenoloxidase directly reacted in vitro with hexaflumuron and that from hexaflumuron-treated 5th instar larvae of S. litura were assayed with enzyme kinetics methods. 【Results】 The optimum reaction conditions of PO were pH 6.5 and best working temperature 30℃ by using catechol as substrate. Hexaflumuron could directly combine with enzyme protein, but it was not chelated with Cu2+ in the active center of PO. The PO activity in vitro increased when hexaflumuron concentrations were below 1 153 mg/L, reached its highest level at 138 mg/L and was inhibited above 1 153 mg/L. After the 5th instar larvae were continuously treated with two sublethal concentrations(46 mg/L and 92 mg/L) of hexaflumuron for different time, the PO activity was significantly higher than that of the control at the same treatment time and the activation rates at high concentrations were larger than that at low concentrations. The PO activity in the hemolymph, cuticle and head of the 5th instar larvae increased with treatment time. The activation rate of PO at the same treatment time was the highest in the hemolymph and the lowest in the head. After the 5th instar larvae were continuously treated with hexaflumuron, PO activities in prepupae and pupae were also significantly enhanced. 【Conclusions】 Hexaflumuron can activate phenoloxidase activity in S. litura.  
    Isolation, structure identification and insecticidal activity of compounds from Ficus tsiangii Merr. ex Corner
    WANG Xue-Gui, SHEN Li-Tao, TIAN Yong-Qing, XU Han-Hong
    2010, 53(5):  525-530. 
    Abstract ( 4080 )   PDF (925KB) ( 1097 )     
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     In this study the chemical constituents of Ficus tsiangii Merr. ex Corner stem and root-bark were isolated and puified with activity-guided fractionation technology by silica gel, thin-layer chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to investigate the constituents with insecticidal activity, and their structures were identified with spectroscopic means. The results indicated that four bioactive compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as β-amyrin acetate, taraxerone, chrysoeriol and oleanolic acid, respectively. The insecticidal activities of these compounds(500 μg/g sugar) were assayed against Musca domestica vicina adults with stomach-toxicity test, of which the corrected mortality achieved by taraxerone was 83.33% at 48 h after treatment, showing higher insecticidal activity. The toxicity of taraxerone against M. domestica vicina adults was also evaluated with LC50 value of 89.82 μg/g sugar at 48 h after treatment, which was only a little weaker than that of the control with rotenone (LC50 value of 67.58 μg/g sugar). Therefore taraxerone can be further investigated as a biopesticide.
    Changes in levels of abscisic acid in roots and leaves of different rice varieties under infestation by Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)
    LIU Jing-Lan, WU Jin-Cai, YU Jian-Fei, YANG Guo-Qing
    2010, 53(5):  531-539. 
    Abstract ( 3545 )   PDF (1666KB) ( 1305 )     
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    To understand the relationship between rice tolerance and endogenous plant hormones under Nilaparvata lugens infestation, the response of abscisic acid (ABA) in roots and leaves at the tillering and grain-filling stages of representative rice varieties (super-high yield rice Peiai 64S/E32,Xieyou 963 and TN1)to N. lugens nymph infestation was studied using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated that ABA contents in leaves at 3 d after N. lugens infestation at the tillering stage for superhigh yield rice Peiai 64S/E32 and TN1 significantly increased. Ratio of ABA contents in roots to those in leaves (R∶L ratio) decreased significantly. ABA contents in leaves at 6 d after infestation for super-high yield rice Peiai 64S/E32 significantly decreased, but the R∶L ratio significantly increased. But ABA contents in leaves of TN1 significantly increased and the R∶L ratio decreased. At the grain-filling stage, change of ABA for Xieyou 963 was similar to Peiai 64S/E32 at the tillering stage. For TN1, ABA contents in leaves at 3 d after infestation increased and the R∶L ratio decreased. ABA contents in leaves at 6 d after infestation for 40 nymphs per plant and the R∶L ratio increased. Percent of increase or decrease of ABA contents showed that change of ABA contents at the tillering stage was greater than that at the grain-filling stage, and that for tolerant variety was greater than that for susceptible rice variety, but the effective duration was shorter. The change of ABA contents in leaves was greater than that in roots. Comparison of change of ABA contents of the two rice varieties showed that, for tolerant rice variety, ABA contents in leaves at 3 d after infestation increased and those at 6 d after infestation decreased, and the R∶L ratio at 3 d after infestation decreased, that at 6 d after infestation increased; while for the susceptible rice variety, ABA contents in leaves at 3 d and 6 d after infestation increased and the R∶L ratio decreased at the tillering stage at 3 d and 6 d. At the grain-filling stage, the R∶L ratio at 3 d after infestation decreased while that at 6 d after infestation increased. The change of ABA contents in roots after N. lugens infestation was not distinct. The results demonstrated that the effect of N. lugens on ABA contents in plants varied with rice variety (tolerant and susceptible). The findings have scientific value for ascertaining the tolerance mechanism of rice variety.
