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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 January 2015, Volume 58 Issue 1
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    cDNA cloning, expression profiling and immunolocalization of a chemosensory protein in the western flower thrips,  Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thtipidae)
    ZHANG Zhi-Ke, WU Sheng-Yong, LEI Zhong-Ren
    2015, 58(1):  1-14. 
    Abstract ( 2372 )   PDF (5637KB) ( 1155 )     
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     【Aim】 To study the function of chemosensory proteins (CSPs) in the western flower thrips,  Frankliniella occidentalis . 【Methods】 A CSP gene from  F.occidentalis was cloned using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR strategies. Nucleotide sequence was analysed using DNAMAN software. Homology was analysed using BLAST. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed using MEGA6. Expression profiles of  FoccCSP-1 in different developmental stages and different tissues of adults (antennae, head, legs, thorax and abdomen) were assayed using real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Polyclonal antisera were prepared by immunizing New Zealand white rabbits with purified protein, and reacted with this protein in slices and 10 nm colloidal gold-affinipure goat anti-rabbit IgG. The immunolocalization of FoccCSP1 protein in adult tissues was clarified by transmission electron microscope. 【Results】 A new chemosensory protein gene was cloned and identified from  F. occidentalis  and named  FoccCSP-1 (GenBank accession number: KM527949).  FoccCSP 1 cDNA contains a 288 bp openreading frame encoding a putative protein of 95 amino acids with the molecular mass of 11.377 kD and the isoelectric point of 4.72. The deduced amino acid sequence contains the typical four-cysteine signature like CSPs from other insects. FoccCSP1 shows the highest amino acid sequence identity and the closest evolutionary relationship with LmigCSP (GenBank accession number: CAJ01476.1) of Locusta migratoriaFoccCSP-1 was predominantly expressed in 1-day-old female adults and the 2nd instar nymphae, and also highly expressed in antennae and legs. The recombinant expressed plasmid pET-30a/ FoccCSP 1 was successfully constructed, and the recombinant protein was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system and purified by affinity chromatography using Ni-NTA-Sefinose Column. The immunocytochemistry results indicated that the lymph of antennae, legs and head was strongly labeled by anti FoccCSP1 antisera. 【Conclusion】 The sequence characteristics of nucleotides and amino acids of  FoccCSP 1 were clarified.  FoccCSP 1 is broadly expressed in multiple developmental stages and adult tissues, suggesting that FoccCSP1 might play an important role in olfactory reception, chemosensory and development regulation of F.occidentalis.
    Molecular cloning, preparation of polyclonal antibody and expression detection of Wnt1 in the brain of diapausing and non-diapausing pupae of  Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuiadae)
    CHEN Wei, XU Wei-Hua
    2015, 58(1):  15-21. 
    Abstract ( 2348 )   PDF (2675KB) ( 838 )     
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    【Aim】 Wnt1 is a key component of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The objective of this research was to clone the Wnt1 cDNA from  Helicoverpa armigera , to prepare the polyclonal antibody against Wnt1 and to investigate the Wnt1 protein levels in the brain of diapausing and non-diapausing pupae by Western blot. 【Methods】 Wnt1 gene was cloned by RACE from  H. armigera . Eukaryotic expression vector of Har-Wnt1 was constructed to study its subcellular localization. Prokaryotic expression vector was constructed and the recombinant protein was expressed in  Escherichia coli  BL21 (DE3). After being purified, the recombinant protein was used to immune New Zealand rabbit. The antibody titer was determined by ELISA. Western blot was used to investigate the Wnt1 protein levels in the brain of  H. armigera  pupae. 【Results】 Har-Wnt1 cDNA was cloned successfully from  H. armigera  (GenBank accession number: KJ206240). Har-Wnt1 was found to be exclusively in cytoplasm. After immunizing New Zealand rabbit by recombinant protein, we obtained the antibody against Har-Wnt1 and the titer was estimated as high as 1:625 000 dilution detected by ELISA. The expression levels of Har-Wnt1 were significantly higher in the brain of non-diapausing pupae than in the brain of diapausing pupae. 【Conclusion】 High titer antibody against Har-Wnt1 was obtained. Our results suggest that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway may be activated in non-diapausing pupae and down-regulated in diapausing pupae. This study lays a foundation for further investigating the function of Wnt/β-catenin in the diapause of H. armigera.
    Dynamic analysis of venomous alkaloids in workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) maintained in the laboratory
    LIU Xian-Fu, CHEN Li, LI Jun-Kai
    2015, 58(1):  22-27. 
