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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 August 2002, Volume 45 Issue 4
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Construction of insecticidal engineered strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and their insecticidal activity
    DUAN Can-Xing1, ZHANG Qing-Wen1, XU Jing1, ZHANG Zheng-Wei1, XIONG Yan-Kun1 , YANG Qing-Qin2
    2002, 45(4):  419-424. 
    Abstract ( 2619 )   PDF (690KB) ( 835 )     
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    Transposon mini-Tn5 was used to integrate Bt cryIA© gene into the chromosome of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens P303-1 by electroporation. Digestion analysis and PCR amplification of the chromosomal DNA demonstrated the existence of the cryIA© gene and strong vegetative promoter in the chromosome of these transformants. SDS-PAGE,ELISA analysis and transmission electron microscope observation verified the efficient expression of insecticidal crystal protein in P303-1 Bioassay results showed these engineered bacteria were strikingly insecticidal to cotton bollworms. The LC50 of these bacteria against the second instar of cotton bollworms after five days was 50.1281 μg/g, 71.7763 μg/g, 69.0820 μg/g, 57.9895 μg/g, 192.8747 μg/g. Mortality of the treated larvae manifested a positive linear correlation with bacteria concentration,while weight showed a negative linear correlation with concentration.
    Volatile compositions of transgenic Bt cotton and their electrophysiological effects on the cotton bollworm
    YAN Feng-Ming1,2, XU Chong-Ren1, Marie BENGTSSON3, Peter WITZGALL3,Peter ANDERSON3
    2002, 45(4):  425-429. 
    Abstract ( 3187 )   PDF (293KB) ( 1066 )     
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    In order to provide chemical and ecological evidence for the ecological risk assessment of transgenic cotton volatile chemical compositions from transgenic Bt cotton “GK-12” and regular cotton “Simian No. 3” were analysed and antennal responses of mated female cotton bollworms to these substances are reported. The ratios of α-pinene and β-0pinene were much higher in the volatiles of transgenic Bt cotton than those of regular cotton and two compounds in transgenic Bt cotton volatiles were absent in regular cotton. Nine compounds in volatiles of transgenic Bt cotton were responsible for EAD peaks in GC-EAD tests.
    Location and histology of the sex pheromone producing gland in Holcocerus insularis
    ZHANG Jin-Tong, HAN Yan, GAN Ya-Ling, MENG Xian-Zuo*
    2002, 45(4):  430-435. 
    Abstract ( 2830 )   PDF (5920KB) ( 827 )     
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    The location and histology of the sex pheromone-producing gland in female Holcocerus insularis was studied by measuring electroantennogram (EAG) and gas chromatography(GC) of female sex pheromone extracts and by scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This study showed that the gland is an eversible fold situated ventrally in the modified intersegmental membrane between the eighth and ninth abdominal segments. Many plump cones occur on the surface of the gland. The glandular cells of 2-day old virgin female moths are arranged in one layer, among which the central cells are columnar and the nucleus elliptical. There is evident conjugation between cells and the involution is more in the basal membrane of each cell. Microvilli are distributed on the cytoplasmic membrane and linked with endocuticle on which there are many layers of chitin. The outer cuticule is stained deeper. The cells contain bubbles, mitochondria, glycogen deposits and rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. It is suggested that the development of sex pheromone-producing cells is synchronized with the growth and maturity of female moths.
    Behavioral response of male Acleris fimbriana Thunberg et Becklin (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)to synthetic sex pheromones
    LIU Yu-Xiu, MENG Xian-Zuo*
    2002, 45(4):  436-440. 