    Active temperature selection of flying Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) moths
    GAO Yue-Bo, ZHAI Bao-Ping
    2010, 53(5):  540-548. 
    Abstract ( 3555 )   PDF (1979KB) ( 1026 )     
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      In order to explore the effect of temperature on migratory insect behavior, such as stratification, temperature selection of flying Helicoverpa armigera moths was studied using a continuous temperature gradient device in the laboratory. The results showed that all the tested individuals exhibited significant choice behavior for temperatures. Measured in groups, the tested moths actively selected the temperature range from 20 to 22℃, which was evaluated as the optimal flight temperatures of the moth. In this temperature range, moths had the maximum frequency and the longest time of wing beat. The flight durations of the tested moths were compared in different temperature intervals, and the results showed that the moths made more obvious choices in the gradient from 16 to 22℃ than in the gradient from 19 to 30℃, suggesting that the temperature in the cold season has more significant effect on stratification of the moth than in the warm season. The wing beat frequency was affected significantly by the continuous flight time, suggesting that there exists a relationship between flight height and energy expenditure of insect during migration.
    Factors influencing mating duration in the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
    LIU Xing-Ping, HE Hai-Min, KUANG Xian-Ju, XUE Fang-Sen
    2010, 53(5):  549-554. 
    Abstract ( 3245 )   PDF (947KB) ( 1105 )     
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    To understand the factors that influence mating duration in cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi Baly, the effects of the mating time of a day, age, mating history, body weight, male density and temperature on mating duration were investigated under laboratory conditions. The results showed that mating duration was significantly affected by the mating time of a day experienced by adults. Mating duration was highest at 8:00 am, and then gradually shortened with time elapse. There is a negative correlation between mating duration and the mating time of a day. There were significant differences in mating duration among the adults with different ages. There is a positive correlation between age and mating duration. The mating duration of a male paired with a mated female was significantly longer than that paired with a virgin female; however, there were no significant differences in mating duration between females paired with a mated or a virgin male. The mating duration was prolonged with increasing female and male body weight, but there was no significant difference. The mating duration under high male density was significantly shorter than that under low male density. The mating duration was highest at 22℃, followed by 25℃ and 28℃, showing significant differences among the three temperatures. These results indicate that the mating durations of C. bowringi were affected by many factors in natural conditions.
    Genetic differentiation and cross-breeding experiments between Oligonychus ununguis (Acari: Tetranychidae) populations from host plants Castanea mollissima and Cunninghamia lanceolata
    YIN Shu-Yan, YU Xin-She, GUO Hui-Ling, SUN Xu-Gen
    2010, 53(5):  555-563. 
    Abstract ( 2997 )   PDF (1677KB) ( 918 )     
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    To determine the differentiation degree within the spruce spider mites, Oligonychus ununguis(Jacobi), two populations of the mite on chestnut Castanea mollissima from Shandong Province and on fir Cunninghamia lanceolata from Zhejiang Province were used for analyzing the sequence variation of the second internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and part of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COⅠ). The reproductive compatibility between the two populations was examined through cross-breeding experiments. The results indicated that ITS2 gene from chestnut and fir individuals is 469 bp and 513 bp in length, respectively. Nucleotide divergence of ITS2 gene was 15.2%-15.7% between the two populations. The mites collected from chestnut differed from those collected from fir by 10.5%-10.8% of the nucleotide divergence in COⅠ sequences. Cross-breeding experiments between the two populations displayed their completely reproductive incompatibility. Therefore, the tested mite populations are probably two different species according to the divergences of DNA sequences and reproductive isolation between them.  
    Comparative studies on the fovea ultrastructure of Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) in different developmental stages
    WANG Xiao-Juan, CHEN Ze, BU Feng-Ju, WANG Duo, LIU Jing-Ze
    2010, 53(5):  564-571. 
    Abstract ( 3465 )   PDF (4189KB) ( 958 )     
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     This study aims at the fine structure of tick foveae and its development. The fovea structure of Haemaphysalis longicornis at different developmental stages was studied with scanning electron microscopy, and the effect of blood feeding on the development of foveae was also analyzed. The foveal primordia were observed as paired depressions each containing only one slit-like pore in the larva. In the nymph, the foveae develop bigger and contain more pores (2-6). The adult foveae are the biggest and contain 21-35 slit-like pores. The foveae mainly develop in moulting periods of the larva and feeding and moulting periods of the nymph. The diameter of foveae of the female was significantly longer than that of the male (P<0.01), while there were no significant differences in the diameter of foveal pores during blood feeding of adult, nymph and larva (P>0.05) except that of the mating female. The difference of the foveal pores between adult and immature ticks was not significant (P>0.05). The results suggest that sexual differences in diameter of the foveal pore may begin to form during the immature stages of ticks.