    Abstract ( 1658 )   PDF (2212KB) ( 776 )     
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    【Aim】 To assess the dynamic changes in the main components of venomous alkaloid in workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta maintained indoors over a long time. 【Methods】 Every 10 days, 0.5 g fire ant workers were taken from a laboratory-maintained colony and extracted 48 h with hexane solvent. The main components of venomous alkaloid in the extract were prepared by silica gel column chromatography and identified using GC-MS. The quantity of each major alkaloid component was measured with the external standard method. 【Results】 The fire ant worker extract was mainly composed of 9 cis alkaloids and 5 trans alkaloids, and these 14 compounds were quantified every 10 days for 90 d. Among these compounds, the content of trans-2-methyl-6-(4′-tridecenyl) piperidine was the highest, which was 3 391.57μg/g on the 1st day, and then decreased to 556.70 μg/g on the 90th day. The content of cis 2-methyl-6-pentadecylpiperidine was the lowest, which was 10.27 μg/g on the 1st day, and 2.93 μg/g on the 90th day. 【Conclusion】 When the fire ant workers are maintained in the laboratory, the contents of venomous alkaloid components first decrease continuously to a very low level, and then sustain at this level. Combined the death of the fire ant workers in the laboratory, it can be inferred that when the alkaloid content in the fire ant nest is quite low, the number of the large size workers in the nest will be very few.
    Lipopolysaccharide-induced immune response of  Octodonta nipae  (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults in relation to their genders
    FENG Shan-Shan, HOU You-Ming
    2015, 58(1):  28-37. 
    Abstract ( 1729 )   PDF (1755KB) ( 847 )     
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    【Aim】 Understanding the response patterns of insects after immunity induction is a basis to reveal the mechanisms of adaptive immune response, immune trade-offs and immune priming. The study aims to clarify the dynamic changes of the immune response in Octodonta nipae (Maulik) adults induced by bacteria and the response differences between males and females. 【Methods】 The cell-wall extract lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram negative bacteria was injected into the body cavity of O. nipae adults to induce their immune response. The activities of phenoloxidase (PO) and antimicrobial peptide (AMPs), which play an important role in insect innate immunity, were assayed at different time post induction. 【Results】 The PO activity and the antibacterial activity of AMPs in O. nipae  adults were significantly induced by 2.5 mg/mL×138 nL LPS in a certain time period, and the response models were different between females and males. The PO activities in LPS-induced female (4-10 h post induction) and male adults (0.1-10 h post induction), as well as the antibacterial activity of AMPs in LPS-induced female (12-48 h post induction) and male adults (4-48 h post induction), were significant higher than those of the blank control, respectively. LPS induced a faster increase of PO activity than of AMPs activity, but the increase of AMPs activity lasted for a longer time. Before immune induction, the PO activity and the antibacterial activity of AMPs in female adults were significant higher than those in male adults; and after immune induction the PO activity and the antibacterial activity of AMPs in female adults also had a higher top level. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that LPS can induce a dynamic immune response in O. nipae adults, which is different between males and females. Our findings provide a foundation for further studies on adaptive immune response of O. nipae in the new invading environment and to develop an effective strategy to control O. nipae.
    Behavioral responses of male adults of  Holcocerus vicarius  (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) to synthetic sex pheromone components and their mixtures in different ratios and at different dosages in wind tunnel
    YANG Mei-Hong1 , LIU Hong-Xia1, LIU Jin-Long1, FAN Li-Hua, JING Xiao-Yuan, ZHANG Jin-Tong, ZONG Shi-Xiang, LUO You-Qing
    2015, 58(1):  38-44. 
    Abstract ( 1746 )   PDF (714KB) ( 860 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to deeply understand the sex pheromone communication system of Holcocerus vicarius (Walker). 【Methods】 The behavioral responses of male adults of  H vicarius  to synthetic sex pheromone components and their mixtures in different ratios and at different dosages were observed in wind tunne. 【Results】 The results of single component tests showed that the lures containing only (Z) -7-tetradecenyl acetate (Z7-14:Ac) elicited all steps of behavioral responses of male adults, i.e., exciting, landing on the lure and exhibiting their hairpencils, while other four single components (E3-14:Ac, Z3E5-14:Ac, E3-14:OH and Z3-14:OH) elicited the male adults exciting only, but not flying to the sex pheromone source. The binary mixture of (E)-3-tetradecenyl acetate (E3-14:Ac) and Z7-14:Ac caused an increase in the intact sexual response proportion of males to synthetic sex pheromone components. When the lures were baited with the ternary mixture including Z7-14:Ac, E3-14:Ac and (Z,E)-3,5tetradecenyl acetate (Z3E5-14:Ac) in a 10:4:4 ratio at the dosage of 1 300 μg or 1 000 μg, they elicited 71.7% or 70.3% of males to behave hairpencils, respectively, but no significant difference between them (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 Wind tunnel behavioral tests of H. vicarius provide the basis for studying the sex pheromone related biology of H. vicarius and developing comprehensive prevention and control strategies by applying sex pheromone.