    Abstract ( 2626 )   PDF (290KB) ( 909 )     
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    The behavioral responses of individual male Acleris fimbriana Thunberg et Becklin to synthetic sex pheromone components, E11,13-14∶Ald, E11,13-14∶Ac and E11-14∶Ac were observed in a wind tunnel. The results indicated that E11,13-14∶Ald alone could activate the male behaviors of walking and wing fanning, taking flight, upwind flight, touchdown and walking and wing fanning at source, but copulatory behavior was observed only when E11,13-14∶Ac was added. On the other hand, none of males showed any response to the other two components, E11,13-14∶Ac and E11-14∶Ac. Compared with E11,13-14∶Ald alone, a binary blend of E11,13-14∶Ald and E11,13-14∶Ac (6∶4) increased the number of males exhibiting the behavior of upwind flight and touchdown at source. Furthermore, with 3-component baits, the percentage of walking and wing fanning at source and copulatory behavior showed a highly significant increase. The optimum ratios of 2-component and 3-component pheromone mixtures were 6∶4 and 6∶4∶1 respectively. The optimum dose of synthetic pheromone was 500 μg. In field trapping tests, E11,13-14∶Ald was highly attractive to yellow tortrix males, attracting 1.9 times more males than virgin females, but the other 2 compounds were ineffective. Addition of E11,13-14∶Ac to E11,13-14∶Ald significantly enhanced attraction, while E11-14∶Ac had no effect. A tertiary blend of E11,13-14∶Ald, E11,13-14∶Ac and E11-14∶Ac at a ratio of 6∶4∶1 was the most attractive to males among all compounds testes.
    Inhibition of main components of a new pyrethroid termiticide on CarEs and CaATPase in Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder
    TAN Su-Jin1, TAN Xiao-Hong2, DU Lin-Fang2, HE Jun-Hua3, TANG Zhen-Hua4
    2002, 45(4):  441-446. 
    Abstract ( 2742 )   PDF (386KB) ( 1151 )     
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    The inhibition of the main components of a new kind of permethrin termiticide on carboxylesterase (CarEs) and Ca-ATPase in Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder was investigated. The results showed that at concentration of 1.66×104 mol·L1 octachlorodipropyl ether and OP-emulsifier in the compound could inhibit the specific activity of CarEs, while permethrin could inhibit the specific activity of Ca-ATPase strongly. The IC50 values were 7.1148×105 mol·L1, 7.3373×104 mol·L1 and 5.11×107 mol·L1 respectively. The fact that Ca-ATPase function was more strongly affected than that of Na-K-ATPase, and that permethrin could strongly inhibit the activity of Ca-ATPase on the synaptosome of Reticulitermes chinensis, implies that Ca-ATPase is the primary neuronal target site of pyrethroids in Isoptera.
    Cross resistance of methamidophos resistant strain of brown planthopper and the biochemical mechanism responsible
    LIU Ze-Wen, HAN Zhao-Jun, ZHANG Ling-Chun
    2002, 45(4):  447-452. 
    Abstract ( 2891 )   PDF (323KB) ( 1001 )     
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    The R strain selected for methamidophos resistance displayed 43.74-fold resistance to methamidophos and also had cross resistance to malathion, diazinon, isoprocarb, fenobucarb and ethofenprox, but no cross resistance to fenvalerate and imidacloprid. To find out the biochemical mechanism of resistance to methamidophos and cross resistance to other insecticides, we performed synergistic bioassay and biochemical assay. In R strain, the synergistic bioassay showed that TPP (triphenyl phosphate) significantly synergized methamidophos (SR: 4.52) and moderately synergized malathion (SR: 2.76), diazinon (SR: 2.07), fenobucarb (SR: 2.17) and isoprocarb (SR: 1.64). PBO (piperonyl butoxide) partially synergized methamidophos (SR:2.24),malathion (SR: 1.86) and ethofenprox (SR: 1.73). Biochemical assay showed that esterase activity in the R-strain was 7.93 times that in S-strain,in which the changed activity for MFO was 1.98 and for GST only 1.44. TPP could significantly inhibit esterase activity (PI: 69.04%) in the R strain, with MFO's PI 29.30% by PBO. The results indicated that esterase played important role in the biochemical mechanism of methamidophos resistance and, to a lesser extent, cross resistance to malathion, diazinon, fenobucarb and isoprocarb. MFO might play some role in resistance to methamidophos and cross resistance to malathion and ethofenprox.
    Inhibition effect of the deltamethrin and phoxim mixtures on the sodium channels of nerve cell
    GAO Yong-Chuang1, GUO Zhen-Qun1, LIU An-Xi1, HAN Jia-Xiang2
    2002, 45(4):  453-458. 