    Counter-defense mechanisms of phytophagous insects towards plant defense
    PENG Lu, YAN Ying, LIU Wan-Xue, WAN Fang-Hao, WANG Jin-Jun
    2010, 53(5):  572-580. 
    Abstract ( 4586 )   PDF (1707KB) ( 2170 )     
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    This review focuses on the mechanisms of phytophagous insect counter-defense on plants. On one hand, insects can inhibit, escape and alter plant defense by behavior defense mechanisms, including changing feeding strategies, regulating growth rhythm and avoiding natural enemies. On the other hand, insects may confront plant defense through physiological and biochemical mechanisms, including adapting plant protease inhibitors, avoiding plant wound signals, detoxification, and inhibiting plugging reaction. At present, the hotspots are the mechanism of depression of plant wound signals and inhibition of plugging reaction. The researches on insect counter-defense will improve the understanding of the insect-plant coevolution relationship, and provide new ideas for pest management and the cultivation of resistant plants.
    Research progress in mitochondrial genomes of the Orthoptera insects
    HUANG Yuan, LIU Nian, LU Hui-Meng
    2010, 53(5):  581-586. 
    Abstract ( 3976 )   PDF (999KB) ( 1925 )     
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    The sequencing strategies and analysis results of 40 complete mitochondrial genomes from Orthoptera were summarized. The most important findings include: (1) three types of gene order in Orthoptera were found. The gene order of Erianthus versicolor is the same as that of Ensifera species, and the gene order of tRNAGlu, tRNASer and tRNAAsn in Teleogryllus emma (Gryllidae) are located in the minor strand. (2) The mitochondrial DNA of Ruspolia dubia contains a short A+T-rich region with 70 bp in length. (3) The conserved consensus structures of A+T-rich region were determined. The Z-curve method was applied to analyze the A+T-rich region, and the results showed that signals similar to prokaryote duplication origin exist in A+T-rich region. (4) The secondary structures of 16S sRNA and 12S rRNA from 30 species were predicted and compared with those of other insects. Some tRNA-like or tRNA isotype structures were found in noncoding regions of mitochondrial genomes of Orthoptera. (5) The phylogenetic relationships at families and superfamilies of Orthoptera were reconstructed based on the data of the 40 complete mitochondrial genomes.
    Cloning and bioinformatic analysis of cDNA of estrogen related receptor gene from Polyrhachis vicina Roger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
    OUYANG Xia-hu, ZHAO You-Hong, HOU Lan-Xin, XI Geng-Si
    2010, 53(5):  587-595. 
    Abstract ( 3404 )   PDF (5276KB) ( 1082 )     
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    Estrogen related receptor (ERR) can bind to the member of steroid receptor co-activator family and activate transcription activity of the target genes. ERRs have been found to be present in many animal species and play important roles in regulation of many physiological processes. A full-length cDNA of the ERR gene, named pvERR (GenBank accession no. EF474463), was cloned from Polyrhachis vicina Roger by using RT-PCR and RACE methods. The nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequences of pvERR were analyzed and characterized by bioinformatic methods. The results showed that the full-length cDNA of pvERR gene is 1 918 bp, containing an open reading frame of 1 305 bp, 5′-UTR of 245 bp and 3′-UTR of 368 bp. The cDNA encoded a protein with 434 amino acids. The ligand-binding domain (LBD) of pvERRs consists of two β-sheets and eleven α-helixs (H1, H3-H12, lack of H2) and the LBD structure is similar to that of mammalian ERRγ, whose crystal-structure is known. The homology analysis suggests that the pvERR and the amERR proteins share 89.9% identities in their amino acid sequences, and the homology between them is the highest in all known insect ERRs; phylogenetic relationgship between pvERR and human ERRs is closer than that between Drosophila dERR and human ERRs. This study may provide valuable information for further research on pvERR.
    Microscopic observation of spermatodesms of Gampsocleis gratiosa and G.. sedakovii(Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)
    WANG Li, CHANG Yan-Lin, FENG Xiao-Li, SHI Fu-Ming
    2010, 53(5):  596-600. 
    Abstract ( 4098 )   PDF (4179KB) ( 1121 )     
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     Spermatodesms of Gampsocleis gratiosa and G.. sedakovii was studied by differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope, which is of significance to study the reproductive isolation mechanism and reproductive biology of the related species. The results indicate that the spermatodesms of G. gratiosa and G.  sedakovii, which are transferred from the male to the female by spermatophores, are considerably different between the male and the female even in the same species. In testis the sperm is single. In vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles and spermatophores, sperms are grouped together in bundles to form spermatodesms There is a mucous cap that encloses the head of the spermatodesms. In female spermatheca, the spermatodesms are feather-shaped with a median axis. The morphology of spermatodesms shows little difference between the two species.