    Hardiness characteristics of the overwintering generation of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on Bt cotton and corn
    CAO Jing , OUYANG Fang, GE Feng, YANG Zhong-Xia, XIAO Tie-Guang
    2015, 58(1):  45-52. 
    Abstract ( 2405 )   PDF (1583KB) ( 805 )     
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    【Aim】 From the perspective of the farmland landscape in north China composed of Bt cotton and corn, the research aims to explore the influence of different hosts on hardiness of the overwintering generation of  Helicoverpa armigera. 【Methods】 H. armigera  larvae were inoculated on Bt cotton and corn in the field of scientific base in Langfang, Heibei, 2013. During this period, the pupation rate, diapause rate and emergence rate of overwintering pupae of H.armigera feeding on different types of crops were detected and compared. Indoors, H. armigera  larvae were fed on buds of cotton and fresh corn kernels and then the hardiness of diapausing pupae and non-diapausing pupae were compared in terms of the fresh weight, dry weight, fat content, glycogen content, and contents of low molecular substances. 【Results】 It was found that the diapausing pupae of  H. armigera  feeding on corn had obviously higher dry weight(117.5 mg vs 56.6 mg), fat content (457.2 μg/mg DW vs 239.6 μg/mg DW) and trehalose content(86.45 μg/g vs 13.87 μg/g), and lower freezing point (-10.2℃ vs -6.5℃) than the diapausing pupae feeding on Bt cotton (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 The results indicate that corn is the ideal host for H. armigera to live through the winter in the field. According to the historical data, the planting area of corn has been increasing in recent years, which will facilitate the successful overwintering and population expansion of H. armigera. Therefore, it is significant to control H. armigera in corn field.
    Growth, development and reproduction of the summer fruit tortrix moth, Adoxophyes orana beijingensis  (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on four host plants
    SUN Li-Na, QIU Gui-Sheng, ZHANG Huai-Jiang, YAN Wen-Tao
    2015, 58(1):  53-59. 
    Abstract ( 2118 )   PDF (882KB) ( 1140 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to ascertain the influence of different host plants on development and reproduction of the summer fruit tortrix moth, Adoxophyes orana. 【Methods】 The developmental duration and reproduction of the pest feeding on four host plants including peach (Amygdalus persica), apple (Malus pumila), plum (Prunus salicina) and apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris) were observed under laboratory conditions of 26±1℃, 80%±5% RH and a photoperiod of 16L:8D, and the life tables were constructed. 【Results】 The results showed that A. orana exhibited significant differences in the development and reproduction among the four host plants. The developmental duration of A. orana from egg to adult was the shortest on the apple (34.44 d) and the longest on the plum (38.37 d). The heaviest pupa was on the peach (28.25 mg/pupa) and the lightest was on the plum (17.93 mg/pupa). The higher survival rates of A. orana from egg to adult were found on the peach and apple (≥60.00%), while the lower survival rates were found on the plum and apricot, which were 45.00% and 50.00%, respectively. Female adults reared on the peach laid more eggs (96.15 eggs/female) than on the other host plants, and those reared on the apricot laid the fewest eggs (68.15 eggs/female). The net reproduction rate (R0) of A. orana  was the highest on the peach (23.20) and the lowest on the apricot (11.66). The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of  A. orana was the highest on the peach (0.0953). The mean generation time (T) of A. orana  was the longest on the plum (35.72 d). The doubling time of  A. orana was the longest on the apricot (9.79 d), and the shortest on the peach (7.29 d). 【Conclusion】 The development and reproduction of A. orana are better on the peach and apple among the four host plants.
    Mating behavior of Cyrtotrachelus buqueti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    YANG Hua1, YANG Wei, YANG Chun-Ping, CAI Yan, PU Yuan-Feng, FU Yan-Wen, HE Zhi-Ran
    2015, 58(1):  60-67. 