    Abstract ( 2871 )   PDF (331KB) ( 931 )     
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    The synergetic mechanisms of deltamethrin and phoxim mixtures were studied on cell from a mesencephalic dopaminergic cell line MN-9D using the patch-clamp technique. The results showed that these mixtures were more powerful inhibitors of sodium currents than single pesticides, more rapidly reducing the action potential and blocking the nerve impulse of axon membrane. Recording of whole cell sodium currents showed that slow decaying tail currents were associated with repolarization following a depolarizing pulse in deltamethrin modified cells. The average constant of tail currents was concentration independent. Most cells showed a marked reduction in peak current with only a few showing an increase. The inhibition of sodium channels was concentration-dependent and could not recover later. We concluded that deltamethrin modified the action kinetics of sodium channels in such a way as to slow opening, prolong closure or otherwise inactivate them and that this modification occurs predominantly when the channels are in the closed or resting state. The inhibition of sodium currents will cause the reduction of action potential and loss of electrical excitability of axon membrane.
    Effects of host insecticide resistance on the biological characteristics of Cotesia plutellae
    LI Yuan-Xi, LIU Shu-Sheng*, LIU Yin-Quan
    2002, 45(4):  459-464. 
    Abstract ( 2687 )   PDF (351KB) ( 839 )     
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    The effects of strains of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), strains of Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), fenvalerate and their interactions on the biological characteristics of C. plutellae were studied in the laboratory. Two strains of P. xylostella, one susceptible to fenvalerate (SP) and the other resistant (RP), and two strains of C. plutellae, one that had been reared using SP as host (SC) and the other which had been reared using RP as host (RC), were arranged in four host-parasitoid combinations, i.e., SC-SP, SC-RP, RC-SP, and RC-RP. The results showed that, in the absence of the insecticide, the parasitoids in the SC-RP combination had a lower percentage of cocoon formation (45.8%), shorter cocoon length (7.8 mm) and females had shorter forewings (3.28 mm) and hind tibia (2.33 mm), compared to those in SC-SP, RC-SP, and RC-RP combinations. This indicated that insecticide resistance in the host had detrimental effects on the parasitoid. When fenvalerate was applied to the host-parasitoid system, percentages of cocoon formation in the RC-RP and SC-RP combinations were 95.5% and 37.8%, respectively, significantly higher than those in the SC-SP (22.5%) and RC-SP (25.8%) combinations, suggesting that host insecticide resistance offered some protection to the parasitoid larvae inside the hosts. When the RC-SP combination was either unexposed or exposed to the insecticide, the parasitoids had similar percentages of adult emergence (93.6% vs 95.2%) as well as similar development times, indicating that the parasitoids, which had been reared on a resistant host strain, still showed some tolerance to the insecticide when parasitizing a susceptible host strain, and this effect should favour the development of insecticide resistance in the parasitoid. This demonstrates co-evolution in the development of insecticide resistance in this host parasitoid system.
    Simulation and prediction of population dynamics of the fifth generation ofHelicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in Jiangsu Province
    SU Zhan-Ping, ZHANG Xiao-Xi, ZHAI Bao-Ping
    2002, 45(4):  465-470. 
    Abstract ( 2575 )   PDF (307KB) ( 931 )     
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    A dynamical model based on a population life table for Helicoverpa armigera was built up using the software Dymex developed by Cooperative Research Center For Tropical Pest Management(CRCFTPM)of Australia. Using daily historic data as the driving variable, simulations ranged from the 4th to the 5th generation of two districts Tongzhou and Siyang were run on respectively. The results indicated that, except for years with the highest temperatures and earliest emergence of this generation, the fifth generation would usually not complete larval development and hibernate successfully, and therefore would not become an effective population source for the following year. Based on the simulations, a predictive table for size of the fourth generation at hibernation and the number and period of 16% of the fifth generation accumulated eggs were presented.
    Effect of the 3rd generation differentiation ratio and drought on the temporal dynamics of the mason pine caterpillar, Dendrolimus punctatus Walker (Lepidoptera;Lasiocampidae)
    ZHANG Zhen1, LI Dian-Mo1*, ZHA Guang-Ji2
    2002, 45(4):  471-476. 
    Abstract ( 2841 )   PDF (315KB) ( 792 )     
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    The effect of the 3rd generation differentiation ratio and drought on the temporal dynamics of the mason pine caterpillar, Dendrolimus punctatus, is revealed by correlation analysis of 27 years' data on the abundance of this species. The 3rd generation differentiation ratios of mason pine caterpillars fluctuate periodically and usually can be divided into three levels: 1%-10%,11%-40% and 41%-100%. The peaks occur about every 5 to 6 years with low differentiation ratios before and after the peaks. Moderate and low differentiation ratios alternate between peaks. Correlation analysis indicates that the 3rd generation differentiation ratio has a distinct relationship only with the occurrence rate of the present generation and not following generations. There is no correlation between 3rd generation differentiation ratios and the occurance rates of previous generations. The key climatic factor affecting differentiation ratios is the temperature in July. Under higher temperatures more larvae hatch before the critical photoperiod that causes high differentiation ratios. Though drought affects the differentiation ratio slightly, it has a delayed, but distinct, affection on occurrence rate. The most affected generation is the first generation of the following year. The results reveal that drought not only affects the dynamics of current generations of mason pine caterpillars but also, more importantly, affects the pines, which in turn affects the next generation of mason pine caterpillars.
    Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on population dynamics of the wheat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi(L.)
    ZHANG Jun, YANG Hui-Min, LIN Jiu-Sheng, WANG Gen-Xuan*, WANG Ya-Fu, WANG Jing
    2002, 45(4):  477-481. 
    Abstract ( 2825 )   PDF (299KB) ( 869 )     
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    Effects of atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350, 550 and 700 μl/L) and soil water levels (40%, 60% and 80% field water capacities, FWC) on the population dynamics of the wheat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) feeding on spring wheat were examined in opentopped field chambers. Results showed that: (1) Aphid density increased significantly with rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the highest density occurring on wheat grown at 700 μl/L CO2 and 60% FWC treatment; (2) Atmospheric CO2 concentration and soil water level had significant effects on chemical components in the wheat foliage: water, soluble proteins, soluble carbohydrates, starch and tannin increased with the rising atmospheric CO2 and FWC. Content of DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3one) increased as atmospheric the CO2 concentration rose with the lowest DIMBOA content occurring in the 60% FWC treatment; (3) Aphid density was positively correlated with the contents of water, soluble proteins, soluble carbohydrates and starch, and negatively correlated with the contents of DIMBOA and tannin, in foliage of treated wheat. These results suggest that aphid populations will grow more rapidly in future climate conditions, especially in semiarid areas since increasing CO2 and changes in soil moisture will alter the chemical composition of host plants.
    Bionomics and population dynamics of Microterys sinicus Jiang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)
    JIAO Yi1,2, ZHAO Ping1
    2002, 45(4):  482-486. 
    Abstract ( 2781 )   PDF (317KB) ( 977 )     
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    The bionomics and population dynamics of Microterys sinicus Jiang, an important natural enemy of the white wax insect, Ericerus pela Chavannes, during the latter's oviposition period, were surveyed from 1995 to 1998 in Yunnan Province. It was found that the adults moved up and down host trees and fed on honeydew as supplementary nutrition. Copulation occurred on host trees. There were 34.39 ova in one female. The pre-oviposition period was 2-3 days. 81.72% of the total eggs laid were laid during the 4th-10th day of oviposition. The egg numbers, percentage of eggs laid and duration of oviposition were closed related to temperature. The highest oviposition numbers and oviposition percentages occurred at 27℃, and the shortest oviposition period at 30℃. Hatchability was above 80% from 21℃ to 27℃. The larvae underwent 5 instars. The 1st-4th instar larva consumed 14.6, 29.8, 69.4 and 126.9 eggs of the white wax insect respectively. The 5th instar larva stopped feeding, excreted and pupated in the host body. Generation time became shorter as the temperature increased with the shortest generation time occurring at 27℃. Excessively high or low temperatures were unfavorable to the development of the wasp. The thermal threshold and thermal sum for larval development were 11.84℃ and 574.32 daydegrees respectively. Supplementary nutrition could prolong adult lifespan, the duration of oviposition and increase female oviposition numbers remarkably. The first and middle tendays of April and the middle and last tendays of May were the peak periods of wasp abundance. The relationship between wasp quantities per ovisac and the percentage of health white wax insect eggs can be simulated with the index equation:Y=96.0829Exp(-0.1872x).