    Abstract ( 2472 )   PDF (3109KB) ( 872 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the mating behavior patterns for adults of the bamboo weevil, Cyrtotrachelus buqueti Guerin-Meneville. 【Methods】 We recorded the whole mating process of C. buqueti  adults by the combination of laboratory rearing with field observation and compared the differences in mating behaviors of C. buqueti adults on different hosts and with various body sizes. 【Results】 The results showed that a complete mating of C. buqueti adults involves four phases, i.e., courtship display, pair-bonding, ejaculation and post-copulation guarding. There were multiple mating behaviors in the whole mating process of the female and male adults of C. buqueti. Laboratory observation showed that one copulation of C. buqueti lasted 21.71±1.84 min, the courtship display lasted 0.46±0.05 min,the pair-bonding lasted 6.18±0.38 min, and the ejaculation and post-copulation guarding lasted 8.36±0.62 min and 6.71±0.79 min, respectively. In virgin males, the time for courtship display, pair-bonding and ejaculations was significantly longer than that in mated males (P<0.05). The time for courtship display (0.46±0.05 min) and ejaculation (8.36±0.62 min) of C. buqueti mated on Sinocalamus afris was significantly longer than that on Sinobambusa tootsik, Bambusa pervariabilisi × Dendrocalamopsis daiiBambusa multiplex and  Arundo donax , and there was the longest time of post-copulation guarding or placation on Bambusa multiplex (P<0.05). C. buqueti adults preferred to choose spouse in large body size for mating. When male body length was ≥3.3 cm or 3.0-3.2 cm, the time of courtship display, pair-bonding, ejaculation and post-copulation guarding of males with different body lengths was longer than those of females (P<0.05). Mating behavior of C. buqueti observed in the field was basically consistent with the results observed in the laboratory. 【Conclusion】 The results could help us understand the mating behavior of C. buqueti adults, and further provide scientific basis for the research of adult reproductive behaviors and behavior control technology of this insect.
    Wing type differentiation in Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) adults and its adaptive significance
    HAN Dong-Yin, XING Chu-Ming, ZHANG Fang-Ping, NIU Li-Ming, LI Lei, ZHANG Jing-Bao, FU Yue-Guan*
    2015, 58(1):  68-73. 
    Abstract ( 2107 )   PDF (761KB) ( 758 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the biological differences between the two wing types (spotty wing and unspotted wing) of the spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus and infer the factors influencing wing type differentiation and determine its adaptive significance. 【Methods】 The development and reproduction of the two types of A. dispersus adults and the effect of parent wing type on wing type differentiation in F1 progeny were compared at the constant temperature of 26℃. The effect of host plants and season on the differentiation of wing types was also investigated with the spotty wing adults as the F0 generation. 【Results】 The results showed that there were no significant differences in the developmental duration of the parental and F1 generation from egg to adult between the two wing types of A. dispersus. When the parents were spotty, the longevity, fecundity and population growth capacity of the F1 generation were extremely significantly higher than those whose parents were unspotted. The proportions of unspotted individuals in the F1 progeny when their parents were unspotted were extremely significantly higher than those whose parents were spotty. Host plants significantly affected the wing type differentiation of adults. The lowest proportion of unspotted individuals out of all adults was found on cassava, which was only 3.82%, while the highest was found on banana, which was 25.73%. There were significant differences in the proportions of unspotted and spotty individuals between different months. In July and August, the highest proportion of unspotted individuals out of all adults occurred. The proportions of unspotted individuals decreased gradually from September to March of next year, suggesting that temperature might be an important environmental factor influencing wing type differentiation.【Conclusion】 The differentiation of spotty and unspotted wing types of  A. dispersus  may be influenced by both genetic and environmental conditions. The coexistence of both spotty and unspotted individuals in A. dispersus populations could improve their ability to adapt to the environment.
    Gene flow and population genetic structure of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) in the areas under Enhanced Malaria Control Project (EMCP) and non-EMCP of Madhya Pradesh, Central India using microsatellite markers(In English)
    Arvind SHARMA, Richa SHARMA, Ashwani KUMAR, Madhulika DUBE, Surendra Kumar GAKHAR
    2015, 58(1):  74-81. 