    Development and differentiation of various castes in the immature stage of Reticulitermes chinensis
    LIU Yuan-Zhi1, PENG Xin-Fu2, TANG Guo-Qing1, PENG Xiao-Tao2
    2002, 45(4):  487-493. 
    Abstract ( 2767 )   PDF (367KB) ( 1006 )     
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    The pseudo-worker and pseudo-nymph were recognized during the development and differentiation of the immature stage of Reticulitermes chinensis.The workers of 6th and 7th instars turned into the pseudo-workers,while the nymphs of the 4th and 5th instars turned into the pseudo-nymphs.Microscopic measurement showed that after hatching the main development stages consisted of a larval stage of two instars, a worker stage of more than six instars, a nymphal stage of four instars and an imago stage.The workers of 3rd-7th instars turned into the soldiers,the nymphs of the 6th instar turned into the scale and long-wingbud replacement reproductives, the nymphs of the 4th and 5th instars turned into the shortwingbud replacement reproductives,the workers of 4th-6th instars, pseudoworker and pseudo-nymph turned into the miniwingbud replacement reproductives and the workers of the 3rd-7th instars turned into the no-wingbud replacement reproductives. Based on these observations, a differentiation scheme of the various castes in Reticulitermes chinensis is proposed.
    Diversity in life history of the leaf beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly
    XUE Fang-Sen1, LI Ai-Qing1,ZHU Xing-Fen1, GUI Ai-Li1,JIANG Pei-Lan1, LIU Xiao-Fen2
    2002, 45(4):  494-498. 
    Abstract ( 2632 )   PDF (269KB) ( 865 )     
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    The leaf beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly is a serious pest of crucifers in mountain areas of Jiangxi Province, aestivating and hibernating as adults in the soil. The beetle showed considerable intrapopulation variation in its life history due to the differences in the duration of diapause. Some individuals took more than one year to produce one generation. Some were univoltine, i.e., only one generation in spring or autumn; some were biovoltine, i.e., one generation in spring and another in autumn; and some were multivoltine, i.e., one generation in spring and two or three generations in autumn. Thus, there could be up to four generations per year in the field. In spring, diapausing adults began to appear from the soil one after another from late February to early April. In autumn, diapausing adults appeared in succession from mid-August to early October. Newly emerged adults of the spring generation began to burrow into soil for dormancy between the end of April and early June. Adults of the autumn generation began to enter diapause from midSeptember to the end of December. Adult beetles could mate many times during their reproductive period. The egg-laying period of most females exceeded one month, the longest being 67 days. An average individual female could produce 644 eggs in the spring generation, 963 eggs in the autumn generation, the most being 1 950 eggs. Between 15 and 30℃, developmental duration was 13.78-3.14 days in the egg stage, 22.83-6.95 days in the larval stage, and 12.10-3.18 days in the pupal stage. Developmental thresholds were 10.7℃ for egg, 8.8℃ for larva and 9.6℃ for pupae. Non-diapausing adults had a life span of about 1-2 months. The life span of diapausing adults ranged from 5 to 38 months. All aestivating and hibernating adults displayed digging behavior and burrowed in soil to depths of 9-31 cm.
    Studies on genetic variations and phylogenetic relationships among five species of Tetrix using RAPD markers
    JIANG Guo-Fang1, LU Gan1, HUANG Kun2, HUANG Ri-Bo2
    2002, 45(4):  499-502. 
    Abstract ( 2434 )   PDF (322KB) ( 1041 )     
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    Random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD)techniques were applied to assess genetic variations among five species in the genus Tetrix. Amplifications with 12 primers under predetermined optimal reaction conditions gave 84 reproducible fragments ranging from 200 to 2 000 bp.The amplified products were scored as present (1) or absent (0) for each DNA sample and an index of genetic similarity (F) was calculated. The value of D was used to evaluate genetic distances between species and a phylogenetic tree was constructed.
    First record of the genus Hieromantis Meyrick from China,with a description of one new species
    LI Hou-Hun, WANG Shu-Xia
    2002, 45(4):  503-506. 
    Abstract ( 2688 )   PDF (206KB) ( 969 )     
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    The genus Hieromantis Meyrick is reported for the first time in China, with one species Hieromantis sheni Li et Wang, sp. Nov. described as new to science and one species Hieromantis kurokoi Yasuda, 1988 recorded for the first time from this country. The genital structures of both sexes are figured.
    A revision of the genus Gastrozona Bezzi from China
    WANG Xing-Jian, CHEN Xiao-Lin
    2002, 45(4):  507-515. 
    Abstract ( 2929 )   PDF (433KB) ( 1163 )     
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    The genus Gastrozona Bezzi of China is revised. Eight species are recognized, among which one new species, G. hancocki sp. Nov. is described; G. soror (Schiner) is newly reported from this country; G. appediculata Zia, previously regarded as synonymous with G. fasciventris (Macquart), is here resurrected. A key to the species, and a diagnosis and illustrations for each species, are provided.
    One new species and two new records of the subgenus Kenknightia of the genus Aedes in Yunnan (Diptera: Culicidae)
    DONG Xue-Shu, ZHOU Hong-Ning, DONG Li-Min
    2002, 45(4):  516-521. 
    Abstract ( 2807 )   PDF (266KB) ( 935 )     
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    his paper deals with the subgenus Kenknightia Reinert, 1990, of the genus Aedes in Yunnan, including one new species, Ae. (Ken.) dissmilierodes sp.nov., and two new records in China, Ae. (Ken.) harbachi Reinert and Ae. (Ken.) paradissimilis Rozeboom. All type specimens have been deposited in Yunnan Institute of Malaria Control.
    A systematic study on the ant subgenus Cyrtomyrma Forel of the genus Polyrhachis Smith of China
    XU Zheng-Hui
    2002, 45(4):  522-530. 
    Abstract ( 2463 )   PDF (426KB) ( 1036 )     
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    Five new species of the ant subgenus Cyrtomyrma Forel of the genus Polyrhachis Smith are described from the tropical rain forest area of Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve in southern Yunnan Province, i.e., P. (C.) cornihumera sp. Nov., P. (C.) dentihumera sp. Nov., P. (C.) orbihumera sp. Nov., P. (C.) rotoccipita sp. Nov., and P. (C.) brevicorpa sp. Nov. At present, 13 species of the subgenus have been recorded in China and the Indo-China Peninsula, among these 9 species are known only from China. A key based on worker caste is provided for the 13 species recorded in China and the Indo-China Peninsula.
    Management strategies and control techniques for locust and grasshopper plagues around the world:status and perspectives
    HAO Shu-Guang, QIN Qi-Lian, WANG Zheng-Jun, KANG Le, LI Hong-Chang, CHEN Yong-Lin, LI Dian-Mo*
    2002, 45(4):  531-537. 
    Abstract ( 3166 )   PDF (567KB) ( 1182 )     
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    This paper reviews the present status of control techniques and management strategies for locust and grasshopper plagues throughout the world. The discussion focuses on monitoring and forecasting, chemical control, biological control, IPM strategies, research direction,and so on. The similarities and differences in management strategies and control techniques for locusts and grasshopper plagues between China and overseas were compared. It was concluded that there are many similar problems and requirements for controlling locust and grasshopper plagues in China and abroad, for instance, environmental protection, economics and politics, biodiversity conservation, monitoring techniques, and biological control. Research and overseas experience shared are of tremendous benefit to the sustainable management of locust and grasshopper plagues in China. In general, there are six essential aspects in developing an IPM approach to controlling locust and grasshopper plagues: (1) emphasizing prevention strategies; (2) taking the basic research on biology and ecology seriously; (3) implementing and improving forecasting and monitoring technologies with Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques; (4) exploring novel and environmentally benign locust-control technologies; (5) evaluating novel and existing control technologies for their environmental impact and efficacy; and (6) organizing coordinated activity in all regions where locusts and grasshoppers should be controlled.