    Abstract ( 2129 )   PDF (1843KB) ( 806 )     
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    【Aim】Anopheles stephensi  is a major urban human malaria vector in South-East Asia contributing about twelve percent of malaria cases in India. The gene flow in An. stephensi belonging to the areas under Enhanced Malaria Control Project (EMCP) and non-EMCP of north-eastern regions of Madhya Pradesh (central India) was studied as initially there was a decline in malaria cases in EMCP areas due to various malaria control strategies but malaria appeared to be back-track with malaria cases increasing readily, indicating that the overall malaria risk remained stable. 【Methods】 The An. stephensi mosquitoes collected from four different areas under EMCP and non-EMCP from north eastern Madhya Pradesh (central India) were genotyped using 7 microsatellite loci for analysis of various population parameters. 【Results】 The markers were found to be highly polymorphic in all the populations. Not much genetic diversity was found between the two regions. Higher genetic differentiation was observed in eastern populations under EMCP (FST= 0.0485, RST=0.1112) than northern populations under non-EMCP (FST=0.020, RST=0.0145) and high gene flow (12.90, 6.16, 5.06 and 2.38) was observed between EMCP and non-EMCP areas. The higher sensitivity of RST than FST indicated that the differentiation was probably caused by the mutation but not due to genetic drift. 【Conclusion】 The study revealed substantially high gene flow within and between EMCP and non-EMCP areas. The high gene flow combined with development of insecticide resistance seems to be a potent reason for increase in malaria cases in EMCP as well as non-EMCP areas.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    MicroRNAs in Drosophila and their roles in aging
    YANG De-Ying, LIAN Ting, FAN Xiao-Lan, LI Di-Yan, YANG Ming-Yao
    2015, 58(1):  82-89. 
    Abstract ( 2170 )   PDF (1124KB) ( 980 )     
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    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs with a length around 22 nt, are widely distributed in various organisms such as animals, plants and viruses. miRNA is an important regulatory factor for aging and disease. Here, we reviewed the expression patterns of miRNA during different developmental stages of  Drosophila melanogaster, the expression profiles of miRNA in major signaling pathways responsible for aging, and finally the roles of miRNA in aging. The specific miRNA plays an important role in different developmental stages of  D. melanogaster and the expression pattern of miRNA is related to its functions. The genetic pathways of insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) and target of rapamycin (TOR) are reported as important signaling pathways for aging. Some studies have showed that miR-34, miR-8, miR-14, miR let7, and miR-277 could either shorten or extend lifespan through regulating the target genes in agingrelated pathways. Studies on miRNA involved in aging provide the basis for the research on molecular mechanisms of aging and help to design the strategies for prevention of age-related diseases.
    MicroRNAs in insect metamorphosis and reproduction
    ZHAO Lian-Feng, SONG Jia-Sheng, ZHOU Shu-Tang
    2015, 58(1):  90-98. 
    Abstract ( 2811 )   PDF (745KB) ( 1103 )     
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    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs in animals, plants, fungi and viruses, regulate the gene expression at post-transcriptional level through translational repression or mRNA degradation. A large number of miRNAs have been reported in insects, but the number of miRNAs with documented functions is limited. During insect metamorphosis, let-7, miR-100, miR-125, miR-34, miR-14, miR-8, miR-281 and miR-252-3p have been demonstrated to function in juvenile hormone and/or ecdysone mediated signaling pathways and to modulate the development of wings, legs and neuronal system. In insect reproduction, bantam, miR-184 and miR-275 have been found to regulate the differentiation and maintenance of female germ line cells as well as the oogenesis. We summarized here the recent advances in the roles of miRNAs in insect metamorphosis and reproduction.
    SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
    A new pest of the lacebark pine ( Pinus bungeana ) in Beijing, the bark beetle  Pityogenes scitus  Blandford (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its control strategies
    YU Guo-Yue, WANG He, FENG Shu-Kuai-, LU Xu-Li
    2015, 58(1):  99-102. 
    Abstract ( 1844 )   PDF (3299KB) ( 956 )     
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    The bark beetle  Pityogenes scitus  Blandford was previously recorded from China (Tibet), Nepal, India and Pakistan, and its host plants included Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichianaP. gerardiana , and  P. roxburghii . In Beijing, it invades the unhealthy stem and branches of the lacebark pine,  P. bungeana, as a new host plant. Heavy infestation causes the whole pine to death. It also invades healthy pines with high mortality. Here we described the diagnostic characteristics with color pictures provided, and proposed control strategies with emphasis on plant quarantine and promoting the health of the lacebark pine.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 58 Issue 1
    2015, 58(1):  103. 
    Abstract ( 1194 )   PDF (652KB) ( 551 )     
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