    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and its applications in entomological research
    ZHANG Min-Zhao, KANG Le
    2002, 45(4):  538-543. 
    Abstract ( 3145 )   PDF (376KB) ( 1149 )     
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    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a new and powerful molecular genetic marker for DNA fingerprinting based on selective amplification of total DNA restriction fragments. AFLP is a fast and economic technique. It needs little template DNA for analysis and can generate fingerprints of any DNA without much prior sequence knowledge. Data produced by AFLP are reproducible, reliable and highly informative. However, AFLP has some disadvantages. AFLP markers are dominant, and thus can not distinguish heterogeneous loci from homologous loci. Therefore, they provide less precise estimates of population genetic variability and have limited statistical power for detecting population genetic structure. Technically, AFLP is quite complicated and often involves the use of radioactive isotopes. Also,AFLP requires the high quality template DNA. In order to overcome these limitations, some related and improved methods have been developed, such as AFRP, SAMPL, DALP and TE-AFLP. So far, the application of AFLP technique in entomology is in its infancy. It has been mainly used in the identification of biotypes, analyses of population genetics and construction of linkage genetic maps. With further improvement of this technique, it will be more widely employed in entomology.
    cDNA fragment clone and sequence analysis of acetylcholinesterase gene in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)
    WANG Jian-Jun1,2, HAN Zhao-Jun1, WANG Yin-Chang1
    2002, 45(4):  544-547. 
    Abstract ( 2432 )   PDF (287KB) ( 774 )     
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    Using RT-PCR, the partial cDNA sequence of the acetylcholinesterase gene in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) was analyzed. With the use of a pair of degenerate primers, one fragment of 281 bp was amplified from the fourth instar larva. Homologous analysis of the cloned cDNA amino acid sequence of acetylcholinesterase in diamondback moths and corresponding sequences of other source of amino acid sequences of acetylcholinesterase revealed that there is high degree of amino acid sequence homology between the diamondback moth and other insects.
    A regression model of phase space for predicting brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal ) occurrence
    XU Xiao-Feng1, MA Fei2, DING Zong-Ze3, CHENG Xia-Nian2
    2002, 45(4):  548-551. 
    Abstract ( 2566 )   PDF (192KB) ( 1120 )     
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    A regression model of phase space for predicting brown planthopper (BPH) occurrence in the rice growing area of Taihu District, Jiangsu Province, was established on the basis of chaos theory. Its accuracy was very high with a relative error of only 22.91%. Therefore, the model provides a new and more efficient method for the prediction of the long-term occurrence of this Insect pest.
    Attraction of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, to poplar bundles made of Pterocarya stenoptera, in the field
    XIAO Chun1,2, XIAO Jin3, ZHAO Jin-Zhong4, LEI Chao-Liang3, ZHANG Zhong-Ning1
    2002, 45(4):  552-555. 
    Abstract ( 2702 )   PDF (247KB) ( 785 )     
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    The attraction of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), to poplar bundles made from branches of the Chinese wing-nut tree, Pterocarya stenoptera, and the sex pheromone bait was assayed in the field. The results showed that these bundles were attractive to H. armigera. The amount of male and female moths trapped by the bundles was positively correlated, with most moths captured being females. Sex pheromone bait did not increase the number of moths trapped by the bundles. The mechanism of attraction of these bundles for H. armigera is discussed.
    Life history of the banana moth, Opogona sacchari (Bojer)(Lepidoptera:Hieroxestidae) in China
    WEN Rui-Zhen1, ZHANG Gu-Ren, HE Guo-Feng, GU De-Xiang1*, LI Qiu-Jian2, LIU Xiu-Ling2, LIU Nan-Xin2
    2002, 45(4):  556-558. 
    Abstract ( 2550 )   PDF (146KB) ( 946 )     
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    The banana moth, Opogona sacchari (Bojer), is a newly introduced exotic pest in China. It took 66 days to 135 days for the pest to finish a generation at 25.71±2.71℃ and 75.95%±5.02% RH, and might have 4 generations per year. The larval, period had the longest duration, 37 to 75 days, with 7 instars recognizable through the head capsule width, and was the harmful developmental stage. The mean number of eggs laid per female was 253.05±65.18 (n=20).